blob: d65dc757b298e255e96969cd30b89b469de48b8c [file] [log] [blame]
"""Common operations on Posix pathnames.
Instead of importing this module directly, import os and refer to
this module as os.path. The "os.path" name is an alias for this
module on Posix systems; on other systems (e.g. Mac, Windows),
os.path provides the same operations in a manner specific to that
platform, and is an alias to another module (e.g. macpath, ntpath).
Some of this can actually be useful on non-Posix systems too, e.g.
for manipulation of the pathname component of URLs.
import os
import sys
import stat
import genericpath
import warnings
from genericpath import *
_unicode = unicode
except NameError:
# If Python is built without Unicode support, the unicode type
# will not exist. Fake one.
class _unicode(object):
__all__ = ["normcase","isabs","join","splitdrive","split","splitext",
# strings representing various path-related bits and pieces
curdir = '.'
pardir = '..'
extsep = '.'
sep = '/'
pathsep = ':'
defpath = ':/bin:/usr/bin'
altsep = None
devnull = '/dev/null'
# Normalize the case of a pathname. Trivial in Posix, string.lower on Mac.
# On MS-DOS this may also turn slashes into backslashes; however, other
# normalizations (such as optimizing '../' away) are not allowed
# (another function should be defined to do that).
def normcase(s):
"""Normalize case of pathname. Has no effect under Posix"""
return s
# Return whether a path is absolute.
# Trivial in Posix, harder on the Mac or MS-DOS.
def isabs(s):
"""Test whether a path is absolute"""
return s.startswith('/')
# Join pathnames.
# Ignore the previous parts if a part is absolute.
# Insert a '/' unless the first part is empty or already ends in '/'.
def join(a, *p):
"""Join two or more pathname components, inserting '/' as needed.
If any component is an absolute path, all previous path components
will be discarded. An empty last part will result in a path that
ends with a separator."""
path = a
for b in p:
if b.startswith('/'):
path = b
elif path == '' or path.endswith('/'):
path += b
path += '/' + b
return path
# Split a path in head (everything up to the last '/') and tail (the
# rest). If the path ends in '/', tail will be empty. If there is no
# '/' in the path, head will be empty.
# Trailing '/'es are stripped from head unless it is the root.
def split(p):
"""Split a pathname. Returns tuple "(head, tail)" where "tail" is
everything after the final slash. Either part may be empty."""
i = p.rfind('/') + 1
head, tail = p[:i], p[i:]
if head and head != '/'*len(head):
head = head.rstrip('/')
return head, tail
# Split a path in root and extension.
# The extension is everything starting at the last dot in the last
# pathname component; the root is everything before that.
# It is always true that root + ext == p.
def splitext(p):
return genericpath._splitext(p, sep, altsep, extsep)
splitext.__doc__ = genericpath._splitext.__doc__
# Split a pathname into a drive specification and the rest of the
# path. Useful on DOS/Windows/NT; on Unix, the drive is always empty.
def splitdrive(p):
"""Split a pathname into drive and path. On Posix, drive is always
return '', p
# Return the tail (basename) part of a path, same as split(path)[1].
def basename(p):
"""Returns the final component of a pathname"""
i = p.rfind('/') + 1
return p[i:]
# Return the head (dirname) part of a path, same as split(path)[0].
def dirname(p):
"""Returns the directory component of a pathname"""
i = p.rfind('/') + 1
head = p[:i]
if head and head != '/'*len(head):
head = head.rstrip('/')
return head
# Is a path a symbolic link?
# This will always return false on systems where os.lstat doesn't exist.
def islink(path):
"""Test whether a path is a symbolic link"""
st = os.lstat(path)
except (os.error, AttributeError):
return False
return stat.S_ISLNK(st.st_mode)
# Being true for dangling symbolic links is also useful.
def lexists(path):
"""Test whether a path exists. Returns True for broken symbolic links"""
except os.error:
return False
return True
# Are two filenames really pointing to the same file?
def samefile(f1, f2):
"""Test whether two pathnames reference the same actual file"""
s1 = os.stat(f1)
s2 = os.stat(f2)
return samestat(s1, s2)
# Are two open files really referencing the same file?
# (Not necessarily the same file descriptor!)
def sameopenfile(fp1, fp2):
"""Test whether two open file objects reference the same file"""
s1 = os.fstat(fp1)
s2 = os.fstat(fp2)
return samestat(s1, s2)
# Are two stat buffers (obtained from stat, fstat or lstat)
# describing the same file?
def samestat(s1, s2):
"""Test whether two stat buffers reference the same file"""
return s1.st_ino == s2.st_ino and \
s1.st_dev == s2.st_dev
# Is a path a mount point?
# (Does this work for all UNIXes? Is it even guaranteed to work by Posix?)
def ismount(path):
"""Test whether a path is a mount point"""
if islink(path):
# A symlink can never be a mount point
return False
s1 = os.lstat(path)
s2 = os.lstat(join(path, '..'))
except os.error:
return False # It doesn't exist -- so not a mount point :-)
dev1 = s1.st_dev
dev2 = s2.st_dev
if dev1 != dev2:
return True # path/.. on a different device as path
ino1 = s1.st_ino
ino2 = s2.st_ino
if ino1 == ino2:
return True # path/.. is the same i-node as path
return False
# Directory tree walk.
# For each directory under top (including top itself, but excluding
# '.' and '..'), func(arg, dirname, filenames) is called, where
# dirname is the name of the directory and filenames is the list
# of files (and subdirectories etc.) in the directory.
# The func may modify the filenames list, to implement a filter,
# or to impose a different order of visiting.
def walk(top, func, arg):
"""Directory tree walk with callback function.
For each directory in the directory tree rooted at top (including top
itself, but excluding '.' and '..'), call func(arg, dirname, fnames).
dirname is the name of the directory, and fnames a list of the names of
the files and subdirectories in dirname (excluding '.' and '..'). func
may modify the fnames list in-place (e.g. via del or slice assignment),
and walk will only recurse into the subdirectories whose names remain in
fnames; this can be used to implement a filter, or to impose a specific
order of visiting. No semantics are defined for, or required of, arg,
beyond that arg is always passed to func. It can be used, e.g., to pass
a filename pattern, or a mutable object designed to accumulate
statistics. Passing None for arg is common."""
warnings.warnpy3k("In 3.x, os.path.walk is removed in favor of os.walk.",
names = os.listdir(top)
except os.error:
func(arg, top, names)
for name in names:
name = join(top, name)
st = os.lstat(name)
except os.error:
if stat.S_ISDIR(st.st_mode):
walk(name, func, arg)
# Expand paths beginning with '~' or '~user'.
# '~' means $HOME; '~user' means that user's home directory.
# If the path doesn't begin with '~', or if the user or $HOME is unknown,
# the path is returned unchanged (leaving error reporting to whatever
# function is called with the expanded path as argument).
# See also module 'glob' for expansion of *, ? and [...] in pathnames.
# (A function should also be defined to do full *sh-style environment
# variable expansion.)
def expanduser(path):
"""Expand ~ and ~user constructions. If user or $HOME is unknown,
do nothing."""
if not path.startswith('~'):
return path
i = path.find('/', 1)
if i < 0:
i = len(path)
if i == 1:
if 'HOME' not in os.environ:
import pwd
userhome = pwd.getpwuid(os.getuid()).pw_dir
userhome = os.environ['HOME']
import pwd
pwent = pwd.getpwnam(path[1:i])
except KeyError:
return path
userhome = pwent.pw_dir
userhome = userhome.rstrip('/')
return (userhome + path[i:]) or '/'
# Expand paths containing shell variable substitutions.
# This expands the forms $variable and ${variable} only.
# Non-existent variables are left unchanged.
_varprog = None
def expandvars(path):
"""Expand shell variables of form $var and ${var}. Unknown variables
are left unchanged."""
global _varprog
if '$' not in path:
return path
if not _varprog:
import re
_varprog = re.compile(r'\$(\w+|\{[^}]*\})')
i = 0
while True:
m =, i)
if not m:
i, j = m.span(0)
name =
if name.startswith('{') and name.endswith('}'):
name = name[1:-1]
if name in os.environ:
tail = path[j:]
path = path[:i] + os.environ[name]
i = len(path)
path += tail
i = j
return path
# Normalize a path, e.g. A//B, A/./B and A/foo/../B all become A/B.
# It should be understood that this may change the meaning of the path
# if it contains symbolic links!
def normpath(path):
"""Normalize path, eliminating double slashes, etc."""
# Preserve unicode (if path is unicode)
slash, dot = (u'/', u'.') if isinstance(path, _unicode) else ('/', '.')
if path == '':
return dot
initial_slashes = path.startswith('/')
# POSIX allows one or two initial slashes, but treats three or more
# as single slash.
if (initial_slashes and
path.startswith('//') and not path.startswith('///')):
initial_slashes = 2
comps = path.split('/')
new_comps = []
for comp in comps:
if comp in ('', '.'):
if (comp != '..' or (not initial_slashes and not new_comps) or
(new_comps and new_comps[-1] == '..')):
elif new_comps:
comps = new_comps
path = slash.join(comps)
if initial_slashes:
path = slash*initial_slashes + path
return path or dot
def abspath(path):
"""Return an absolute path."""
if not isabs(path):
if isinstance(path, _unicode):
cwd = os.getcwdu()
cwd = os.getcwd()
path = join(cwd, path)
return normpath(path)
# Return a canonical path (i.e. the absolute location of a file on the
# filesystem).
def realpath(filename):
"""Return the canonical path of the specified filename, eliminating any
symbolic links encountered in the path."""
path, ok = _joinrealpath('', filename, {})
return abspath(path)
# Join two paths, normalizing ang eliminating any symbolic links
# encountered in the second path.
def _joinrealpath(path, rest, seen):
if isabs(rest):
rest = rest[1:]
path = sep
while rest:
name, _, rest = rest.partition(sep)
if not name or name == curdir:
# current dir
if name == pardir:
# parent dir
if path:
path, name = split(path)
if name == pardir:
path = join(path, pardir, pardir)
path = pardir
newpath = join(path, name)
if not islink(newpath):
path = newpath
# Resolve the symbolic link
if newpath in seen:
# Already seen this path
path = seen[newpath]
if path is not None:
# use cached value
# The symlink is not resolved, so we must have a symlink loop.
# Return already resolved part + rest of the path unchanged.
return join(newpath, rest), False
seen[newpath] = None # not resolved symlink
path, ok = _joinrealpath(path, os.readlink(newpath), seen)
if not ok:
return join(path, rest), False
seen[newpath] = path # resolved symlink
return path, True
supports_unicode_filenames = (sys.platform == 'darwin')
def relpath(path, start=curdir):
"""Return a relative version of a path"""
if not path:
raise ValueError("no path specified")
start_list = [x for x in abspath(start).split(sep) if x]
path_list = [x for x in abspath(path).split(sep) if x]
# Work out how much of the filepath is shared by start and path.
i = len(commonprefix([start_list, path_list]))
rel_list = [pardir] * (len(start_list)-i) + path_list[i:]
if not rel_list:
return curdir
return join(*rel_list)