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<p>Before installing the Android NDK, you must agree to the following terms and conditions.</p>
<div class="sdk-terms" style="width:auto" onfocus="this.blur()">
<h2 class="norule">Terms and Conditions</h2>
This is the Android Software Development Kit License Agreement
<h3>1. Introduction</h3>
1.1 The Android Software Development Kit (referred to in this License Agreement as the "SDK" and
specifically including the Android system files, packaged APIs, and Google APIs add-ons) is
licensed to you subject to the terms of this License Agreement. This License Agreement forms a
legally binding contract between you and Google in relation to your use of the SDK.
1.2 “Android” means the Android software stack for devices, as made available under the Android
Open Source Project, which is located at the following URL:, as updated
from time to time.
1.3 "Google" means Google Inc., a Delaware corporation with principal place of business at 1600
Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043, United States.
<h3>2. Accepting this License Agreement</h3>
2.1 In order to use the SDK, you must first agree to this License Agreement. You may not use the
SDK if you do not accept this License Agreement.
2.2 By clicking to accept, you hereby agree to the terms of this License Agreement.
2.3 You may not use the SDK and may not accept the License Agreement if you are a person barred
from receiving the SDK under the laws of the United States or other countries including the country
in which you are resident or from which you use the SDK.
2.4 If you are agreeing to be bound by this License Agreement on behalf of your employer or other
entity, you represent and warrant that you have full legal authority to bind your employer or such
entity to this License Agreement. If you do not have the requisite authority, you may not accept
the License Agreement or use the SDK on behalf of your employer or other entity.
<h3>3. SDK License from Google</h3>
3.1 Subject to the terms of this License Agreement, Google grants you a limited, worldwide,
royalty-free, non-assignable and non-exclusive license to use the SDK solely to develop
applications to run on the Android platform.
3.2 You agree that Google or third parties own all legal right, title and interest in and to the
SDK, including any Intellectual Property Rights that subsist in the SDK. "Intellectual Property
Rights" means any and all rights under patent law, copyright law, trade secret law, trademark law,
and any and all other proprietary rights. Google reserves all rights not expressly granted to you.
3.3 You may not use the SDK for any purpose not expressly permitted by this License Agreement.
Except to the extent required by applicable third party licenses, you may not: (a) copy (except for
backup purposes), modify, adapt, redistribute, decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble, or create
derivative works of the SDK or any part of the SDK; or (b) load any part of the SDK onto a mobile
handset or any other hardware device except a personal computer, combine any part of the SDK with
other software, or distribute any software or device incorporating a part of the SDK.
3.4 You agree that you will not take any actions that may cause or result in the fragmentation of
Android, including but not limited to distributing, participating in the creation of, or promoting
in any way a software development kit derived from the SDK.
3.5 Use, reproduction and distribution of components of the SDK licensed under an open source
software license are governed solely by the terms of that open source software license and not this
License Agreement.
3.6 You agree that the form and nature of the SDK that Google provides may change without prior
notice to you and that future versions of the SDK may be incompatible with applications developed
on previous versions of the SDK. You agree that Google may stop (permanently or temporarily)
providing the SDK (or any features within the SDK) to you or to users generally at Google's sole
discretion, without prior notice to you.
3.7 Nothing in this License Agreement gives you a right to use any of Google's trade names,
trademarks, service marks, logos, domain names, or other distinctive brand features.
3.8 You agree that you will not remove, obscure, or alter any proprietary rights notices (including
copyright and trademark notices) that may be affixed to or contained within the SDK.
<h3>4. Use of the SDK by You</h3>
4.1 Google agrees that it obtains no right, title or interest from you (or your licensors) under
this License Agreement in or to any software applications that you develop using the SDK, including
any intellectual property rights that subsist in those applications.
4.2 You agree to use the SDK and write applications only for purposes that are permitted by (a)
this License Agreement and (b) any applicable law, regulation or generally accepted practices or
guidelines in the relevant jurisdictions (including any laws regarding the export of data or
software to and from the United States or other relevant countries).
4.3 You agree that if you use the SDK to develop applications for general public users, you will
protect the privacy and legal rights of those users. If the users provide you with user names,
passwords, or other login information or personal information, you must make the users aware that
the information will be available to your application, and you must provide legally adequate
privacy notice and protection for those users. If your application stores personal or sensitive
information provided by users, it must do so securely. If the user provides your application with
Google Account information, your application may only use that information to access the user's
Google Account when, and for the limited purposes for which, the user has given you permission to
do so.
4.4 You agree that you will not engage in any activity with the SDK, including the development or
distribution of an application, that interferes with, disrupts, damages, or accesses in an
unauthorized manner the servers, networks, or other properties or services of any third party
including, but not limited to, Google or any mobile communications carrier.
4.5 You agree that you are solely responsible for (and that Google has no responsibility to you or
to any third party for) any data, content, or resources that you create, transmit or display
through Android and/or applications for Android, and for the consequences of your actions
(including any loss or damage which Google may suffer) by doing so.
4.6 You agree that you are solely responsible for (and that Google has no responsibility to you or
to any third party for) any breach of your obligations under this License Agreement, any applicable
third party contract or Terms of Service, or any applicable law or regulation, and for the
consequences (including any loss or damage which Google or any third party may suffer) of any such
<h3>5. Your Developer Credentials</h3>
5.1 You agree that you are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of any developer
credentials that may be issued to you by Google or which you may choose yourself and that you will
be solely responsible for all applications that are developed under your developer credentials.
<h3>6. Privacy and Information</h3>
6.1 In order to continually innovate and improve the SDK, Google may collect certain usage
statistics from the software including but not limited to a unique identifier, associated IP
address, version number of the software, and information on which tools and/or services in the SDK
are being used and how they are being used. Before any of this information is collected, the SDK
will notify you and seek your consent. If you withhold consent, the information will not be
6.2 The data collected is examined in the aggregate to improve the SDK and is maintained in
accordance with Google's Privacy Policy.
<h3>7. Third Party Applications</h3>
7.1 If you use the SDK to run applications developed by a third party or that access data, content
or resources provided by a third party, you agree that Google is not responsible for those
applications, data, content, or resources. You understand that all data, content or resources which
you may access through such third party applications are the sole responsibility of the person from
which they originated and that Google is not liable for any loss or damage that you may experience
as a result of the use or access of any of those third party applications, data, content, or
7.2 You should be aware the data, content, and resources presented to you through such a third
party application may be protected by intellectual property rights which are owned by the providers
(or by other persons or companies on their behalf). You may not modify, rent, lease, loan, sell,
distribute or create derivative works based on these data, content, or resources (either in whole
or in part) unless you have been specifically given permission to do so by the relevant owners.
7.3 You acknowledge that your use of such third party applications, data, content, or resources may
be subject to separate terms between you and the relevant third party. In that case, this License
Agreement does not affect your legal relationship with these third parties.
<h3>8. Using Android APIs</h3>
8.1 Google Data APIs
8.1.1 If you use any API to retrieve data from Google, you acknowledge that the data may be
protected by intellectual property rights which are owned by Google or those parties that provide
the data (or by other persons or companies on their behalf). Your use of any such API may be
subject to additional Terms of Service. You may not modify, rent, lease, loan, sell, distribute or
create derivative works based on this data (either in whole or in part) unless allowed by the
relevant Terms of Service.
8.1.2 If you use any API to retrieve a user's data from Google, you acknowledge and agree that you
shall retrieve data only with the user's explicit consent and only when, and for the limited
purposes for which, the user has given you permission to do so.
<h3>9. Terminating this License Agreement</h3>
9.1 This License Agreement will continue to apply until terminated by either you or Google as set
out below.
9.2 If you want to terminate this License Agreement, you may do so by ceasing your use of the SDK
and any relevant developer credentials.
9.3 Google may at any time, terminate this License Agreement with you if:
(A) you have breached any provision of this License Agreement; or
(B) Google is required to do so by law; or
(C) the partner with whom Google offered certain parts of SDK (such as APIs) to you has terminated
its relationship with Google or ceased to offer certain parts of the SDK to you; or
(D) Google decides to no longer provide the SDK or certain parts of the SDK to users in the country
in which you are resident or from which you use the service, or the provision of the SDK or certain
SDK services to you by Google is, in Google's sole discretion, no longer commercially viable.
9.4 When this License Agreement comes to an end, all of the legal rights, obligations and
liabilities that you and Google have benefited from, been subject to (or which have accrued over
time whilst this License Agreement has been in force) or which are expressed to continue
indefinitely, shall be unaffected by this cessation, and the provisions of paragraph 14.7 shall
continue to apply to such rights, obligations and liabilities indefinitely.
<h3>12. Indemnification</h3>
12.1 To the maximum extent permitted by law, you agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless
Google, its affiliates and their respective directors, officers, employees and agents from and
against any and all claims, actions, suits or proceedings, as well as any and all losses,
liabilities, damages, costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys fees) arising out of or
accruing from (a) your use of the SDK, (b) any application you develop on the SDK that infringes
any copyright, trademark, trade secret, trade dress, patent or other intellectual property right of
any person or defames any person or violates their rights of publicity or privacy, and (c) any
non-compliance by you with this License Agreement.
<h3>13. Changes to the License Agreement</h3>
13.1 Google may make changes to the License Agreement as it distributes new versions of the SDK.
When these changes are made, Google will make a new version of the License Agreement available on
the website where the SDK is made available.
<h3>14. General Legal Terms</h3>
14.1 This License Agreement constitutes the whole legal agreement between you and Google and
governs your use of the SDK (excluding any services which Google may provide to you under a
separate written agreement), and completely replaces any prior agreements between you and Google in
relation to the SDK.
14.2 You agree that if Google does not exercise or enforce any legal right or remedy which is
contained in this License Agreement (or which Google has the benefit of under any applicable law),
this will not be taken to be a formal waiver of Google's rights and that those rights or remedies
will still be available to Google.
14.3 If any court of law, having the jurisdiction to decide on this matter, rules that any
provision of this License Agreement is invalid, then that provision will be removed from this
License Agreement without affecting the rest of this License Agreement. The remaining provisions of
this License Agreement will continue to be valid and enforceable.
14.4 You acknowledge and agree that each member of the group of companies of which Google is the
parent shall be third party beneficiaries to this License Agreement and that such other companies
shall be entitled to directly enforce, and rely upon, any provision of this License Agreement that
confers a benefit on (or rights in favor of) them. Other than this, no other person or company
shall be third party beneficiaries to this License Agreement.
14.6 The rights granted in this License Agreement may not be assigned or transferred by either you
or Google without the prior written approval of the other party. Neither you nor Google shall be
permitted to delegate their responsibilities or obligations under this License Agreement without
the prior written approval of the other party.
14.7 This License Agreement, and your relationship with Google under this License Agreement, shall
be governed by the laws of the State of California without regard to its conflict of laws
provisions. You and Google agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts located
within the county of Santa Clara, California to resolve any legal matter arising from this License
Agreement. Notwithstanding this, you agree that Google shall still be allowed to apply for
injunctive remedies (or an equivalent type of urgent legal relief) in any jurisdiction.
<em>November 13, 2012</em>
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<p><a href="" class="button disabled ndk" id="downloadForRealz" onclick="return onDownloadNdkForRealz(this);"></a></p>
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<div id="qv">
<h2>In this document</h2>
<li><a href="#Downloads">Downloads</a></li>
<li><a href="#Revisions">Revisions</a></li>
<li><a href="#Reqs">System and Software Requirements</a></li>
<li><a href="#Installing">Installing the NDK</a></li>
<li><a href="#GetStarted">Getting Started with the NDK</a>
<li><a href="#Using">Using the NDK</a></li>
<li><a href="#Contents">Contents of the NDK</a>
<li><a href="#Tools">Development tools</a></li>
<li><a href="#Docs">Documentation</a></li>
<li><a href="#Samples">Sample apps</a></li>
<p>The NDK is a toolset that allows you to implement parts
of your app using native-code languages such as C and C++. For certain types of apps,
this can be helpful so you can reuse existing code libraries written in these
languages, but most apps do not need the Android NDK.</p>
<p>Before downloading the NDK, you should understand that <strong>the NDK
will not benefit most apps</strong>. As a developer, you need to balance its benefits
against its drawbacks. Notably, using native code on Android
generally does not result in a noticable performance improvement,
but it always increases your app complexity. In general, you should only use the NDK
if it is essential to your app&mdash;never because you simply prefer to program in C/C++.</p>
<p>Typical good candidates for the NDK are CPU-intensive workloads such as game engines,
signal processing, physics simulation, and so on. When examining
whether or not you should develop in native code, think about your requirements and see if the
Android framework APIs provide the functionality that you need.</p>
<h2 id="Downloads">Downloads</h2>
<p>With NDK revision 9 and higher, the release packages have been split to reduce download size.
The first download for each platform contains the default NDK toolchain. The second download
contains legacy NDK toolchains for that platform, which is only required if you are not using
the current, recommended toolchain for your NDK builds.</p>
<h2 id="Revisions">Revisions</h2>
<p>The following sections provide information about releases of the NDK.</p>
<div class="toggle-content opened">
<a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)"> <img
src="/assets/images/triangle-opened.png" class="toggle-content-img" alt=""
>Android NDK, Revision 10</a> <em>(July 2014)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added 3 new ABIs, all 64-bit: arm64-v8a, x86_64, mips64.</li> Note that:
<li>GCC 4.9 is the default compiler for 64-bit ABIs. Clang is currently version 3.4.
may not work for arm64-v8a and mips64.</li>
<li>Android API level L is the first level with 64-bit support. Note that this API
level is a temporary one, and only for L-preview. An actual API level number will replace it at
<li>This release includes now includes <code>all32</code> and <code>all64</code>
settings for <code>APP_ABI</code>.
<li><code>APP_ABI=all32</code> is equivalent to
<li><code>APP_ABI=all64</code> is equivalent to
<li><code>APP_ABI=all</code> selects all ABIs.</li>
<li>The new GNU libstdc++ in Android-L contains all <code>&lt;tr1/cmath&gt;</code>
Before defining your own math function, check <code>_GLIBCXX_USE_C99_MATH_TR1</code> to see a
function with that name already exists, in order to avoid "multiple definition" errors from the
<li>The cpu-features library has been updated for the ARMv8 kernel. The existing
cpu-features library may fail to detect the presence of NEON on the ARMv8 platform. Recompile your
code with the new version.</li>
<li>Added a new <code>platforms/android-L/</code> API directory. It includes:</li>
<li>Updated Bionic headers, which had not changed from Android API levels 3
(Cupcake) to 19 (KitKat). This new version, for level L, is to be synchronized with AOSP.</li>
<li>New media APIs and a native-codec sample.</li>
<li>An updated <code>Android.h</code> header for SLES/OpenSLES, enabling support for
single-precision, floating-point audio format in AudioPlayer.</li>
<li>GLES 3.1 and AEP extensions to <code></code></li>
<li>GLES2 and GLES3 headers updated to the latest official Khronos versions.</li>
<li>Added GCC 4.9 compilers to the 32-/64-bit ABIs. GCC 4.9 is the default (only) compiler
for 64-bit ABIs, as previously mentioned. For 32-bit ABIs, you must explcitly enable GCC 4.9, as
GCC 4.6 is still the default.</li>
<li>For ndk-build, enable 32-bit, GCC 4.9 building either by adding
<code>NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=4.9</code> to <code></code>, or exporting it as an
environment variable from the command line.</li>
<li>For a standalone toolchain, use the <code> --toolchain=</code> option in the
<code></code> script. For example: <code>--toolchain=arm-linux-androideabi-4.9.</code></li>
<li>Upgraded GDB to version 7.6 in GCC 4.8/4.9 and x86*. Since GDB is still at version GDB-7.3.x in
GCC 4.6 (the default for ARM and MIPS), you must set
<code>NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=4.8</code> or <code>4.9</code> to enable ndk-gdb to select GDB 7.6.</li>
<li>Added the <code>-mssse3</code> build option to provide SSSE3 support, and made it the default for ABI x86
(upgrading from SSE3). The image released by Google does not contain SSSE3 instructions.</li>
<li>Updated GCC 4.8 to 4.8.3.</li>
<li>Improved ARM libc++ EH support by switching from gabi++ to libc++abi. For details, see the "C++ Support" section of the documentation.
Note that:</li>
<li>All tests except for locale now pass for Clang 3.4 and GCC 4.8. For more
information, see the "C++ Support" section of the documentation.</li>
<li>The libc++ libraries for X86 and MIPS libc++ still use gabi++.</li>
<li>GCC 4.7 and later can now use &lt;atomic&gt;.</li>
<li>You must add <code>-fno-strict-aliasing</code> if you use <code> &lt;list&gt;</code>, because <code>__list_imp::_end</code>_ breaks
TBAA rules. (Issue <a href="">61571</a>.)</li>
<li>As of GCC 4.6, LIBCXX_FORCE_REBUILD:=true no longer rebuilds libc++. Rebuilding it
requires the use of a different compiler. Note that Clang 3.3 is untested.</li>
<li>mclinker is now version 2.7, and has aarch64 Linux support.</li>
<li>Added precompiled header support for headers specified by <code>LOCAL_PCH</code>. (Issue <a href="">25412</a>).</li>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed libc++ so that it now compiles <code>std::feof</code>, etc. (Issue <a
<li>Fixed a Clang 3.3/3.4 atomic library call that caused crashes in some of the libc++
tests for ABI armeabi.</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.4 crashes that were occurring on reading precompiled headers. (Issue <a
<li>Fixed the Clang 3.3/3.4 <code>-O3</code> assert on:</li>
<code>llvm-3.2/llvm/include/llvm/MDBuilder.h:64: llvm::MDNode*
llvm::MDBuilder::createBranchWeights(llvm::ArrayRef<unsigned int>): Assertion Weights.size() >= 2
&& "Need at least two branch weights!"</code> (Issue <a href="">57381</a>).
<li>Fixed the following Clang 3.3/3.4 crash:</li>
<code>Assertion failed: (!Fn && "cast failed but able to resolve overload expression!!"), function CheckCXXCStyleCast, file
Volumes/data/ndk-toolchain/src/llvm-3.3/llvm/tools/clang/lib/Sema/SemaCast.cpp, line 2018</code>.
(Issue <a href="">66950</a>).
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed headers:</li>
<li>Fixed 32-bit <code>ssize_t</code> to be <code>int</code> instead of <code>long
<li>Fixed <code>WCHAR_MIN</code> and <code>WCHAR_MAX</code> so that they they take
appropriate signs according to the architecture they're running on:</li>
<li>X86/MIPS: signed.
<li>ARM: unsigned.
<li>To force X86/MIPS to default to unsigned, use
<li>To force <code>wchar_t</code> to be 16 bits, use <code>-fshort-wchar</code>.</li>
<li>Removed non-existent symbols from 32-bit <code></code>, and added <code>pread64</code>,
<code>pwrite64</code>, <code>ftruncate64</code> for
Android API level 12 and higher. (Issue <a href="">69319</a>). For more
information, see the commit message accompanying AOSP change list
<a href="">94137</a>.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC warning about redefinition of <code>putchar</code>. Warning message reads:</li>
<code>include/stdio.h:236:5: warning: conflicts with previous declaration here
[-Wattributes] int putchar(int);</code> (Change list <a
<li>Fixed <code> --stl=libc++</code> so that it:</li>
<li>Copies <code>cxxabi.h</code>. (Issue <a
<li>Runs in directories other than the NDK install directory. (Issues <a
href="">67690</a> and <a href="">68647</a>).</li>
<li>Fixed GCC/Windows to quote arguments only when necessary for spawning processes in
external programs. This change decreases the likelihood of exceeding the 32K length limit.</li>
<li>Fixed an issue that made it impossible to adjust the <code>APP_PLATFORM</code>
environment variable.</li>
<li>Fixed the implementation of <code>IsSystemLibrary()</code> in crazy_linker so that it
uses <code>strrchr()</code>
instead of <code>strchr()</code> to find the library path's true basename.</li>
<li>Fixed native-audio's inability to build in debug mode.</li>
<li>Fixed gdb's inability to print extreme floating-point numbers. (Issue <a
<li>Fixed Clang 3.4 inability to compile with <code>-Wl,-shared</code> (as opposed to
<code>-shared</code>, which
had no compilation issues). The problem was that Clang added <code>-pie</code> for Android
targets if neither <code>-shared</code> nor <code>-static</code> existed. This behavior, which was
incorrect, caused the linker to complain that <code>-shared</code> and <code>-pie</code> could not
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Added <code>arm_neon.h</code> to the x86 toolchain so that it now emulates ~47% of
Neon. There is currently no support for 64-bit types. For more information, see the section on ARM
Neon intrinsics support in the x86 documentation.</li>
<li>Ported ARM/GOT_PREL optimization (present in GCC 4.6 built from the GCC google branch) to
ARM GCC 4.8/4.9. This optimization sometimes reduces instruction count when accessing global
variables. As an example, see the script in
<li>Added ARM version for STL gabi++, stlport, and libc++. They now have both it and Thumb
<li>It is now possible to call the script with
<code>--toolchain=x86_64-linux-android-4.9</code>, which is equivalent to
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)"> <img
src="/assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img" alt=""
>Android NDK, Revision 9d</a> <em>(March 2014)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added support for the Clang 3.4 compiler. The
<code>NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=clang</code> option now picks Clang 3.4. GCC 4.6 is
still the default compiler.</li>
<li>Added <code>APP_ABI=armeabi-v7a-hard</code>, with
additional multilib option <code>-mfloat-abi=hard</code>. These options are for
use with ARM GCC 4.6/4.8 and Clang 3.3/3.4 (which use 4.8's assembler, linker,
and libs). When using these options, note the following changes:</li>
<li> When executing the <code>ndk-build</code> script, add the
following options for armeabi-v7a target:
<pre>TARGET_CFLAGS += -mhard-float -D_NDK_MATH_NO_SOFTFP=1
TARGET_LDFLAGS += -Wl,--no-warn-mismatch -lm_hard</pre>
The built library is copied to <code>libs/armeabi-v7a</code>. For make to
behave as expected, you cannot specify both <code>armeabi-v7a</code> and
<code>armeabi-v7a-hard</code> as make targets (i.e., on the APP_ABI= line).
Doing so causes one of them to be ignored. Note that <code>APP_ABI=all</code>
is still equivalent to
<code>armeabi armeabi-v7a x86 mips</code>.</li>
<li>The <code></code> script copies
additional libaries under <code>/hard</code> directories.
Add the above <code>CFLAGS</code> and <code>LFLAGS</code> to your
makefile to enable GCC or Clang to link with
libraries in <code>/hard</code>.</li>
<li>Added the yasm assembler, as well as <code>LOCAL_ASMFLAGS</code>
and <code>EXPORT_ASMFLAGS</code> flags for x86
targets. The <code>ndk-build</code> script uses
<code>prebuilts/*/bin/yasm*</code> to build <code>LOCAL_SRC_FILES</code> that
have the <code>.asm</code> extension.</li>
<li>Updated MClinker to 2.6.0, which adds <code>-gc-sections</code>
<li>Added experimental libc++ support (upstream r201101). Use this new
feature by following these steps:
<li>Add <code>APP_STL := c++_static</code> or <code>APP_STL :=
c++_shared</code> in <code></code>.
You may rebuild from source via <code>LIBCXX_FORCE_REBUILD :=
<li>Execute <code> --stl=libc++</code>
to create a standalone toolchain with libc++ headers/lib.</li>
For more information, see
(Issue <a href="">36496</a>)</li>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed an uncaught throw from an unexpected
exception handler for GCC 4.6/4.8 ARM EABI. (GCC Issue <a
<li>Fixed GCC 4.8 so that it now correctly resolves partial
specialization of a template with
a dependent, non-type template argument. (GCC Issue <a
<li>Added more modules to prebuilt python (Issue <a
<li>Mac OS X: <code>zlib</code>, <code>bz2</code>,
<code>_curses</code>, <code>_curses_panel</code>, <code>_hashlib</code>,
<li>Linux: <code>zlib</code>, <code>nis</code>,
<code>crypt</code>, <code>_curses</code>, and <code>_curses_panel</code></li>
<li>Fixed the x86 and MIPS gdbserver
<li>Fixed numerous issues in the RenderScript NDK toolchain, including
issues with compatibility across older devices and C++ reflection.</li>
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Header fixes:
<li>Fixed a missing <code>#include &lt;sys/types.h&gt;</code> in
<code>android/asset_manager.h</code> for Android API level 13 and higher.
(Issue <a href="">64988</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a missing <code>#include <stdint.h></code> in
<code>android/rect_manager.h</code> for Android API level 14 and higher.</li>
<li>Added <code>JNICALL</code> to <code>JNI_OnLoad</code> and
<code>JNI_OnUnload</code> in <code>jni.h</code>. Note that <code>JNICALL</code>
is defined as <code>__NDK_FPABI__</code> For more information, see
<li>Updated the following headers so that they can be included
without the need to
manually include their dependencies (Issue <a
<li>Added <code>sys/cachectl.h</code> for all architectures. MIPS
developers can now include this header instead of writing <code>#ifdef
<li></code>Fixed <code>platforms/android-18/include/android/input.h
</code> by adding <code>__NDK_FPABI__</code> to functions taking or returning
float or double values.</li>
<li>Fixed MIPS <code>struct stat</code>, which was incorrectly set
to its 64-bit counterpart for Android API level 12 and later. This wrong
setting was a
regression introduced in release r9c.</li>
<li>Defined <code>__PTHREAD_MUTEX_INIT_VALUE</code>,
and <code>__PTHREAD_ERRORCHECK_MUTEX_INIT_VALUE</code> for Android API
level 9 and lower.</li>
<li>Added <code>scalbln</code>, <code>scalblnf</code>, and
<code>scalblnl</code> to x86 <code></code> for APIs 18 and later.</li>
<li>Fixed a typo in
(Issue <a href="">63806</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed gabi++ <code>std::unexpected()</code> to call
<code>std::terminate()</code> so that
a user-defined <code>std::terminate()</code> handler has a chance to run.
<li>Fixed gabi++ to catch <code>std::nullptr</code>.</li>
<li>Fixed samples Teapot and MoreTeapots:
<li>Solved a problem with Tegra 2 and 3 chips by changing specular
variables to use medium precision. Values for specular power can now be less
than 1.0. </li>
<li>Changed the samples so that pressing the volume button restores
immersive mode and invalidates
<code>SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_IMMERSIVE_STICKY</code>. Screen rotation does not
trigger <code>onSystemUiVisibilityChange</code>, and so does not restore
immersive mode.</li>
<li>Fixed the <code>ndk-build</code> script to add
<code>-rpath-link=$SYSROOT/usr/lib</code> and
<code>-rpath-link=$TARGET_OUT</code> in order to use <code>ld.bfd</code> to
link executables. (Issue <a href="">64266</a>)</li>
<li>Removed <code>-Bsymbolic</code> from all STL builds.</li>
<li>Fixed <code>ndk-gdb-py.cmd</code> by setting <code>SHELL</code> as
an environment variable
instead of passing it to
<code>python.exe</code>, which ignores the setting.
(Issue <a href="">63054</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed the <code></code> script so that
the <code>--stl=stlport</code> option copies the gabi++ headers instead of
symlinking them; the <code>cmd.exe</code> and MinGW shells do not understand
symlinks created by cygwin.</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Applied execution permissions to all <code>*cmd</code> scripts
previously intended for use only in the <code>cmd.exe</code> shell, in case
developers prefer to use <code>ndk-build.cmd</code> in cygwin instead of the
recommended <code>ndk-build</code> script.</li>
<li>Improved the speed of the <code></code>
script by moving instead of copying if the specified destination directory does
not exist.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)"> <img
src="/assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img" alt=""
>Android NDK, Revision 9c</a> <em>(December 2013)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This is a bug-fix-only release.</p>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed a problem with GCC 4.8 ARM, in which the stack pointer is
restored too early. This problem prevented the frame pointer from reliably
accessing a variable in the stack frame. (GCC Issue <a
<li>Fixed a problem with GCC 4.8 libstdc++, in which a bug in
std::nth_element was causing generation of code that produced a random
segfault. (Issue <a
<li>Fixed GCC 4.8 ICE in cc1/cc1plus with
<code>-fuse-ld=mcld</code>, so that the following error no longer occurs:
<pre>cc1: internal compiler error: in common_handle_option, at
<li>Fixed <code>-mhard-float</code> support for
<code>__builtin</code> math functions. For ongoing information on fixes for
<code>-mhard-float</code> with STL, please follow Issue <a
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Header fixes:
<li>Changed prototype of <code>poll</code> to <code>poll(struct
pollfd *, nfds_t, int);</code> in <code>poll.h</code>.</li>
<li>Added <code>utimensat</code> to <code></code> for Android
API levels 12 and 19. These libraries are now included for all Android API
levels 12 through 19.</li>
<li>Introduced <code>futimens</code> into <code></code>, for Android API
level 19.</li>
<li>Added missing <code>clock_settime()</code> and
<code>clock_nanosleep()</code> to <code>time.h</code> for Android API level 8
and higher.</li>
<code>CLOCK_BOOTTIME_ALARM</code> in <code>time.h.</code></li>
<li>Removed obsolete <code>CLOCK_REALTIME_HR</code> and
<li>In samples Teapot, MoreTeapots, and
<li>Changed them so that they now use a hard-float abi for armeabi-v7a.</li>
<li>Updated them to use immersive mode on Android API level 19 and
<li>Fixed a problem with <code>Check_ReleaseStringUTFChars</code> in
<code>/system/lib/</code> that was causing crashes on x86 devices.</li>
<li>Fixed <code>ndk-build</code> fails that happen in cygwin when the NDK
package is
referenced via symlink.</li>
<li>Fixed <code>ndk-build.cmd</code> fails that happen in windows
<code>cmd.exe</code> when
<code>LOCAL_SRC_FILES</code> contains absolute paths. (Issue <a
<li>Fixed the <code>ndk-stack</code> script to proceed even when it can't parse
a frame due to inability to find a routine, filename, or line number. In any of
these cases, it prints <code>??</code>.</li>
<li>Fixed the <code>ndk-stack</code> stack for windows-x64_64 targets so that
it no longer erroneously matches a frame line with a line in the
<code>stack:</code> section that doesn't contain <code>pc</code>,
<code>eip</code>, or <code>ip</code>. For example:
<pre>I/DEBUG ( 1151): #00 5f09db68 401f01c4
<li>Fixed gabi++ so that it:
<li>Does not use malloc() to allocate C++ thread-local
<li>Avoids deadlocks in gabi++ in cases where libc.debug.malloc is
non-zero in userdebug/eng Android platform builds.</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Added <code>LOCAL_EXPORT_LDFLAGS</code>.</li>
<li>Introduced the <code>NDK_PROJECT_PATH=null</code> setting for use in an
integrated build system where options are explicitly passed to
<code>ndk-build</code>. With this setting, <code>ndk-build</code> makes no
attempt to look for <code>NDK_PROJECT_PATH.</code> This setting also prevents
variables from deriving default settings from NDK_PROJECT_PATH. As a result,
the following variables must now be explicitly specified (with their default
values if such exist): <code>NDK_OUT, NDK_LIBS_OUT, APP_BUILD_SCRIPT,
NDK_DEBUG</code> (optional, default to 0), and other <code>APP_*</code>'s
contained in <code></code>.</li>
<li><code>APP_ABI</code> can now be enumerated in a comma-delimited list. For
<pre>APP_ABI := "armeabi,armeabi-v7a"</pre></li>
<li>Provided the ability to rebuild all of STL with debugging info in an
optional, separate package called
<code></code>, using the
<code>-g</code> option. This option
helps the <code>ndk-stack</code> script provide better a stack dump across STL.
This change should not affect the code/size of the final, stripped file.</li>
<li>Enhanced <code>hello-jni</code> samples to report <code>APP_ABI</code> at
<li>Used the <code>ar</code> tool in Deterministic mode (option
<code>-D</code>) to build static libraries. (Issue <a
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)"> <img
src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img" alt=""
>Android NDK, Revision 9b</a> <em>(October 2013)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Updated {@code include/android/*h} and {@code math.h} for all Android API levels up to
18, including the addition of levels 13, 15, 16 and 17.
For information on added APIs, see commit messages for Changes
<a href="">68012</a> and
<a href="">68014</a>.
(Issues <a href="">47150</a>,
<a href="">58528</a>, and
<a href="">38423</a>)</li>
<li>Added support for Android API level 19, including Renderscript binding.</li>
<li>Added support for <code>-mhard-float</code> in the existing armeabi-v7a ABI. For more
information and current restrictions on Clang, see
{@code tests/device/hard-float/jni/}.</li>
<li>Migrated from GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 4.8 to 4.8.2, and added diagnostic color
support. To enable diagnostic colors, set <code>-fdiagnostics-color=auto</code>,
<code>-fdiagnostics-color=always,</code> or export {@code GCC_COLORS} as shown below:
For more information, see
<a href="">GCC
Language Independent Options</a>.
<li>Added two new samples to demonstrate OpenGL ES 3.0 features: Teapot and MoreTeapots.
These samples run on devices with Android 4.1 (API level 16) and higher.</li>
<li>Deprecated GCC 4.7 and Clang 3.2 support, which will be removed in the next
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed problem with ARM GCC 4.6 {@code thumb2} failing to generate 16-bit relative jump
tables. (<a href="">GCC Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.8 internal compiler error (ICE) on
{@code g++.dg/cpp0x/lambda/lambda-defarg3.C}.
(<a href="">Change 62770</a>,
<a href="">GCC Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a problem with Windows 32-bit {@code *-gdb.exe} executables failing to launch.
(<a href="">Issue 58975</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.8 ICE when building bullet library. The error message is as follows:
<pre>internal compiler error: verify_flow_info failed</pre>
(<a href="">Issue 58916</a>,
<a href="">GCC Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Modified GDB/ARM build to skip {@code ARM.exidx} data for unwinding in prologue code and
added a command ({@code set arm exidx-unwinding}) to control exidx-based stack unwinding.
(<a href="">Issue 55826</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.3 MIPS compiler problem where HI and LO registers are incorrectly
<li>Fixed issue with MIPS 4.7 ICE in {@code dbx_reg_number}. The error message is as
internal compiler error: in dbx_reg_number, at dwarf2out.c:10185
(<a href="">GCC Patch</a>)
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Header fixes
<li>Fixed the ARM {@code WCHAR_MIN} and {@code WCHAR_MAX} to be unsigned according to
spec (the X86/MIPS versions are signed). Define {@code _WCHAR_IS_ALWAYS_SIGNED} to
restore old behavior. (<a href="">Issue 57749</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code include/netinet/tcp.h} to contain {@code TCP_INFO} state enum.
(<a href="">Issue 38881</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed the {@code cdefs_elh.h} macro {@code _C_LABEL_STRING} to stop generating
warnings in the GCC 4.8 toolchain when using c++11 mode.
(<a href="">Issue 58135</a>,
<a href="">Issue 58652</a>)</li>
<li>Removed non-existent functions {@code imaxabs} and {@code imaxdiv} from header
{@code inttypes.h}.</li>
<li>Fixed issue with {@code pthread_exit()} return values and {@code pthread_self()}.
(<a href="">Issue 60686</a>)</li>
<li>Added missing {@code mkdtemp()} function, which already exists in {@code bionic}
header {@code stdlib.h}.</li>
<li>Fixed problem building {@code samples/gles3jni} with Clang on Android API level 11.</li>
<li>Fixed MCLinker to allow multiple occurrences of the following options:
{@code -gc-sections} and {@code --eh-frame-hdr}.</li>
<li>Fixed MCLinker to accept the {@code --no-warn-mismatch} option.</li>
<li>Modified {@code cpu-features} option to not assume all VFPv4 devices support IDIV.
Now this option only adds IDIV to white-listed devices, including Nexus 4.
(<a href="">Issue 57637</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem with {@code android_native_app_glue.c} erroneously logging errors on event
predispatch operations.</li>
<li>Fixed all operations on {@code gabi++} terminate and unexpected_handler to be
<li>Fixed several issues with Clang <code>-integrated-as</code> option so it can pass
tests for {@code ssax-instructions} and {@code fenv}.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.6/4.7/4.8 compiler to pass the linker option {@code --eh-frame-hdr} even
for static executables. For more information, see the
<a href="">GCC patch</a>.</li>
<li>Fixed extra apostrophe in <code>CPU-ARCH-ABIS.html</code>. For more information, see
<code>NDK-DEPENDS.html</code>. (<a href="">Issue 60142</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed extra quotes in ndk-build output on Windows.
(<a href="">Issue 60649</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.3 to compile ARM's built-in, atomic operations such as
{@code __atomic_fetch_add}, {@code __atomic_fetch_sub}, and {@code __atomic_fetch_or}.
<li>Fixed Clang 3.3 ICE with customized {@code vfprintf}.
(<a href="">Clang issue</a>)
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Enabled OpenMP for all GCC builds. To use this feature, add the following flags to your
build settings:
LOCAL_CFLAGS += -fopenmp
LOCAL_LDFLAGS += -fopenmp
For code examples, see {@code tests/device/test-openmp}</li>
<li>Reduced the size of {@code ld.mcld} significantly (1.5MB vs. {@code ld.bfd} 3.5MB and
{@code} 7.5MB), resulting in a speed improvement of approximately 20%.</li>
<li>Added <code>LOCAL_CONLYFLAGS</code> and <code>APP_CONLYFLAGS</code> to specify
options applicable to C only but not C++. The existing <code>LOCAL_CFLAGS</code>
and <code>APP_CFLAGS</code> are also used for C++ compilation (to save trouble of
specifying most options twice), so options such as <code>-std=gnu99</code> may fail in
g++ builds with a warning and clang++ builds with an error.</li>
<li>Added {@code gabi++} array helper functions.</li>
<li>Modified GCC builds so that all {@code libgcc.a} files are built with
<code>-funwind-tables</code> to allow the stack to be unwound past previously blocked
points, such as <code>__aeabi_idiv0</code>.</li>
<li>Added Ingenic MXU support in MIPS GCC4.6/4.7/4.8 with new <code>-mmxu</code>
<li>Extended MIPS GCC4.6/4.7/4.8 <code>-mldc1-sdc1</code> to control ldxc1/sdxc1 too</li>
<li>Added crazy linker. For more information, see
{@code sources/android/crazy_linker/README.TXT}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code bitmap-plasma} to draw to full screen rather than a 200x200 pixel
<li>Reduced linux and darwin toolchain sizes by 25% by creating symlinks to identical files.
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)"> <img
src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img" alt=""
>Android NDK, Revision 9</a> <em>(July 2013)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added support for Android 4.3 (API level 18). For more information, see
{@code STABLE-APIS.html} and new code examples in {@code samples/gles3jni/README}.
<li>Added headers and libraries for OpenGL ES 3.0, which is supported by Android 4.3
(API level 18) and higher.</li>
<li>Added GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 4.8 compiler to the NDK. Since GCC 4.6 is still
the default, you must explicitly enable this option:
<li>For {@code ndk-build} builds, export {@code NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=4.8} or
add it in {@code}.</li>
<li>For standalone builds, use the {@code --toolchain=} option in
{@code}, for example:<br>
{@code --toolchain=arm-linux-androideabi-4.8}</li>
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong>
The {@code -Wunused-local-typedefs} option is enabled by {@code -Wall}. Be
sure to add {@code __attribute__((unused))} if you use compile-time asserts like
{@code sources/cxx-stl/stlport/stlport/stl/config/features.h}, line #311. For more
information, see
<a href="">Change 55460</a></p>
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong>
In the GCC 4.7 release and later, ARM compilers generate unaligned access code by
default for ARMv6 and higher build targets. You may need to add the
{@code -mno-unaligned-access} build option when building for kernels that do not support
this feature.</p>
<li>Added Clang 3.3 support. The {@code NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=clang} build option
now picks Clang 3.3 by default.
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong>
Both GCC 4.4.3 and Clang 3.1 are deprecated, and will be removed from the next NDK
<li>Updated GNU Project Debugger (GDB) to support python 2.7.5.</li>
<li>Added MCLinker to support Windows hosts. Since {@code}
is the default where available, you must add {@code -fuse-ld=mcld} in
{@code LOCAL_LDFLAGS} or {@code APP_LDFLAGS} to enable MCLinker.</li>
<li>Added {@code ndk-depends} tool which prints ELF library dependencies.
For more information, see {@code NDK-DEPENDS.html}.
(<a href="">Issue 53486</a>)</li>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed potential event handling issue in {@code android_native_app_glue}.
(<a href="">Issue 41755</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed ARM/GCC-4.7 build to generate sufficient alignment for NEON load and store
instructions VST and VLD.
(<a href="">GCC Issue 57271</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a GCC 4.4.3/4.6/4.7 internal compiler error (ICE) for a constant negative index
value on a string literal.
(<a href="">Issue 54623</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.7 segmentation fault for constant initialization with an object address.
(<a href="">Issue 56508</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.6 ARM segmentation fault for <code>-O</code> values when using Boost
1.52.0. (<a href="">Issue 42891</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code} and {@code libc.a} to support the {@code wait4()} function.
(<a href="">Issue 19854</a>)</li>
<li>Updated the x86 and libc.a files to include the {@code clone()}
<li>Fixed {@code LOCAL_SHORT_COMMANDS} bug where the {@code linker.list} file is
empty or not used.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC MIPS build on Mac OS to use CFI directives, without which
{@code ld.mcld --eh-frame-hdr} fails frequently.</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.2 X86/MIPS internal compiler error in {@code llvm/lib/VMCore/Value.cpp}.
(<a href="">Change 59021</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.7 64-bit Windows assembler crash. (Error: {@code out of memory allocating
4294967280 bytes}).</li>
<li>Updated {@code ndk-gdb} script so that the {@code --start} or {@code --launch} actions
now wait for the GNU Debug Server, so that it can more reliably hit breakpoints set
early in the execution path (such as breakpoints in JNI code).
(<a href="">Issue 41278</a>)
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong>
This feature requires jdb and produces warning about pending breakpoints.
Specify the {@code --nowait} option to restore previous behavior.
<li>Fixed GDB crash when library list is empty.</li>
<li>Fixed GDB crash when using a {@code stepi} command past a {@code bx pc} or
{@code blx pc} Thumb instruction.
(<a href="">Issue 56962</a>,
<a href="">Issue 36149</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed MIPS {@code gdbserver} to look for {@code DT_MIPS_RLD_MAP} instead of
{@code DT_DEBUG}. (<a href="">Issue 56586</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a circular dependency in the ndk-build script, for example: If A-&gt;B and
B-&gt;B, then B was dropped from build.
(<a href="">Issue 56690</a>)</li>
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed the {@code ndk-build} script to enable you to specify a version of Clang as a
command line option (e.g., {@code NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=clang3.2}). Previously, only
specifying the version as an environment variable worked.</li>
<li>Fixed gabi++ size of {@code _Unwind_Exception} to be 24 for MIPS build targets when
using the Clang compiler.
(<a href="">Change 54141</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed the {@code ndk-build} script to ensure that built libraries are actually
removed from projects that include prebuilt static libraries when using the
{@code ndk-build clean} command.
(<a href="">Change 54461</a>,
<a href="">Change 54480</a>)</li>
<li>Modified the {@code NDK_ANALYZE=1} option to be less verbose.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code gnu-libstdc++/} to include a {@code backward/} path for builds
that use backward compability.
(<a href="">Issue 53404</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a problem where {@code stlport new} sometimes returned random values.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-gdb} to match the order of {@code CPU_ABIS}, not {@code APP_ABIS}.
(<a href="">Issue 54033</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a problem where the NDK 64-bit build on MacOSX choses the wrong path for
(<a href="">Issue 53769</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed build scripts to detect 64-bit Windows Vista.
(<a href="">Issue 54485</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed x86 {@code ntonl/swap32} error: {@code invalid 'asm': operand number
out of range}.
(<a href="">Issue 54465</a>,
<a href="">Change 57242</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code} to merge string literals.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code} to handle large symbol alignment.</li>
<li>Updated {@code} to enable the {@code --sort-section=name} option.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.4.3/4.6/4.7 to suppress the {@code -export-dynamic} option for
statically linked programs. GCC no longer adds an {@code .interp} section for statically
linked programs.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.4.3 {@code stlport} compilation error about inconsistent {@code typedef}
of {@code _Unwind_Control_Block}.
(<a href="">Issue 54426</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code awk} scripts to handle {@code AndroidManifest.xml} files created on
Windows which may contain trailing {@code \r} characters and cause build errors.
(<a href="">Issue 42548</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code} to probe the {@code prebuilts/}
directory to detect if the host is 32 bit or 64 bit.</li>
<li>Fixed the Clang 3.2 {@code -integrated-as} option.</li>
<li>Fixed the Clang 3.2 ARM EHABI compact model {@code pr1} and {@code pr2} handler data.
<li>Added Clang {@code -mllvm -arm-enable-ehabi} option to fix the following Clang error:
<pre>clang: for the -arm-enable-ehabi option: may only occur zero or one times!</pre>
<li>Fixed build failure when there is no {@code uses-sdk} element in application
manifest. (<a href="">Issue 57015</a>)</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Header Fixes
<li>Modified headers to make {@code __set_errno} an inlined function, since
{@code __set_errno} in {@code errno.h} is deprecated, and {@code} no longer
exports it.</li>
<li>Modified {@code elf.h} to include {@code stdint.h}.
(<a href="">Issue 55443</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code sys/un.h} to be included independently of other headers.
(<a href="">Issue 53646</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed all of the {@code MotionEvent_getHistorical} API family to take the
{@code const AInputEvent* motion_event}.
(<a href="">Issue 55873</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code malloc_usable_size} to take {@code const void*}.
(<a href="">Issue 55725</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed stdint.h to be more compatible with C99.
(<a href="">Change 46821</a>)</li>
<li>Modified {@code wchar.h} to not redefine {@code WCHAR_MAX} and
{@code WCHAR_MIN}</li>
<li>Fixed {@code &lt;inttypes.h&gt;} declaration for pointer-related {@code PRI} and
{@code SCN} macros. (<a href="">Issue 57218</a>)</li>
<li>Changed the {@code sys/cdefs.h} header so that {@code __WCHAR_TYPE__} is 32-bit
for API levels less than 9, which means that {@code wchat_t} is 32-bit for all
API levels. To restore the previous behavior, define the {@code _WCHAR_IS_8BIT}
boolean variable. (<a href="">Issue 57267</a>)</li>
<li>Added more formatting in NDK {@code docs/} and miscellaneous documentation fixes.
<li>Added support for a thin archive technique when building static libraries.
(<a href="">Issue 40303</a>)</li>
<li>Updated script {@code} to support the {@code stlport}
library in addition to {@code gnustl}, when you specify the option
{@code --stl=stlport}. For more information, see {@code STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html}.</li>
<li>Updated the {@code} script so that the
{@code --llvm-version=} option creates the {@code $TOOLCHAIN_PREFIX-clang} and
{@code $TOOLCHAIN_PREFIX-clang++} scripts in addition to {@code clang} and
{@code clang++}, to avoid using the host's clang and clang++ definitions by accident.
<li>Added two flags to re-enable two optimizations in upstream Clang but disabled in
NDK for better compatibility with code compiled by GCC:
<li>Added a {@code -fcxx-missing-return-semantics} flag to re-enable <em>missing
semantics</em> in Clang 3.2+. Normally, all paths should terminate with a return
statement for a value-returning function. If this is not the case, clang inserts
an undefined instruction (or trap in debug mode) at the path without a return
statement. If you are sure your code is correct, use this flag to allow the
optimizer to take advantage of the undefined behavior. If you are not sure, do not
use this flag. The caller may still receive a random incorrect value, but the
optimizer will not exploit it and make your code harder to debug.</li>
<li>Added a {@code -fglobal-ctor-const-promotion} flag to re-enable
promoting global variables with static constructor to be constants. With this flag,
the global variable optimization pass of LLVM tries to evaluate the global
variables with static constructors and promote them to global constants. Although
this optimization is correct, it may cause some incompatability with code compiled
by GCC. For example, code may do {@code const_cast} to cast the constant to mutable
and modify it. In GCC, the variable is in read-write and the code is run by
accident. In Clang, the const variable is in read-only memory and may cause your
application to crash.</li>
<li>Added {@code -mldc1-sdc1} to the MIPS GCC and Clang compilers. By default, compilers
align 8-byte objects properly and emit the {@code ldc1} and {@code sdc1} instructions
to move them around. If your app uses a custom allocator that does not always align
with a new object's 8-byte boundary in the same way as the default allocator, your app
may crash due to {@code ldc1} and {@code sdc1} operations on unaligned memory. In this
case, use the {@code -mno-ldc1-sdc1} flag to workaround the problem.</li>
<li>Downgraded the event severity from warning to info if {@code APP_PLATFORM_LEVEL} is
larger than {@code APP_MIN_PLATFORM_LEVEL}. The {@code APP_PLATFORM_LEVEL} may be lower
than {@code APP_PLATFORM} in {@code jni/} because the NDK does not have
headers for all levels. In this case, the actual level is shifted downwards. The
{@code APP_MIN_PLATFORM_LEVEL} is specified by the {@code android:minSdkVersion} in
your application's manifest.
(<a href="">Issue 39752</a>)</li>
<li>Added the {@code android_getCpuIdArm()} and {@code android_setCpuArm()} methods to
{@code cpu-features.c}. This addition enables easier retrieval of the ARM CPUID
information. (<a href="">Issue 53689</a>)</li>
<li>Modified {@code ndk-build} to use GCC 4.7's {@code as/ld} for Clang compiling.
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong>
In GCC 4.7, {@code monotonic_clock} and {@code is_monotonic} have been renamed to
{@code steady_clock} and {@code is_steady}, respectively.</p></li>
<li>Added the following new warnings to the {@code ndk-build} script:
<li>Added warnings if {@code LOCAL_LDLIBS/LDFLAGS} are used in static library
<li>Added a warning if a configuration has no module to build.</li>
<li>Added a warning for non-system libraries being used in
{@code LOCAL_LDLIBS/LDFLAGS} of a shared library or executable modules.</li>
<li>Updated build scripts, so that if {@code APP_MODULES} is not defined and only static
libraries are listed in {@code}, the script force-builds all of them.
(<a href="">Issue 53502</a>)</li>
<li>Updated {@code ndk-build} to support absolute paths in {@code LOCAL_SRC_FILES}.</li>
<li>Removed the {@code *-gdbtui} executables, which are duplicates of the {@code *-gdb}
executables with the {@code -tui} option enabled.</li>
<li>Updated the build scripts to warn you when the Edison Design Group (EDG) compiler
front-end turns {@code _STLP_HAS_INCLUDE_NEXT} back on.
(<a href="">Issue 53646</a>)</li>
<li>Added the environment variable {@code NDK_LIBS_OUT} to allow overriding of the
path for {@code libraries/gdbserver} from the default {@code $PROJECT/libs}.
For more information, see {@code OVERVIEW.html}.</li>
<li>Changed ndk-build script defaults to compile code with format string protection
{@code -Wformat -Werror=format-security}. You may set
{@code LOCAL_DISABLE_FORMAT_STRING_CHECKS=true} to disable it.
For more information, see {@code ANDROID-MK.html}</li>
<li>Added STL pretty-print support in {@code ndk-gdb-py}. For more information, see
{@code NDK-GDB.html}.</li>
<li>Added tests based on the googletest frameworks.</li>
<li>Added a notification to the toolchain build script that warns you if the current shell
is not {@code bash}.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 8e</a> <em>(March 2013)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added 64-bit host toolchain set (package name suffix {@code *-x86_64.*}). For more
information, see {@code CHANGES.HTML} and {@code NDK-BUILD.html}.</li>
<li>Added Clang 3.2 compiler. GCC 4.6 is still the default. For information on using the
Clang compiler, see {@code CHANGES.HTML}.</li>
<li>Added static code analyzer for Linux/MacOSX hosts. For information on using the
analyzer, see {@code CHANGES.HTML}.</li>
<li>Added MCLinker for Linux/MacOSX hosts as an experimental feature. The {@code}
linker is the default where available, so you must explicitly enable it. For more
information, see {@code CHANGES.HTML}.</li>
<li>Updated ndk-build to use topological sort for module dependencies, which means the
build automatically sorts out the order of libraries specified in
{@code LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES}. For more information, see {@code CHANGES.HTML}.
(<a href="">Issue 39378</a>)</li>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed build script to build all toolchains in {@code -O2}. Toolchains in previous
releases were incorrectly built without optimization.</li>
<li>Fixed build script which unconditionally builds Clang/llvm for MacOSX in 64-bit.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.6/4.7 internal compiler error:
{@code gen_thumb_movhi_clobber at config/arm/}.
(<a href="">Issue 52732</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed build problem where GCC/ARM 4.6/4.7 fails to link code using 64-bit atomic
built-in functions.
(<a href="">Issue 41297</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.7 linker DIV usage mismatch errors.
(<a href="">Sourceware Issue</a>)
<li>Fixed GCC 4.7 internal compiler error {@code build_data_member_initialization, at
<li>Fixed GCC 4.7 internal compiler error {@code redirect_eh_edge_1, at tree-eh.c:2214}.
(<a href="">Issue 52909</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a GCC 4.7 segfault.
(<a href="">GCC Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code &lt;chrono&gt;} clock resolution and enabled {@code steady_clock}.
(<a href="">Issue 39680</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed toolchain to enable {@code _GLIBCXX_HAS_GTHREADS} for GCC 4.7 libstdc++.
(<a href="">Issue 41770</a>,
<a href="">Issue 41859</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem with the X86 MXX/SSE code failing to link due to missing
{@code posix_memalign}.
(<a href="">Change 51872</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC4.7/X86 segmentation fault in {@code i386.c}, function
{@code distance_non_agu_define_in_bb()}.
(<a href="">Change 50383</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC4.7/X86 to restore earlier {@code cmov} behavior.
(<a href="">GCC Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed handling NULL return value of {@code setlocale()} in libstdc++/GCC4.7.
(<a href="">Issue 46718</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code} runtime undefined reference to {@code __exidx_start} and
{@code __exidx_start_end}.
(<a href="">Change 52134</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1 internal compiler error when using Eigen library.
(<a href="">Issue 41246</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1 internal compiler error including {@code &lt;chrono&gt;} in C++11
(<a href="">Issue 39600</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1 internal compiler error when generating object code for a method
call to a uniform initialized {@code rvalue}.
(<a href="">Issue 41387</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1/X86 stack realignment.
(<a href="">Change 52154</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem with GNU Debugger (GDB) SIGILL when debugging on Android 4.1.2.
(<a href="">Issue 40941</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem where GDB cannot set {@code source:line} breakpoints when symbols
long, indirect file paths.
(<a href="">Issue 42448</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GDB {@code read_program_header} for MIPS PIE executables.
(<a href="">Change 49592</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code STLport} segmentation fault in {@code uncaught_exception()}.
(<a href="">Change 50236</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code STLport} bus error in exception handling due to unaligned access of
{@code DW_EH_PE_udata2}, {@code DW_EH_PE_udata4}, and {@code DW_EH_PE_udata8}.</li>
<li>Fixed Gabi++ infinite recursion problem with {@code nothrow new[]} operator.
(<a href="">Issue 52833</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Gabi++ wrong offset to exception handler pointer.
(<a href="">Change 53446</a>)</li>
<li>Removed Gabi++ redundant free on exception object
(<a href="">Change 53447</a>)</li>
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed NDK headers:
<li>Removed redundant definitions of {@code size_t}, {@code ssize_t}, and
{@code ptrdiff_t}.</li>
<li>Fixed MIPS and ARM {@code fenv.h} header.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code stddef.h} to not redefine {@code offsetof} since it already exists
in the toolchain.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code elf.h} to contain {@code Elf32_auxv_t} and {@code Elf64_auxv_t}.
(<a href="">Issue 38441</a>)
<li>Fixed the {@code #ifdef} C++ definitions in the
{@code OpenSLES_AndroidConfiguration.h} header file.
(<a href="">Issue 53163</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code STLport} to abort after out of memory error instead of silently exiting.
<li>Fixed system and Gabi++ headers to be able to compile with API level 8 and lower.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code cpufeatures} to not parse {@code /proc/self/auxv}.
(<a href="">Issue 43055</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code} to not depend on host libstdc++ and on Windows platforms,
to not depend on the {@code libgcc_sjlj_1.dll} library.</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1 which emits inconsistent register list in {@code .vsave} and fails
(<a href="">Change 49930</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1 to be able to compile libgabi++ and pass the {@code test-stlport}
tests for MIPS build targets.
(<a href="">Change 51961</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Clang 3.1 to only enable exception by default for C++, not for C.</li>
<li>Fixed several issues in Clang 3.1 to pass most GNU exception tests.</li>
<li>Fixed scripts {@code clang} and {@code clang++} in standalone NDK compiler to detect
{@code -cc1} and to not specify {@code -target} when found.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build} to observe {@code NDK_APP_OUT} set in {@code}.
<li>Fixed X86 {@code} and {@code lib.a} which were missing the {@code sigsetjmp}
and {@code siglongjmp} functions already declared in {@code setjmp.h}.
(<a href="">Issue 19851</a>)</li>
<li>Patched GCC 4.4.3/4.6/4.7 libstdc++ to work with Clang in C++ 11.
(<a href="">Clang Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed cygwin path in argument passed to {@code HOST_AWK}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build} script warning in windows when running from project's JNI
(<a href="">Issue 40192</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem where the {@code ndk-build} script does not build if makefile has
trailing whitespace in the {@code LOCAL_PATH} definition.
(<a href="">Issue 42841</a>)</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Enabled threading support in GCC/MIPS toolchain.</li>
<li>Updated GCC exception handling helpers {@code __cxa_begin_cleanup} and
{@code __cxa_type_match} to have <em>default</em> visibility from the previous
<em>hidden</em> visibility in GNU libstdc++. For more information, see
{@code CHANGES.HTML}.</li>
<li>Updated build scripts so that Gabi++ and STLport static libraries are now built with
hidden visibility except for exception handling helpers.</li>
<li>Updated build so that {@code STLport} is built for ARM in Thumb mode.</li>
<li>Added support for {@code std::set_new_handler} in Gabi++.
(<a href="">Issue 52805</a>)</li>
<li>Enabled {@code FUTEX} system call in GNU libstdc++.</li>
<li>Updated {@code ndk-build} so that it no longer copies prebuilt static library to
a project's {@code obj/local/&lt;abi&gt;/} directory.
(<a href="">Issue 40302</a>)</li>
<li>Removed {@code __ARM_ARCH_5*__} from ARM {@code toolchains/*/} script.
(<a href="">Issue 21132</a>)</li>
<li>Built additional GNU libstdc++ libraries in thumb for ARM.</li>
<li>Enabled MIPS floating-point {@code madd/msub/nmadd/nmsub/recip/rsqrt}
instructions with 32-bit FPU.</li>
<li>Enabled graphite loop optimizer in GCC 4.6 and 4.7 to allow more optimizations:
{@code -fgraphite}, {@code -fgraphite-identity}, {@code -floop-block}, {@code
{@code -floop-interchange}, {@code -floop-strip-mine}, {@code -floop-parallelize-all},
and {@code -ftree-loop-linear}.
(<a href="">info</a>)</li>
<li>Enabled {@code polly} for Clang 3.1 on Linux and Max OS X 32-bit hosts which analyzes
and optimizes memory access. (<a href="">info</a>)</li>
<li>Enabled {@code -flto} in GCC 4.7, 4.6, Clang 3.2 and Clang 3.1 on linux (Clang LTO
via MIPS compiler targets are not supported because {@code}
is not available.</li>
<li>Enabled {@code --plugin} and {@code --plugin-opt} for {@code} in GCC 4.6/4.7.
<li>Enabled {@code --text-reorder} for {@code} in GCC 4.7.</li>
<li>Configured GNU libstdc++ with {@code _GLIBCXX_USE_C99_MATH} which undefines the
{@code isinf} script in the bionic header. For more information, see
{@code CHANGES.html}.</li>
<li>Added {@code APP_LDFLAGS} to the build scripts. For more information, see
{@code ANDROID-MK.html}.</li>
<li>Updated build scripts to allow {@code NDK_LOG=0} to disable the {@code NDK_LOG}.</li>
<li>Updated build scripts to allow {@code NDK_HOST_32BIT=0} to disable the host developer
environment 32-bit toolchain.</li>
<li>Changed the default GCC/X86 flags {@code -march=} and {@code -mtune=} from
{@code pentiumpro} and {@code generic} to {@code i686} and {@code atom}.</li>
<li>Enhanced toolchain build scripts:
<li>Fixed a race condition in {@code} for the {@code mingw} build type
which was preventing a significant amount of parallel build processing.</li>
<li>Updated {@code} and {@code} so they can now run
from the NDK package.
(<a href="">Issue 52835</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code} in the {@code MSys} utilities collection.</li>
<li>Improved 64-bit host toolchain and Canadian Cross build support.</li>
<li>Updated {@code} script to more recent version.</li>
<li>Added option to build {@code libgnustl_static.a} and {@code stlport_static.a}
without hidden visibility.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 8d</a> <em>(December 2012)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 4.7 compiler to the NDK. The GCC 4.6 compiler
is still the default, so you must to explicitly enable the new version as follows:
<li>For {@code ndk-build}, export the {@code NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=4.7} variable
<em>or</em> add it to {@code}.</li>
<li>For standalone builds, add the {@code --toolchain=} option to
{@code}, for example:
<p class="note">
<strong>Note:</strong> This feature is experimental. Please try it and
<a href="">report any issues</a>.</p>
<li>Added {@code stlport} exception support via gabi++. Note that the new gabi++
depends on {@code dlopen} and related code, meaning that:
<li>You can no longer build a <em>static</em> executable using the {@code -static}
option or include {@code libstlport_static.a} using
{@code APP_STL := stlport_static}. (You can still use the {@code -static} option
with a standalone toolchain.) Compiling a <em>dynamic</em> executable using
{@code include $(BUILD_EXECUTABLE)} continues to work because the compiler
automatically adds the {@code -ldl} option.</li>
<li>If your project links using {@code -nostdlib} and {-Wl,--no-undefined}, you
must manually include the {@code -ldl} option.</li>
For more information, see {@code CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html}.
<p class="note">
<strong>Note:</strong> This feature is experimental and works better with the GCC
4.6/4.7 compilers than with GCC 4.4.3 or Clang 3.1. Please try it and
<a href="">report any issues</a>.</p>
<li>Added a {@code -mstack-protector-guard=} option for x86 to choose between a
<em>global</em> default path which is compatible with older Android C library (bionic)
and a new <em>tls</em> path (%gs:20) for {@code -fstack-protector},
{@code -fstack-protector-all} and {@code -fstack-protector-strong} using the GCC 4.6
and higher compilers.
<p class="note">
<strong>Note:</strong> The {@code -mstack-protector-guard} setting itself does not
enable any {@code -fstack-protector*} options.</p>
<li>Added {@code android_setCpu()} function to
{@code sources/android/cpufeatures/cpu-features.c} for use when auto-detection via
{@code /proc} is not possible in Android 4.1 and higher.
(<a href="">Chromium Issue
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed unnecessary rebuild of object files when using the {@code ndk-build} script.
(<a href="">Issue 39810</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed a linker failure with the NDK 8c release for Mac OS X 10.6.x that produced the
following error:
dyld: lazy symbol binding failed: Symbol not found: _memmem
Referenced from: ...../arm-linux-androideabi/bin/ld
Expected in: /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib</pre>
This problem was caused by building on Mac OS X 10.7, which produced binaries that were
not compatible with Mac OS 10.6.x and the NDK.
<li>Removed the {@code -x c++} options from the Clang++ standalone build script.
(<a href="">Issue 39089</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed issues using the {@code NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=clang3.1} option in Cygwin.
(<a href="">Issue 39585</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed the {@code} script to allow generation of a
standalone toolchain using the Cygwin or MinGW environments. The resulting toolchain
can be used in Cygwin, MingGW or CMD.exe environments.
(<a href="">Issue 39915</a>,
<a href="">Issue 39585</a>)</li>
<li>Added missing {@code SL_IID_ANDROIDBUFFERQUEUESOURCE} option in android-14 builds for
ARM and X86.
(<a href="">Issue 40625</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed x86 CPU detection for the {@code ANDROID_CPU_X86_FEATURE_MOVBE} feature.
(<a href="">Issue 39317</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed an issue preventing the Standard Template Library (STL) from using C++
sources that do not have a {@code .cpp} file extension.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.6 ARM internal compiler error <em>at reload1.c:1061</em>.
(<a href="">Issue 20862</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.4.3 ARM internal compiler error <em>at emit-rtl.c:1954</em>.
(<a href="">Issue 22336</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.4.3 ARM internal compiler error <em>at postreload.c:396</em>.
(<a href="">Issue 22345</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem with GCC 4.6/4.7 skipping lambda functions.
(<a href="">Issue 35933</a>)</li>
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>NDK header file fixes:
<li>Fixed {@code __WINT_TYPE__} and {@code wint_t} to be the same type.</li>
<li>Corrected typo in {@code android/bitmap.h}.
(<a href="">Issue 15134</a>)
<li>Corrected typo in {@code errno.h}.</li>
<li>Added check for the presence of {@code __STDC_VERSION__} in {@code sys/cdefs.h}.
(<a href="">Issue 14627</a>)
<li>Reorganized headers in {@code byteswap.h} and {@code dirent.h}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code limits.h} to include {@code page.h} which provides {@code PAGE_SIZE}
(<a href="">Issue 39983</a>)
<li>Fixed return type of {@code glGetAttribLocation()} and
{@code glGetUniformLocation()} from {@code int} to {@code GLint}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code __BYTE_ORDER} constant for x86 builds.
(<a href="">Issue 39824</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build} script to not overwrite {@code -Os} with {@code -O2} for ARM
<li>Fixed build scripts to allow overwriting of {@code HOST_AWK}, {@code HOST_SED}, and
{@code HOST_MAKE} settings.</li>
<li>Fixed issue for {@code} on {@code fsck_msdos} builds linking objects built by
the Intel C/C++ compiler (ICC).</li>
<li>Fixed ARM EHABI support in Clang to conform to specifications.</li>
<li>Fixed GNU Debugger (GDB) to shorten the time spent on walking the target's link map
during {@code solib} events.
(<a href="">Issue 38402</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed missing {@code libgcc.a} file when linking shared libraries.</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Backported 64-bit built-in atomic functions for ARM to GCC 4.6.</li>
<li>Added documentation for audio output latency, along with other documentation and
<li>Fixed debug builds with Clang so that non-void functions now raise a {@code SIGILL}
signal for paths without a return statement.</li>
<li>Updated {@code} to accept the suffix {@code -clang3.1}
which is equivalent to adding {@code --llvm-version=3.1} to the GCC 4.6 toolchain.</li>
<li>Updated GCC and Clang bug report URL to:
<li>Added ARM ELF support to {@code llvm-objdump}.</li>
<li>Suppressed <em>treating c input as c++</em> warning for Clang builds.</li>
<li>Updated build so that only the 32-bit version of {@code libiberty.a} is built and
placed in {@code lib32/}.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 8c</a> <em>(November 2012)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added the Clang 3.1 compiler to the NDK. The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 4.6 is
still the default, so you must explicitly enable the Clang compiler option as follows:
<li>For {@code ndk-build}, export {@code NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=clang3.1} <em>or</em>
add this environment variable setting to {@code}.</li>
<li>For standalone builds, add {@code --llvm-version=3.1} to
{@code} and replace {@code CC} and {@code CXX} in your
makefile with {@code &lt;tool-path&gt;/bin/clang} and
{@code &lt;tool-path&gt;/bin/clang++}. See {@code STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html} for
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong> This feature is experimental. Please try it and
<a href="">report any issues</a>.</p></li>
<li>Added Gold linker {@code} for the Windows toolchain. Gold linker is also the
default for ARM and X86 on all hosts. You may override it to use the {@code ld.bfd}
linker by adding {@code LOCAL_LDFLAGS += -fuse-ld=bfd} to {@code}, or by
{@code -fuse-ld=bfd} to the g++/clang++ command line that does the linking.</li>
<li>Added checks for spaces in the NDK path to the {@code ndk-build[.cmd]} and
{@code ndk-gdb} scripts, to prevent build errors that are difficult to diagnose.</li>
<li>Made the following changes to API level handling:
<li>Modified build logic so that projects that specify {@code android-10} through
{@code android-13} in {@code APP_PLATFORM}, {@code} or
{@code} link against {@code android-9} instead of
{@code android-14}.
<li>Updated build so that executables using android-16 (Jelly Bean) or higher are
compiled with the {@code -fPIE} option for position-independent executables (PIE).
A new {@code APP_PIE} option allows you to control this behavior. See {@code
APPLICATION-MK.html} for details.
<p class="note">
<strong>Note:</strong> All API levels above 14 still link against {@code
platforms/android-14} and no new {@code platforms/android-N} have been added.
<li>Modified {@code ndk-build} to provide warnings if the adjusted API level is larger
than {@code android:minSdkVersion} in the project's {@code AndroidManifest.xml}.</li>
<li>Updated the {@code cpu-features} helper library to include more ARM-specific features.
See {@code sources/android/cpufeatures/cpu-features.h} for details.</li>
<li>Modified the long double on the X86 platform to be 8 bytes. This data type is now the
same size as a double, but is still treated as a distinct type.</li>
<li>Updated build for {@code APP_ABI=armeabi-v7a}:
<li>Modified this build type to pass the {@code -march=armv7-a} parameter
to the linker. This change ensures that v7-specific libraries and {@code crt*.o} are
linked correctly.</li>
<li>Added {@code -mfpu=vfpv3-d16} to {@code ndk-build} instead of the
{@code -mfpu=vfp} option used in previous releases.</li>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed an issue where running {@code} with root privileges
resulted in the stand alone tool chain being inaccessible to some users.
(<a href="">Issue 35279</a>)
<li>All files and executables in the NDK release package are set to have read and
execute permissions for all.</li>
<li>The ownership/group of {@code libstdc++.a} is now preserved when copied.</li>
<li>Removed redundant {@code \r} from Windows prebuilt {@code echo.exe}. The redundant
{@code \r} caused {@code gdb.setup} to fail in the GNU Debugger (GDB) because it
incorrectly became part of the path.
(<a href="">Issue 36054</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed Windows parallel builds that sometimes failed due to timing issues in the
{@code host-mkdir} implementation.
(<a href="">Issue 25875</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.4.3 GNU {@code libstdc++} to <em>not</em> merge {@code typeinfo} names by
default. For more details, see
{@code toolchain repo gcc/gcc-4.4.3/libstdc++-v3/libsupc++/typeinfo}.
(<a href="">Issue 22165</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed problem on {@code null} context in GCC 4.6
{@code cp/mangle.c::write_unscoped_name}, where GCC may crash when the context is
{@code null} and dereferenced in {@code TREE_CODE}.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC 4.4.3 crashes on ARM NEON-specific type definitions for floats.
(<a href="">Issue 34613</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed the {@code STLport} internal {@code _IteWrapper::operator*()} implementation
where a stale stack location holding the dereferenced value was returned and caused
runtime crashes.
(<a href="">Issue 38630</a>)</li>
<li>ARM-specific fixes:
<li>Fixed ARM GCC 4.4.3/4.6 {@code g++} to not warn that the <em>mangling of
&lt;va_list&gt; was changed in GCC 4.4</em>. The workaround using the
{@code -Wno-psabi} switch to avoid this warning is no longer required.</li>
<li>Fixed an issue when a project with {@code .arm} or {@code .neon} suffixes in
{@code LOCAL_SRC_FILES} also used {@code APP_STL}. With {@code APP_STL}, the
{@code ndk-build} script searches for C++ files in {@code LOCAL_SRC_FILES} before
adding STL {@code header/lib} paths to compilation. Modified {@code ndk-build} to
filter out {@code .arm} and {@code .neon} suffixes before the search, otherwise items
in {@code LOCAL_SRC_FILES} like {@code myfile.cpp.arm.neon} won't be compiled as C++
<li>Fixed {@code binutils-2.21/ld.bfd} to be capable of linking object from older
binutils without {@code tag_FP_arch}, which was producing <em>assertion fail</em>
error messages in GNU Binutils.
(<a href="">Issue 35209</a>)
<li>Removed <em>Unknown EABI object attribute 44</em> warning when
{@code binutils-2.19/ld} links prebuilt object by newer {@code binutils-2.21}</li>
<li>Fixed an issue in GNU {@code stdc++} compilation with both {@code -mthumb} and
{@code -march=armv7-a}, by modifying {@code} to populate
{@code headers/libs} in sub-directory {@code armv7-a/thumb}.
(<a href="">Issue 35616</a>)
<li>Fixed <em>unresolvable R_ARM_THM_CALL relocation</em> error.
(<a href="">Issue 35342</a>)
<li>Fixed internal compiler error at {@code reload1.c:3633}, caused by the ARM
back-end expecting the wrong operand type when sign-extend from {@code char}.
(<a href="">GCC Issue 50099</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed internal compiler error with negative shift amount.
(<a href="">GCC Issue</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code -fstack-protector} for X86, which is also the default for the
{@code ndk-build} x86 ABI target.</li>
<li>MIPS-specific fixes:
<li>Fixed {@code STLport} endian-ness by setting {@code _STLP_LITTLE_ENDIAN} to 1 when
compiling MIPS {@code libstlport_*}.</li>
<li>Fixed GCC {@code __builtin_unreachable} issue when compiling LLVM.
(<a href="">GCC Issue 54369</a>)</li>
<li>Backported fix for {@code cc1} compile process consuming 100% CPU.
(<a href="">GCC Issue 50380</a>)</li>
<li>GNU Debugger-specific fixes:
<li>Disabled Python support in gdb-7.x at build, otherwise the gdb-7.x configure
function may pick up whatever Python version is available on the host and build
{@code gdb} with a hard-wired dependency on a specific version of Python.
(<a href="">Issue 36120</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-gdb} when {@code APP_ABI} contains {@code all} and matchs none
of the known architectures.
(<a href="">Issue 35392</a>)
<li>Fixed Windows pathname support, by keeping the {@code :} character if it looks
like it could be part of a Windows path starting with a drive letter.
(<a href="">GDB Issue 12843</a>)
<li>Fixed adding of hardware breakpoint support for ARM in {@code gdbserver}.
(<a href="">GDB Issue</a>)
<li>Added fix to only read the current {@code solibs} when the linker is consistent.
This change speeds up {@code solib} event handling.
(<a href="">Issue 37677</a>)
<li>Added fix to make repeated attempts to find {@code solib} breakpoints. GDB now
retries {@code enable_break()} during every call to {@code svr4_current_sos()} until
it succeeds.
(<a href="">Change 43563</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed an issue where {@code gdb} would not stop on breakpoints placed in
{@code dlopen-ed} libraries.
(<a href="">Issue 34856</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code SIGILL} in dynamic linker when calling {@code dlopen()}, on system
where {@code /system/bin/linker} is stripped of symbols and
{@code rtld_db_dlactivity()} is implemented as {@code Thumb}, due to not preserving
{@code LSB} of {@code sym_addr}.
(<a href="">Issue 37147</a>)
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed NDK headers:
<li>Fixed {@code arch-mips/include/asm/*} code that was incorrectly removed from
original kernel. (<a href="">Change
<li>Replaced struct member data {@code __unused} with {@code __linux_unused} in
{@code linux/sysctl.h} and {@code linux/icmp.h} to avoid conflict with
{@code #define __unused} in {@code sys/cdefs.h}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code fenv.h} for enclosed C functions with {@code __BEGIN_DECLS} and
{@code __END_DECLS}.</li>
<li>Removed unimplemented functions in {@code malloc.h}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code stdint.h} defintion of {@code uint64_t} for ANSI compilers.
(<a href="">Issue 1952</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed preprocessor macros in {@code &lt;arch&gt;/include/machine/*}.</li>
<li>Replaced {@code link.h} for MIPS with new version supporting all platforms.</li>
<li>Removed {@code linux-unistd.h}</li>
<li>Move GLibc-specific macros {@code LONG_LONG_MIN}, {@code LONG_LONG_MAX} and
{@code ULONG_LONG_MAX} from {@code &lt;pthread.h&gt;} to {@code
<li>Fixed a buffer overflow in {@code ndk-stack-parser}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code _STLP_USE_EXCEPTIONS}, when not defined, to omit all declarations
and uses of {@code __Named_exception}. Compiling and use of {@code __Named_exception}
settings only occurs when {@code STLport} is allowed to use exceptions.</li>
<li>Fixed building of Linux-only NDK packages without also building Windows code. Use the
following settings to perform this type of build:
<pre>./build/tools/ --force --systems=linux-x86</pre></li>
<li>Fixed {@code} so it does not export {@code atexit()} and {@code __do_handler}.
These symbols are exported for ARM builds by the system version of the C library to
support legacy native libraries. NDK-generated should never reference them directly.
Instead, each shared library or executable should embed its own version of these symbols,
provided by {@code crtbegin_*.o}.
<p>If your project is linked with the {@code -nostdlib -Wl,--no-undefined} options, you
must provide your own {@code __dso_handle} because {@code crtbegin_so.o} is not linked in
this case. The content of {@code __dso_handle} does not matter, as shown in the following
example code:</p>
extern "C" {
extern void *__dso_handle __attribute__((__visibility__ ("hidden")));
void *__dso_handle;
<li>Fixed symbol decoder for ARM used in {@code objdump} for {@code plt} entries to
generate a more readable form {@code function@plt}.</li>
<li>Removed the following symbols, introduced in GCC 4.6 {@code libgcc.a}, from
the X86 platform {@code} library: {@code __aeabi_idiv0}, {@code __aeabi_ldiv0},
{@code __aeabi_unwind_cpp_pr1}, and {@code __aeabi_unwind_cpp_pr2}.</li>
<li>Removed unused {@code .ctors}, {@code .dtors}, and {@code .eh_frame} in MIPS
{@code crt*_so.S}.</li>
<li>Updated {@code ndk-gdb} so that it only takes the last line of output for
{@code ndk-build} {@code DUMP_XXXX}. This change ensures that if {@code} or
{@code} print something with {@code $(info ...)} syntax, it does not get
injected into the result of {@code DUMP_XXXX}.
(<a href="">More info</a>)</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>Removed {@code arch-x86} and {@code arch-mips} headers from
{@code platforms/android-[3,4,5,8]}. Those headers were incomplete, since both X86 and
MIPS ABIs are only supported at API 9 or higher.</li>
<li>Simplified c++ include path in standalone packages, as shown below.
(<a href="">Issue 35279</a>)
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build} to recognize more C++ file extensions by default:
{@code .cc .cp .cxx .cpp .CPP .c++ .C}. You may still use {@code LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION} to
overwrite these extension settings.</li>
<li>Fixed an issue in {@code samples/san-angeles} that caused a black screen or freeze
frame on re-launch.</li>
<li>Replaced deprecated APIs in NDK samples.
(<a href="">Issue 20017</a>)
<li>{@code hello-gl2} from android-5 to android-7</li>
<li>{@code native-activity} from android-9 to android-10</li>
<li>{@code native-audio} from android-9 to android-10</li>
<li>{@code native-plasma} from android-9 to android-10</li>
<li>Added new branding for Android executables with a simpler scheme in section
{@code} (defined in {@code crtbegin_static/dynamic.o}) so that
debugging tools can act accordingly. The structure member and values are defined as
static const struct {
int32_t namesz; /* = 8, sizeof ("Android") */
int32_t descsz; /* = 1 * sizeof(int32_t) */
int32_t type; /* = 1, ABI_NOTETYPE */
char name[sizeof "Android"]; /* = "Android" */
int32_t android_api; /* = 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 14 */
<p>The previous branding options in section {@code .note.ABI-tag} are deprecated.</p>
<li>Added a new script {@code} which calls {@code} and
{@code standalone/} with various conditions. The script {@code} runs
without the {@code --abi} option, and is enhanced to compile most of the tests for all
supported ABIs and run on all attached devices</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 8b</a> <em>(July 2012)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>The main features of this release are a new GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 4.6 toolchain and
GNU Debugger (GDB) 7.3.x which adds debugging support for the Android 4.1 (API Level 16) system
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed {@code LOCAL_SHORT_COMMANDS} issues on Mac OS, Windows Cygwin environments for
static libraries. List file generation is faster, and it is not regenerated to avoid repeated
project rebuilds.</li>
<li>Fixed several issues in {@code ndk-gdb}:
<li>Updated tool to pass flags {@code -e}, {@code -d} and {@code -s} to adb more
<li>Updated tool to accept device serial names containing spaces.</li>
<li>Updated tool to retrieve {@code /system/bin/link} information, so {@code gdb} on
the host can set a breakpoint in {@code __dl_rtld_db_dlactivity} and be aware of linker activity
(e.g., rescan {@code solib} symbols when {@code dlopen()} is called).</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build clean} on Windows, which was failing to remove
{@code ./libs/*/lib*.so}.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build.cmd} to return a non-zero {@code ERRORLEVEL} when {@code make}
<li>Fixed {@code} to stop incorrectly exporting the {@code __exidx_start} and
{@code __exidx_end} symbols.</li>
<li>Fixed {@code SEGV} when unwinding the stack past {@code __libc_init} for ARM and
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added GCC 4.6 toolchain ({@code binutils} 2.21 with {@code gold} and GDB 7.3.x) to
co-exist with the original GCC 4.4.3 toolchain ({@code binutils} 2.19 and GDB 6.6).
<li>GCC 4.6 is now the default toolchain. You may set {@code
NDK_TOOLCHAIN_VERSION=4.4.3} in {@code} to select the original one.</li>
<li>Support for the {@code gold} linker is only available for ARM and x86
architectures on Linux and Mac OS hosts. This support is disabled by default. Add {@code
LOCAL_LDLIBS += -fuse-ld=gold} in {@code} to enable it.</li>
<li>Programs compiled with {@code -fPIE} require the new {@code GDB} for debugging,
including binaries in Android 4.1 (API Level 16) system images.</li>
<li>The {@code binutils} 2.21 {@code ld} tool contains back-ported fixes from
version 2.22:
<li>Fixed {@code ld --gc-sections}, which incorrectly retains zombie references to
external libraries. (<a href="">more
<li>Fixed ARM {@code strip} command to preserve the original {@code p_align} and
{@code p_flags} in {@code GNU_RELRO} section if they are valid. Without this fix, programs
built with {@code -fPIE} could not be debugged. (<a
e info</a>)</li>
<li>Disabled {@code sincos()} optimization for compatibility with older
<li>Updated build options to enable the Never eXecute (NX) bit and {@code relro}/{@code
bind_now} protections by default:
<li>Added {@code --noexecstack} to assembler and {@code -z noexecstack} to linker
that provides NX protection against buffer overflow attacks by enabling NX bit on stack and
<li>Added {@code -z relro} and {@code -z now} to linker for hardening of internal
data sections after linking to guard against security vulnerabilities caused by memory corruption.
(more info: <a href="">1</a>,
<a href="">2</a>)</li>
<li>These features can be disabled using the following options:
<li>Disable NX protection by setting the {@code --execstack} option for the
assembler and {@code -z execstack} for the linker.</li>
<li>Disable hardening of internal data by setting the {@code -z norelro} and
{@code -z lazy} options for the linker.</li>
<li>Disable these protections in the NDK {@code jni/} by setting the
following options:
LOCAL_DISABLE_NO_EXECUTE=true # disable "--noexecstack" and "-z noexecstack"
DISABLE_RELRO=true # disable "-z relro" and "-z now"
<p>See {@code docs/ANDROID-MK.html} for more details.</p>
<li>Added branding for Android executables with the {@code .note.ABI-tag} section (in
{@code crtbegin_static/dynamic.o}) so that debugging tools can act accordingly. The structure
member and values are defined as follows:
static const struct {
int32_t namesz; /* = 4, sizeof ("GNU") */
int32_t descsz; /* = 6 * sizeof(int32_t) */
int32_t type; /* = 1 */
char name[sizeof "GNU"]; /* = "GNU" */
int32_t os; /* = 0 */
int32_t major; /* = 2 */
int32_t minor; /* = 6 */
int32_t teeny; /* = 15 */
int32_t os_variant; /* = 1 */
int32_t android_api; /* = 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 14 */
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed {@code mips-linux-gnu} relocation truncated to fit {@code R_MIPS_TLS_LDM} issue.
(<a href="">more info</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ld} tool segfaults when using {@code --gc-sections}.
(<a href="">more info</a>)
<li>Fixed MIPS {@code GOT_PAGE} counting issue.
(<a href="">more info</a>)</li>
<li>Fixed follow warning symbol link for {@code mips_elf_count_got_symbols}.</li>
<li>Fixed follow warning symbol link for {@code mips_elf_allocate_lazy_stub}.</li>
<li>Moved MIPS {@code .dynamic} to the data segment, so that it is writable.</li>
<li>Replaced hard-coded values for symbols with correct segment sizes for MIPS.</li>
<li>Removed the {@code -mno-shared} option from the defaults in the MIPS toolchain.
The default for Android toolchain is {@code -fPIC} (or {@code -fpic} if supported). If you do not
explicitly specify {@code -mshared}, {@code -fpic}, {@code -fPIC}, {@code -fpie}, or {@code -fPIE},
the MIPS compiler adds {@code -mno-shared} that turns off PIC. Fixed compiler not to add
{@code -mno-shared} in this case.</li>
<li>Fixed wrong package names in samples {@code hello-jni} and {@code two-libs} so that
the {@code tests} project underneath it can compile.</li>
<dt>Other Changes:</dt>
<li>Changed locations of binaries:
<li>Moved {@code gdbserver} from
{@code toolchain/&lt;arch-os-ver&gt;/prebuilt/gdbserver} to
{@code prebuilt/android-&lt;arch&gt;/gdbserver/gdbserver}.</li>
<li>Renamed x86 toolchain prefix from {@code i686-android-linux-} to
{@code i686-linux-android-}.</li>
<li>Moved {@code sources/cxx-stl/gnu-libstdc++/include} and {@code lib} to
{@code sources/cxx-stl/gnu-libstdc++/4.6} when compiled with GCC 4.6, or
{@code sources/cxx-stl/gnu-libstdc++/4.4.3} when compiled with GCC 4.4.3.</li>
<li>Moved {@code libbfd.a} and {@code libintl.a} from {@code lib/} to {@code
<li>Added and improved various scripts in the rebuild and test NDK toolchain:
<li>Added {@code} to generate a new Linux-hosted toolchain
that generates Win32 and Win64 executables.</li>
<li>Improved speed of {@code} by using the {@code
clone} command and only using {@code checkout} for the directories that are needed to build the NDK
toolchain binaries.</li>
<li>Added {@code} and {@code} scripts.</li>
<li>Added {@code tests/} to check the content of a given NDK
installation directory, or an existing NDK package.</li>
<li>Rewrote the {@code tests/standalone/} standalone tests .</li>
<li>Removed {@code if_dl.h} header from all platforms and architectures. The {@code
AF_LINK} and {@code sockaddr_dl} elements it describes are specific to BSD (i.e., they don't exist
in Linux).</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 8</a> <em>(May 2012)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK includes support for MIPS ABI and a few additional fixes.</p>
<dt>New features:</dt>
<li>Added support for the MIPS ABI, which allows you to generate machine code that runs on
compatible MIPS-based Android devices. Major features for MIPS include MIPS-specific
toolchains, system headers, libraries and debugging support. For more details regarding
MIPS support, see {@code docs/CPU-MIPS.html} in the NDK package.
<p>By default, code is generated for ARM-based devices. You can add {@code mips} to
your {@code APP_ABI} definition in your {@code} file to build
for MIPS platforms. For example, the following line instructs {@code ndk-build}
to build your code for three distinct ABIs:</p>
<pre>APP_ABI := armeabi armeabi-v7a <strong>mips</strong></pre>
<p>Unless you rely on architecture-specific assembly sources, such as ARM assembly
code, you should not need to touch your {@code} files to build MIPS
machine code.</p>
<li>You can build a standalone MIPS toolchain using the {@code --arch=mips}
option when calling <code></code>. See
{@code docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html} for more details.
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong> To ensure that your applications are available
to users only if their devices are capable of running them, Google Play filters applications based
on the instruction set information included in your application ? no action is needed on your part
to enable the filtering. Additionally, the Android system itself also checks your application at
install time and allows the installation to continue only if the application provides a library that
is compiled for the device's CPU architecture.</p>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed a typo in GAbi++ implementation where the result of {@code
dynamic_cast&lt;D&gt;(b)} of base class object {@code b} to derived class {@code D} is
incorrectly adjusted in the opposite direction from the base class.
(<a href="">Issue 28721</a>)
<li>Fixed an issue in which {@code} fails to copy
{@code libsupc++.*}.</li>
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build.cmd} to ensure that {@code ndk-build.cmd} works correctly even
if the user has redefined the {@code SHELL} environment variable, which may be changed
when installing a variety of development tools in Windows environments.
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 7c</a> <em>(April 2012)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK includes an important fix for Tegra2-based devices, and a few
additional fixes and improvements:</p>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed GNU STL armeabi-v7a binaries to not crash on non-NEON
devices. The files provided with NDK r7b were not configured properly,
resulting in crashes on Tegra2-based devices and others when trying to use
certain floating-point functions (e.g., {@code cosf}, {@code sinf}, {@code expf}).</li>
<dt>Important changes:</dt>
<li>Added support for custom output directories through the {@code NDK_OUT}
environment variable. When defined, this variable is used to store all
intermediate generated files, instead of {@code $PROJECT_PATH/obj}. The variable is
also recognized by {@code ndk-gdb}. </li>
<li>Added support for building modules with hundreds or even thousands of source
files by defining {@code LOCAL_SHORT_COMMANDS} to {@code true} in your {@code}.
<p>This change forces the NDK build system to put most linker or archiver options
into list files, as a work-around for command-line length limitations.
See {@code docs/ANDROID-MK.html} for details.</p>
<dt>Other bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Fixed {@code android_getCpuCount()} implementation in the {@code cpufeatures}
helper library. On certain devices, where cores are enabled dynamically by the system, the previous
implementation would report the total number of <em>active</em> cores the first time the function
was called, rather than the total number of <em>physically available</em> cores.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 7b</a> <em>(February 2012)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK includes fixes for native Windows builds, Cygwin and many other
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li>Updated {@code sys/atomics.h} to avoid correctness issues
on some multi-core ARM-based devices. Rebuild your unmodified sources with this
version of the NDK and this problem should be completely eliminated.
For more details, read {@code docs/ANDROID-ATOMICS.html}.</li>
<li>Reverted to {@code binutils} 2.19 to fix debugging issues that
appeared in NDK r7 (which switched to {@code binutils} 2.20.1).</li>
<li>Fixed {@code ndk-build} on 32-bit Linux. A packaging error put a 64-bit version
of the {@code awk} executable under {@code prebuilt/linux-x86/bin} in NDK r7.</li>
<li>Fixed native Windows build ({@code ndk-build.cmd}). Other build modes were not
affected. The fixes include:
<li>Removed an infinite loop / stack overflow bug that happened when trying
to call {@code ndk-build.cmd} from a directory that was <em>not</em> the top of
your project path (e.g., in any sub-directory of it).</li>
<li>Fixed a problem where the auto-generated dependency files were ignored. This
meant that updating a header didn't trigger recompilation of sources that included
<li>Fixed a problem where special characters in files or paths, other than spaces and
quotes, were not correctly handled.</li>
<li>Fixed the standalone toolchain to generate proper binaries when using
{@code -lstdc++} (i.e., linking against the GNU {@code libstdc++} C++ runtime). You
should use {@code -lgnustl_shared} if you want to link against the shared library
version or {@code -lstdc++} for the static version.
<p>See {@code docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html} for more details about this fix.</p>
<li>Fixed {@code gnustl_shared} on Cygwin. The linker complained that it couldn't find
{@code libsupc++.a} even though the file was at the right location.</li>
<li>Fixed Cygwin C++ link when not using any specific C++ runtime through
{@code APP_STL}.</li>
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<li>When your application uses the GNU {@code libstdc++} runtime, the compiler will
no longer forcibly enable exceptions and RTTI. This change results in smaller code.
<p>If you need these features, you must do one of the following:</p>
<li>Enable exceptions and/or RTTI explicitly in your modules or
{@code}. (recommended)</li>
<li>Define {@code APP_GNUSTL_FORCE_CPP_FEATURES} to {@code 'exceptions'},
{@code 'rtti'} or both in your {@code}. See
{@code docs/APPLICATION-MK.html} for more details.</li>
<li>{@code ndk-gdb} now works properly when your application has private services
running in independent processes. It debugs the main application process, instead of the
first process listed by {@code ps}, which is usually a service process.</li>
<li>Fixed a rare bug where NDK r7 would fail to honor the {@code LOCAL_ARM_MODE} value
and always compile certain source files (but not all) to 32-bit instructions.</li>
<li>{@code STLport}: Refresh the sources to match the Android platform version. This
update fixes a few minor bugs:
<li>Fixed instantiation of an incomplete type</li>
<li>Fixed minor "==" versus "=" typo</li>
<li>Used {@code memmove} instead of {@code memcpy} in {@code string::assign}</li>
<li>Added better handling of {@code IsNANorINF}, {@code IsINF}, {@code IsNegNAN},
<p>For complete details, see the commit log.</p>
<li>{@code STLport}: Removed 5 unnecessary static initializers from the library.</li>
<li>The GNU libstdc++ libraries for armeabi-v7a were mistakenly compiled for
armeabi instead. This change had no impact on correctness, but using the right
ABI should provide slightly better performance.</li>
<li>The {@code cpu-features} helper library was updated to report three optional
x86 CPU features ({@code SSSE3}, {@code MOVBE} and {@code POPCNT}). See
{@code docs/CPU-FEATURES.html} for more details.</li>
<li>{@code docs/NDK-BUILD.html} was updated to mention {@code NDK_APPLICATION_MK} instead
of {@code NDK_APP_APPLICATION_MK} to select a custom {@code} file.</li>
<li>Cygwin: {@code ndk-build} no longer creates an empty "NUL" file in the current
directory when invoked.</li>
<li>Cygwin: Added better automatic dependency detection. In the previous version, it
didn't work properly in the following cases:
<li>When the Cygwin drive prefix was not {@code /cygdrive}.</li>
<li>When using drive-less mounts, for example, when Cygwin would translate
{@code /home} to {@code \\server\subdir} instead of {@code C:\Some\Dir}.</li>
<li>Cygwin: {@code ndk-build} does not try to use the native Windows tools under
{@code $NDK/prebuilt/windows/bin} with certain versions of Cygwin and/or GNU Make.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 7</a> <em>(November 2011)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK includes new features to support the Android 4.0 platform as well
as many other additions and improvements:</p>
<dt>New features</dt>
<li>Added official NDK APIs for Android 4.0 (API level 14), which adds the following
native features to the platform:
<li>Added native multimedia API based on the Khronos Group OpenMAX AL? 1.0.1
standard. The new <code>&lt;OMXAL/OpenMAXAL.h&gt;</code> and
<code>&lt;OMXAL/OpenMAXAL_Android.h&gt;</code> headers allow applications targeting
API level 14 to perform multimedia output directly from native code by using a new
Android-specific buffer queue interface. For more details, see
<code>docs/openmaxal/index.html</code> and <a href=
<li>Updated the native audio API based on the Khronos Group OpenSL ES 1.0.1?
standard. With API Level 14, you can now decode compressed audio (e.g. MP3, AAC,
Vorbis) to PCM. For more details, see <code>docs/opensles/index.html</code> and
<a href=
<li>Added CCache support. To speed up large rebuilds, define the
<code>NDK_CCACHE</code> environment variable to <code>ccache</code> (or the path to
your <code>ccache</code> binary). When declared, the NDK build system automatically
uses CCache when compiling any source file. For example:
export NDK_CCACHE=ccache
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong> CCache is not included in the NDK release
so you must have it installed prior to using it. For more information about CCache, see
<a href=""></a>.</p>
<li>Added support for setting <code>APP_ABI</code> to <code>all</code> to indicate that
you want to build your NDK modules for all the ABIs supported by your given NDK
release. This means that either one of the following two lines in your
<code></code> are equivalent with this release:
APP_ABI := all
APP_ABI := armeabi armeabi-v7a x86
<p>This also works if you define <code>APP_ABI</code> when calling
<code>ndk-build</code> from the command-line, which is a quick way to check that your
project builds for all supported ABIs without changing the project's
<code> file</code>. For example:</p>
ndk-build APP_ABI=all
<li>Added a <code>LOCAL_CPP_FEATURES</code> variable in <code></code> that
allows you to declare which C++ features (RTTI or Exceptions) your module uses. This
ensures that the final linking works correctly if you have prebuilt modules that depend
on these features. See <code>docs/ANDROID-MK.html</code> and
<code>docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html</code> for more details.</li>
<li>Shortened paths to source and object files that are used in build commands. When
invoking <code>$NDK/ndk-build</code> from your project path, the paths to the source,
object, and binary files that are passed to the build commands are significantly
shorter now, because they are passed relative to the current directory. This is useful
when building projects with a lot of source files, to avoid limits on the maximum
command line length supported by your host operating system. The behavior is unchanged
if you invoke <code>ndk-build</code> from a sub-directory of your project tree, or if
you define <code>NDK_PROJECT_PATH</code> to point to a specific directory.</li>
<dt>Experimental features</dt>
You can now build your NDK source files on Windows <em>without</em> Cygwin by calling the
<code>ndk-build.cmd</code> script from the command line from your project path. The
script takes exactly the same arguments as the original <code>ndk-build</code> script.
The Windows NDK package comes with its own prebuilt binaries for GNU Make, Awk and other
tools required by the build. You should not need to install anything else to get a
working build system.
<p class="caution"><strong>Important:</strong> <code>ndk-gdb</code> does not work on
Windows, so you still need Cygwin to debug.</p>
<p>This feature is still experimental, so feel free to try it and report issues on the
<a href="">public bug database</a> or <a href=
"">public forum</a>. All samples and unit tests
shipped with the NDK succesfully compile with this feature.</p>
<dt>Important bug fixes</dt>
<li>Imported shared libraries are now installed by default to the target installation
location (<code>libs/&lt;abi&gt;</code>) if <code>APP_MODULES</code> is not defined in
your <code></code>. For example, if a top-level module <code>foo</code>
imports a module <code>bar</code>, then both <code></code> and
<code></code> are copied to the install location. Previously, only
<code></code> was copied, unless you listed <code>bar</code> in your
<code>APP_MODULES</code> too. If you define <code>APP_MODULES</code> explicitly, the
behavior is unchanged.</li>
<li><code>ndk-gdb</code> now works correctly for activities with multiple categories in
their MAIN intent filters.</li>
<li>Static library imports are now properly transitive. For example, if a top-level
module <code>foo</code> imports static library <code>bar</code> that imports static
library <code>zoo</code>, the <code></code> will now be linked against both
<code>libbar.a</code> and <code>libzoo.a</code>.</li>
<dt>Other changes</dt>
<li><code>docs/NATIVE-ACTIVITY.HTML</code>: Fixed typo. The minimum API level should be
9, not 8 for native activities.</li>
<li><code>docs/STABLE-APIS.html</code>: Added missing documentation listing EGL as a
supported stable API, starting from API level 9.</li>
<li><code></code>: Updated to download the toolchain
sources from <a href=""></a>,
which is the new location for the AOSP servers.</li>
<li>Added a new C++ support runtime named <code>gabi++</code>. More details about it
are available in the updated <code>docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html</code>.</li>
<li>Added a new C++ support runtime named <code>gnustl_shared</code> that corresponds
to the shared library version of GNU libstdc++ v3 (GPLv3 license). See more info at
<li>Added support for RTTI in the STLport C++ runtimes (no support for
<li>Added support for multiple file extensions in <code>LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION</code>. For
example, to compile both <code>foo.cpp</code> and <code>bar.cxx</code> as C++ sources,
declare the following:
<li>Removed many unwanted exported symbols from the link-time shared system libraries
provided by the NDK. This ensures that code generated with the standalone toolchain
doesn't risk to accidentally depend on a non-stable ABI symbol (e.g. any libgcc.a
symbol that changes each time the toolchain used to build the platform is changed)</li>
<li>Refreshed the EGL and OpenGLES Khronos headers to support more extensions. Note
that this does <em>not</em> change the NDK ABIs for the corresponding libraries,
because each extension must be probed at runtime by the client application.
<p>The extensions that are available depend on your actual device and GPU drivers,
not the platform version the device runs on. The header changes simply add new
constants and types to make it easier to use the extensions when they have been
probed with <code>eglGetProcAddress()</code> or <code>glGetProcAddress()</code>. The
following list describes the newly supported extensions:</p>
<dt>GLES 1.x</dt>
<dt>GLES 2.0</dt>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 6b</a> <em>(August 2011)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK does not include any new features compared to r6. The r6b release
addresses the following issues in the r6 release:</p>
<dt>Important bug fixes</dt>
<li>Fixed the build when <code>APP_ABI="armeabi x86"</code> is used for
multi-architecture builds.</li>
<li>Fixed the location of prebuilt STLport binaries in the NDK release package.
A bug in the packaging script placed them in the wrong location.</li>
<li>Fixed <code>atexit()</code> usage in shared libraries with the x86standalone
<li>Fixed <code> --arch=x86</code>. It used to fail
to copy the proper GNU libstdc++ binaries to the right location.</li>
<li>Fixed the standalone toolchain linker warnings about missing the definition and
size for the <code>__dso_handle</code> symbol (ARM only).</li>
<li>Fixed the inclusion order of <code>$(SYSROOT)/usr/include</code> for x86 builds.
See the <a href="">bug</a> for
more information.</li>
<li>Fixed the definitions of <code>ptrdiff_t</code> and <code>size_t</code> in
x86-specific systems when they are used with the x86 standalone toolchain.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 6</a> <em>(July 2011)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK includes support for the x86 ABI and other minor changes.
For detailed information describing the changes in this release, read the
<code>CHANGES.HTML</code> document included in the NDK package.
<dt>General notes:</dt>
<li>Adds support for the x86 ABI, which allows you to generate machine code
that runs on compatible x86-based Android devices. Major features for x86
include x86-specific toolchains, system headers, libraries and
debugging support. For all of the details regarding x86 support,
see <code>docs/CPU-X86.html</code> in the NDK package.
<p>By default, code is generated for ARM-based devices, but you can add x86 to your
<code>APP_ABI</code> definition in your <code></code> file to build
for x86 platforms. For example, the following line instructs <code>ndk-build</code>
to build your code for three distinct ABIs:</p>
<pre>APP_ABI := armeabi armeabi-v7a x86</pre>
<p>Unless you rely on ARM-based assembly sources, you shouldn't need to touch
your <code></code> files to build x86 machine code.</p>
<li>You can build a standalone x86 toolchain using the
option when calling <code></code>. See
<code>docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html</code> for more details.
<li>The new <code>ndk-stack</code> tool lets you translate stack traces in
<code>logcat</code> that are generated by native code. The tool translates
instruction addresses into a readable format that contains things such
as the function, source file, and line number corresponding to each stack frame.
For more information and a usage example, see <code>docs/NDK-STACK.html</code>.
<dt>Other changes:</dt>
<dd><code>arm-eabi-4.4.0</code>, which had been deprecated since NDK r5, has been
removed from the NDK distribution.</dd>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 5c</a> <em>(June 2011)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK does not include any new features compared to r5b. The r5c release
addresses the following problems in the r5b release:</p>
<dt>Important bug fixes:</dt>
<li><code>ndk-build</code>: Fixed a rare bug that appeared when trying to perform parallel
builds of debuggable projects.</li>
<li>Fixed a typo that prevented <code>LOCAL_WHOLE_STATIC_LIBRARIES</code> to work
correctly with the new toolchain and added documentation for this in
<li>Fixed a bug where code linked against <code>gnustl_static</code> crashed when run on
platform releases older than API level 8 (Android 2.2).</li>
<li><code>ndk-gdb</code>: Fixed a bug that caused a segmentation fault when debugging
Android 3.0
or newer devices.</li>
<li><code>&lt;android/input.h&gt;</code>: Two functions that were introduced in API level
9 (Android 2.3) were incorrect and are fixed. While this breaks the source API, the
binary interface to the system is unchanged. The incorrect functions were missing a
<code>history_index</code> parameter, and the correct definitions are shown below:
float AMotionEvent_getHistoricalRawX(const AInputEvent* motion_event,
size_t pointer_index,
size_t history_index);
float AMotionEvent_getHistoricalRawY(const AInputEvent* motion_event,
size_t pointer_index,
size_t history_index);
<li>Updated the C library ARM binary for API level 9 (Android 2.3) to correctly expose at
link time new functions that were added in that API level (for example,
<dt>Minor improvements and fixes:</dt>
<li>Object files are now always linked in the order they appear in
<code>LOCAL_SRC_FILES</code>. This was not the case previously because the files were
grouped by source extensions instead.</li>
<li>When <code>import-module</code> fails, it now prints the list of directories that
were searched. This is useful to check that the <code>NDK_MODULE_PATH</code> definition
used by the build system is correct.</li>
<li>When <code>import-module</code> succeeds, it now prints the directory where the
module was found to the log (visible with <code>NDK_LOG=1</code>).</li>
<li>Increased the build speed of debuggable applications when there is a very large number
of include directories in the project.</li>
<li><code>ndk-gdb</code>: Better detection of <code>adb shell</code> failures and improved
error messages.</li>
<li><code>&lt;pthread.h&gt;</code>: Fixed the definition of
<code>PTHREAD_RWLOCK_INITIALIZER</code> for API level 9 (Android 2.3) and higher.</li>
<li>Fixed an issue where a module could import itself, resulting in an infinite loop in
GNU Make.</li>
<li>Fixed a bug that caused the build to fail if <code>LOCAL_ARM_NEON</code> was set to
true (typo in <code>build/core/</code>).</li>
<li>Fixed a bug that prevented the compilation of <code>.s</code> assembly files
(<code>.S</code> files were okay).</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 5b</a> <em>(January 2011)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK does not include any new features compared to r5. The r5b release
addresses the
following problems in the r5 release:
<li>The r5 binaries required glibc 2.11, but the r5b binaries are generated with a special
toolchain that targets glibc 2.7 or higher instead. The Linux toolchain binaries now run on
Ubuntu 8.04 or higher. </li>
<li>Fixes a compiler bug in the arm-linux-androideabi-4.4.3 toolchain.
The previous binary generated invalid thumb instruction sequences when
dealing with signed chars.</li>
<li>Adds missing documentation for the
"gnustl_static" value for APP_STL, that allows you to link against
a static library version of GNU libstdc++. </li> the
<li>Fixed the following <code>ndk-build</code> issues:
<li>A bug that created inconsistent dependency files when a
compilation error occured on Windows. This prevented a proper build after
the error was fixed in the source code.</li>
<li>A Cygwin-specific bug where using very short paths for
the Android NDK installation or the project path led to the
generation of invalid dependency files. This made incremental builds
<li>A typo that prevented the cpufeatures library from working correctly
with the new NDK toolchain.</li>
<li>Builds in Cygwin are faster by avoiding calls to <code>cygpath -m</code>
from GNU Make for every source or object file, which caused problems
with very large source trees. In case this doesn't work properly, define
<code>NDK_USE_CYGPATH=1</code> in your
environment to use <code>cygpath -m</code> again.</li>
<li>The Cygwin installation now notifies the user of invalid installation paths that
contain spaces. Previously, an invalid path
would output an error that complained about an incorrect version of GNU Make, even if the
right one was installed.
<li>Fixed a typo that prevented the <code>NDK_MODULE_PATH</code> environment variable from
working properly when
it contained multiple directories separated with a colon. </li>
<li>The <code></code> script contains fixes to check the compiler for 64-bit
generated machine code, instead of relying on the host tag, which
allows the 32-bit toolchain to rebuild properly on Snow Leopard. The toolchain rebuild scripts
now also support
using a 32-bit host toolchain.</li>
<li>A missing declaration for <code>INET_ADDRSTRLEN</code> was added to
<li>Missing declarations for <code>IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_NODELOCAL</code> and
<code>IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_GLOBAL</code> were added to <code>&lt;netinet/in6.h&gt;</code>.</li>
<li>'asm' was replaced with '__asm__' in <code>&lt;asm/byteorder.h&gt;</code> to allow
compilation with <code>-std=c99</code>.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 5</a> <em>(December 2010)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>This release of the NDK includes many new APIs, most of which are introduced to
support the development of games and similar applications that make extensive use
of native code. Using the APIs, developers have direct native access to events, audio,
graphics and window management, assets, and storage. Developers can also implement the
Android application lifecycle in native code with help from the new
{@link} class. For detailed information describing the changes
in this
release, read the <code>CHANGES.HTML</code> document included in the downloaded NDK
<dt>General notes:</dt>
<li>Adds support for native activities, which allows you to implement the
Android application lifecycle in native code.</li>
<li>Adds native support for the following:
<li>Input subsystem (such as the keyboard and touch screen)</li>
<li>Access to sensor data (accelerometer, compass, gyroscope, etc).</li>
<li>Event loop APIs to wait for things such as input and sensor events.</li>
<li>Window and surface subsystem</li>
<li>Audio APIs based on the OpenSL ES standard that support playback and recording
as well as control over platform audio effects</li>
<li>Access to assets packaged in an <code>.apk</code> file.</li>
<li>Includes a new toolchain (based on GCC 4.4.3), which generates better code, and can
also now
be used as a standalone cross-compiler, for people who want to build their stuff with
<code>./configure &amp;&amp; make</code>. See
docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html for the details. The binaries for GCC 4.4.0 are still
but the 4.2.1 binaries were removed.</li>
<li>Adds support for prebuilt static and shared libraries (docs/PREBUILTS.html) and
exports and imports to make sharing and reuse of third-party modules much easier
(docs/IMPORT-MODULE.html explains why).</li>
<li>Provides a default C++ STL implementation (based on STLport) as a helper module. It
can be used either
as a static or shared library (details and usage examples are in
sources/android/stlport/README). Prebuilt
binaries for STLport (static or shared) and GNU libstdc++ (static only) are also
provided if you choose to
compile against those libraries instead of the default C++ STL implementation.
C++ Exceptions and RTTI are not supported in the default STL implementation. For more
information, see
<li>Includes improvements to the <code>cpufeatures</code> helper library that improves
of the CPU type (some devices previously reported ARMv7 CPU when the device really was
an ARMv6). We
recommend developers that use this library to rebuild their applications then
upload to Google Play to benefit from the improvements.</li>
<li>Adds an EGL library that lets you create and manage OpenGL ES textures and
<li>Adds new sample applications, <code>native-plasma</code> and
to demonstrate how to write a native activity.</li>
<li>Includes many bugfixes and other small improvements; see docs/CHANGES.html for a
detailed list of changes.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 4b</a> <em>(June 2010)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>NDK r4b notes:</dt>
<p>Includes fixes for several issues in the NDK build and debugging scripts &mdash; if
you are using NDK r4, we recommend downloading the NDK r4b build. For detailed
information describing the changes in this release, read the CHANGES.TXT document
included in the downloaded NDK package.</p>
<dt>General notes:</dt>
<li>Provides a simplified build system through the new <code>ndk-build</code> build
<li>Adds support for easy native debugging of generated machine code on production
devices through the new <code>ndk-gdb</code> command.</li>
<li>Adds a new Android-specific ABI for ARM-based CPU architectures,
<code>armeabi-v7a</code>. The new ABI extends the existing <code>armeabi</code> ABI to
include these CPU instruction set extensions:
<li>Thumb-2 instructions</li>
<li>VFP hardware FPU instructions (VFPv3-D16)</li>
<li>Optional support for ARM Advanced SIMD (NEON) GCC intrinsics and VFPv3-D32.
Supported by devices such as Verizon Droid by Motorola, Google Nexus One, and
<li>Adds a new <code>cpufeatures</code> static library (with sources) that lets your
app detect the host device's CPU features at runtime. Specifically, applications can
check for ARMv7-A support, as well as VFPv3-D32 and NEON support, then provide separate
code paths as needed.</li>
<li>Adds a sample application, <code>hello-neon</code>, that illustrates how to use the
<code>cpufeatures</code> library to check CPU features and then provide an optimized
code path using NEON instrinsics, if supported by the CPU.</li>
<li>Lets you generate machine code for either or both of the instruction sets supported
by the NDK. For example, you can build for both ARMv5 and ARMv7-A architectures at the
same time and have everything stored to your application's final
<li>To ensure that your applications are available to users only if their devices are
capable of running them, Google Play now filters applications based on the
instruction set information included in your application &mdash; no action is needed on
your part to enable the filtering. Additionally, the Android system itself also checks
your application at install time and allows the installation to continue only if the
application provides a library that is compiled for the device's CPU architecture.</li>
<li>Adds support for Android 2.2, including a new stable API for accessing the pixel
buffers of {@link} objects from native code.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 3</a> <em>(March 2010)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<dt>General notes:</dt>
<li>Adds OpenGL ES 2.0 native library support.</li>
<li>Adds a sample application,<code>hello-gl2</code>, that illustrates the use of
OpenGL ES 2.0 vertex and fragment shaders.</li>
<li>The toolchain binaries have been refreshed for this release with GCC 4.4.0, which
should generate slightly more compact and efficient machine code than the previous one
(4.2.1). The NDK also still provides the 4.2.1 binaries, which you can optionally use
to build your machine code.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 2</a> <em>(September 2009)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>Originally released as "Android 1.6 NDK, Release 1".</p>
<dt>General notes:</dt>
<li>Adds OpenGL ES 1.1 native library support.</li>
<li>Adds a sample application, <code>san-angeles</code>, that renders 3D graphics
through the native OpenGL ES APIs, while managing activity lifecycle with a {@link
android.opengl.GLSurfaceView} object.</li>
<div class="toggle-content closed">
<p><a href="#" onclick="return toggleContent(this)">
<img src="{@docRoot}assets/images/triangle-closed.png" class="toggle-content-img"
alt="">Android NDK, Revision 1</a> <em>(June 2009)</em>
<div class="toggle-content-toggleme">
<p>Originally released as "Android 1.5 NDK, Release 1".</p>
<dt>General notes:</dt>
<li>Includes compiler support (GCC) for ARMv5TE instructions, including Thumb-1
<li>Includes system headers for stable native APIs, documentation, and sample
<!-- ####################### END OF RELEASE NOTES ####################### -->
<h2 id="Reqs">System and Software Requirements</h2>
<p>The sections below describe the system and software requirements for using the Android NDK, as
well as platform compatibility considerations that affect appplications using libraries produced
with the NDK.</p>
<h4>The Android SDK</h4>
<li>A complete Android SDK installation (including all dependencies) is required.</li>
<li>Android 1.5 SDK or later version is required.</li>
<h4>Supported operating systems</h4>
<li>Windows XP (32-bit) or Vista (32- or 64-bit)</li>
<li>Mac OS X 10.4.8 or later (x86 only)</li>
<li>Linux (32 or 64-bit; Ubuntu 8.04, or other Linux distributions using GLibc 2.7 or
<h4>Required development tools</h4>
<li>For all development platforms, GNU Make 3.81 or later is required. Earlier versions of GNU
Make might work but have not been tested.</li>
<li>A recent version of awk (either GNU Awk or Nawk) is also required.</li>
<li>For Windows, <a href="">Cygwin</a> 1.7 or higher is required. The NDK
will <em>not</em> work with Cygwin 1.5 installations.</li>
<h4 id="platform-compat">Android platform compatibility</h4>
<li>The native libraries created by the Android NDK can only be used on devices running
specific minimum Android platform versions. The minimum required platform version depends on
the CPU architecture of the devices you are targeting. The following table details which
Android platform versions are compatible with native code developed for specific CPU
<table style="margin:1em;">
<th>Native Code CPU Architecture Used</th>
<th>Compatible Android Platform(s)</th>
<td>ARM, ARM-NEON</td>
<td>Android 1.5 (API Level 3) and higher</td>
<td>Android 2.3 (API Level 9) and higher</td>
<td>Android 2.3 (API Level 9) and higher</td>
<p>These requirements mean you can use native libraries produced with the NDK in
applications that are deployable to ARM-based devices running Android 1.5 or later. If you are
deploying native libraries to x86 and MIPS-based devices, your application must target Android
2.3 or later.</p>
<li>To ensure compatibility, an application using a native library produced with the NDK
<em>must</em> declare a <a href="{@docRoot}guide/topics/manifest/uses-sdk-element.html"><code>
&lt;uses-sdk&gt;</code></a> element in its manifest file, with an
<code>android:minSdkVersion</code> attribute value of "3" or higher. For example:
<pre style="margin:1em;">
&lt;uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="3" /&gt;
<li>If you use this NDK to create a native library that uses the OpenGL ES APIs, the
application containing the library can be deployed only to devices running the minimum platform
versions described in the table below. To ensure compatibility, make sure that your application
declares the proper <code>android:minSdkVersion</code> attribute value, as shown in the
following table.</li>
<li style="list-style: none; display: inline">
<table style="margin:1em;">
<th>OpenGL ES Version Used</th>
<th>Compatible Android Platform(s)</th>
<th>Required uses-sdk Attribute</th>
<td>OpenGL ES 1.1</td>
<td>Android 1.6 (API Level 4) and higher</td>
<td>OpenGL ES 2.0</td>
<td>Android 2.0 (API Level 5) and higher</td>
<p>For more information about API Level and its relationship to Android platform versions,
see <a href="{@docRoot}guide/topics/manifest/uses-sdk-element.html#ApiLevels">Android API
<li>Additionally, an application using the OpenGL ES APIs should declare a
<code>&lt;uses-feature&gt;</code> element in its manifest, with an
<code>android:glEsVersion</code> attribute that specifies the minimum OpenGl ES version
required by the application. This ensures that Google Play will show your application only
to users whose devices are capable of supporting your application. For example:
<pre style="margin:1em;">
<!-- Declare that the application uses the OpenGL ES 2.0 API and is designed
to run only on devices that support OpenGL ES 2.0 or higher. -->
&lt;uses-feature android:glEsVersion="0x00020000" /&gt;
<p>For more information, see the <a href=
<li>If you use this NDK to create a native library that uses the API to access Android {@link} pixel buffers or utilizes native activities, the application
containing the library can be deployed only to devices running Android 2.2 (API level 8) or
higher. To ensure compatibility, make sure that your application declares <code>&lt;uses-sdk
android:minSdkVersion="8" /&gt;</code> attribute value in its manifest.</li>
<h2 id="Installing">Installing the NDK</h2>
<p>Installing the NDK on your development computer is straightforward and involves extracting the
NDK from its download package.</p>
<p>Before you get started make sure that you have downloaded the latest <a href=
"{@docRoot}sdk/index.html">Android SDK</a> and upgraded your applications and environment as
needed. The NDK is compatible with older platform versions but not older versions of the SDK
Also, take a moment to review the <a href="#Reqs">System and
Software Requirements</a>
for the NDK, if you haven't already.</p>
<p>To install the NDK, follow these steps:</p>
<li>From the table at the top of this page, select the NDK package that is appropriate for your
development computer and download the package.</li>
<li>Uncompress the NDK download package using tools available on your computer. When
uncompressed, the NDK files are contained in a directory called
<code>android-ndk-&lt;version&gt;</code>. You can rename the NDK directory if necessary and you
can move it to any location on your computer. This documentation refers to the NDK directory as
<p>You are now ready to start working with the NDK.</p>
<h2 id="GetStarted">Getting Started with the NDK</h2>
<p>Once you've installed the NDK successfully, take a few minutes to read the documentation
included in the NDK. You can find the documentation in the <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/docs/</code>
directory. In particular, please read the OVERVIEW.HTML document completely, so that you
understand the intent of the NDK and how to use it.</p>
<p>If you used a previous version of the NDK, take a moment to review the list of NDK changes in
the CHANGES.HTML document.</p>
<p>Here's the general outline of how you work with the NDK tools:</p>
<li>Place your native sources under <code>&lt;project&gt;/jni/...</code></li>
<li>Create <code>&lt;project&gt;/jni/</code> to describe your native sources to the
NDK build system</li>
<li>Optional: Create <code>&lt;project&gt;/jni/</code>.</li>
<li>Build your native code by running the 'ndk-build' script from your project's directory. It
is located in the top-level NDK directory:
<pre class="no-pretty-print">cd &lt;project&gt;
<p>The build tools copy the stripped, shared libraries needed by your application to the
proper location in the application's project directory.</p>
<li>Finally, compile your application using the SDK tools in the usual way. The SDK build tools
will package the shared libraries in the application's deployable <code>.apk</code> file.</li>
<p>For complete information on all of the steps listed above, please see the documentation
included with the NDK package.</p>
<h3 id="Using">Using the NDK</h3>
<p>The Android framework provides two ways to use native code:</p>
<li>Write your application using the Android framework and use JNI to access the APIs provided
by the Android NDK. This technique allows you to take advantage of the convenience of the
Android framework, but still allows you to write native code when necessary. If you use this
approach, your application must target specific, minimum Android platform levels, see <a
href="#platform-compat">Android platform compatibility</a> for more information.</li>
<p>Write a native activity, which allows you to implement the lifecycle callbacks in native
code. The Android SDK provides the {@link} class, which is a
convenience class that notifies your
native code of any activity lifecycle callbacks (<code>onCreate()</code>,
<code>onResume()</code>, etc). You can implement the callbacks in your native code to handle
these events when they occur. Applications that use native activities must be run on Android
2.3 (API Level 9) or later.</p>
<p>You cannot access features such as Services and Content Providers natively, so if you want
to use them or any other framework API, you can still write JNI code to do so.</p>
<h2 id="Contents">Contents of the NDK</h2>
<p>The NDK contains the APIs, documentation, and sample
applications that help you write your native code. Specifically:</p>
<li>A set of tools and build files used to generate native code libraries from C and C++
<li>A way to embed the corresponding native libraries into an application package file
(<code>.apk</code>) that can be deployed on Android devices</li>
<li>A set of native system headers and libraries that will be supported in all future versions
of the Android platform, starting from Android 1.5. Applications that use native activities
must be run on Android 2.3 or later.</li>
<li>Documentation, samples, and tutorials</li>
<p>The latest release of the NDK supports the following instruction sets:</p>
<li>ARMv5TE, including Thumb-1 instructions (see {@code docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.html} for more
<li>ARMv7-A, including Thumb-2 and VFPv3-D16 instructions, with optional support for
NEON/VFPv3-D32 instructions (see {@code docs/CPU-ARM-NEON.html} for more information)</li>
<li>x86 instructions (see {@code docs/CPU-X86.html} for more information)</li>
<li>MIPS instructions (see {@code docs/CPU-MIPS.html} for more information)</li>
<p>ARMv5TE machine code will run on all ARM-based Android devices. ARMv7-A will run only on
devices such as the Verizon Droid or Google Nexus One that have a compatible CPU. The main
difference between the two instruction sets is that ARMv7-A supports hardware FPU, Thumb-2, and
NEON instructions. You can target either or both of the instruction sets &mdash; ARMv5TE is the
default, but switching to ARMv7-A is as easy as adding a single line to the application's
<code></code> file, without needing to change anything else in the file. You can
also build for
both architectures at the same time and have everything stored in the final <code>.apk</code>.
Complete information is provided in the CPU-ARCH-ABIS.HTML in the NDK package.</p>
<p>The NDK provides stable headers for libc (the C library), libm (the Math library), OpenGL ES
(3D graphics library), the JNI interface, and other libraries, as listed in the <a href=
"#Tools">Development tools</a> section.</p>
<h3 id="Tools">Development tools</h3>
<p>The NDK includes a set of cross-toolchains (compilers, linkers, etc..) that can generate
native ARM binaries on Linux, OS X, and Windows (with Cygwin) platforms.</p>
<p>It provides a set of system headers for stable native APIs that are guaranteed to be supported
in all later releases of the platform:</p>
<li>libc (C library) headers</li>
<li>libm (math library) headers</li>
<li>JNI interface headers</li>
<li>libz (Zlib compression) headers</li>
<li>liblog (Android logging) header</li>
<li>OpenGL ES 1.1 and OpenGL ES 2.0 (3D graphics libraries) headers</li>
<li>libjnigraphics (Pixel buffer access) header (for Android 2.2 and above).</li>
<li>A Minimal set of headers for C++ support</li>
<li>OpenSL ES native audio libraries</li>
<li>Android native application APIS</li>
<p>The NDK also provides a build system that lets you work efficiently with your sources, without
having to handle the toolchain/platform/CPU/ABI details. You create very short build files to
describe which sources to compile and which Android application will use them &mdash; the build
system compiles the sources and places the shared libraries directly in your application
<p class="caution"><strong>Important:</strong> With the exception of the libraries listed above,
native system libraries in the Android platform are <em>not</em> stable and may change in future
platform versions. Your applications should <em>only</em> make use of the stable native system
libraries provided in this NDK.</p>
<h3 id="Docs">Documentation</h3>
<p>The NDK package includes a set of documentation that describes the capabilities of the NDK and
how to use it to create shared libraries for your Android applications. In this release, the
documentation is provided only in the downloadable NDK package. You can find the documentation in
the <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/docs/</code> directory. Included are these files (partial listing):</p>
INSTALL.HTML &mdash; describes how to install the NDK and configure it for your host
<li>OVERVIEW.HTML &mdash; provides an overview of the NDK capabilities and usage</li>
<li>ANDROID-MK.HTML &mdash; describes the use of the file, which defines the native
sources you want to compile</li>
<li>APPLICATION-MK.HTML &mdash; describes the use of the file, which describes
the native sources required by your Android application</li>
<li>CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.HTML &mdash; describes the C++ support provided in the Android NDK</li>
<li>CPU-ARCH-ABIS.HTML &mdash; a description of supported CPU architectures and how to target
<li>CPU-FEATURES.HTML &mdash; a description of the <code>cpufeatures</code> static library that
lets your application code detect the target device's CPU family and the optional features at
<li>CHANGES.HTML &mdash; a complete list of changes to the NDK across all releases.</li>
<li>DEVELOPMENT.HTML &mdash; describes how to modify the NDK and generate release packages for
<li>HOWTO.HTML &mdash; information about common tasks associated with NDK development</li>
<li>IMPORT-MODULE.HTML &mdash; describes how to share and reuse modules</li>
<li>LICENSES.HTML &mdash; information about the various open source licenses that govern the
Android NDK</li>
<li>NATIVE-ACTIVITY.HTML &mdash; describes how to implement native activities</li>
<li>NDK-BUILD.HTML &mdash; describes the usage of the ndk-build script</li>
<li>NDK-GDB.HTML &mdash; describes how to use the native code debugger</li>
<li>PREBUILTS.HTML &mdash; information about how shared and static prebuilt libraries work </li>
<li>STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.HTML &mdash; describes how to use Android NDK toolchain as a standalone
compiler (still in beta).</li>
<li>SYSTEM-ISSUES.HTML &mdash; known issues in the Android system images that you should be
aware of, if you are developing using the NDK.</li>
<li>STABLE-APIS.HTML &mdash; a complete list of the stable APIs exposed by headers in the
<p>Additionally, the package includes detailed information about the "bionic" C library provided
with the Android platform that you should be aware of, if you are developing using the NDK. You
can find the documentation in the <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/docs/system/libc/</code> directory:</p>
<li>OVERVIEW.HTML &mdash; provides an overview of the "bionic" C library and the features it
<h3 id="Samples">Sample apps</h3>
<p>The NDK includes sample applications that illustrate how to use native code in your Android
<li><code>hello-jni</code> &mdash; a simple application that loads a string from a native
method implemented in a shared library and then displays it in the application UI.</li>
<li><code>two-libs</code> &mdash; a simple application that loads a shared library dynamically
and calls a native method provided by the library. In this case, the method is implemented in a
static library imported by the shared library.</li>
<li><code>san-angeles</code> &mdash; a simple application that renders 3D graphics through the
native OpenGL ES APIs, while managing activity lifecycle with a {@link
android.opengl.GLSurfaceView} object.</li>
<li><code>hello-gl2</code> &mdash; a simple application that renders a triangle using OpenGL ES
2.0 vertex and fragment shaders.</li>
<li><code>hello-neon</code> &mdash; a simple application that shows how to use the
<code>cpufeatures</code> library to check CPU capabilities at runtime, then use NEON intrinsics
if supported by the CPU. Specifically, the application implements two versions of a tiny
benchmark for a FIR filter loop, a C version and a NEON-optimized version for devices that
support it.</li>
<li><code>bitmap-plasma</code> &mdash; a simple application that demonstrates how to access the
pixel buffers of Android {@link} objects from native code, and uses
this to generate an old-school "plasma" effect.</li>
<li><code>native-activity</code> &mdash; a simple application that demonstrates how to use the
native-app-glue static library to create a native activity</li>
<li><code>native-plasma</code> &mdash; a version of bitmap-plasma implemented with a native
<p>For each sample, the NDK includes the corresponding C source code and the necessary
and files. There are located under <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/</code>
and their source code can be found under <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/jni/</code>.</p>
<p>You can build the shared libraries for the sample apps by going into
<code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/</code> then calling the <code>ndk-build</code> command.
The generated shared libraries will be located under
<code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/libs/armeabi/</code> for (ARMv5TE machine code) and/or
<code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/libs/armeabi-v7a/</code> for (ARMv7 machine code).</p>
<p>Next, build the sample Android applications that use the shared libraries:</p>
<li>If you are developing in Eclipse with ADT, use the New Project Wizard to create a new
Android project for each sample, using the "Import from Existing Source" option and importing
the source from <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/</code>. Then, set up an AVD,
if necessary, and build/run the application in the emulator.</li>
<li>If you are developing with Ant, use the <code>android</code> tool to create the build file
for each of the sample projects at <code>&lt;ndk&gt;/samples/&lt;name&gt;/</code>.
Then set up an AVD, if necessary, build your project in the usual way, and run it in the
<p>For more information about developing with the Android SDK tools and what
you need to do to create, build, and run your applications, see
the <a href="{@docRoot}tools/workflow/index.html">Overview</a>
section for developing on Android.</p>
<h4 id="hello-jni">Exploring the hello-jni Sample</h4>
<p>The hello-jni sample is a simple demonstration on how to use JNI from an Android application.
The HelloJni activity receives a string from a simple C function and displays it in a
<p>The main components of the sample include:</p>
<li>The familiar basic structure of an Android application (an <code>AndroidManifest.xml</code>
file, a <code>src/</code> and <code>res</code> directories, and a main activity)</li>
<li>A <code>jni/</code> directory that includes the implemented source file for the native code
as well as the file</li>
<li>A <code>tests/</code> directory that contains unit test code.</li>
<li>Create a new project in Eclipse from the existing sample source or use the
<code>android</code> tool to update the project so it generates a build.xml file that you can
use to build the sample.
<li>In Eclipse:
<ol type="a">
<li>Click <strong>File &gt; New Android Project...</strong></li>
<li>Select the <strong>Create project from existing source</strong> radio button.</li>
<li>Select any API level above Android 1.5.</li>
<li>In the <strong>Location</strong> field, click <strong>Browse...</strong> and select
the <code>&lt;ndk-root&gt;/samples/hello-jni</code> directory.</li>
<li>Click <strong>Finish</strong>.</li>
<li>On the command line:
<ol type="a">
<li>Change to the <code>&lt;ndk-root&gt;/samples/hello-jni</code> directory.</li>
<li>Run the following command to generate a build.xml file:
<pre class="no-pretty-print">android update project -p . -s</pre>
<li>Compile the native code using the <code>ndk-build</code> command.
<pre class="no-pretty-print">
cd &lt;ndk-root&gt;/samples/hello-jni
<li>Build and install the application as you would a normal Android application. If you are
using Eclipse, run the application to build and install it on a device. If you are using Ant,
run the following commands from the project directory:
<pre class="no-pretty-print">
ant debug
adb install bin/HelloJni-debug.apk
<p>When you run the application on the device, the string <code>Hello JNI</code> should appear on
your device. You can explore the rest of the samples that are located in the
<code>&lt;ndk-root&gt;/samples</code> directory for more examples on how to use the JNI.</p>
<h4 id="native-activity">Exploring the native-activity Sample Application</h4>
<p>The native-activity sample provided with the Android NDK demonstrates how to use the
android_native_app_glue static library. This static library makes creating a native activity
easier by providing you with an implementation that handles your callbacks in another thread, so
you do not have to worry about them blocking your main UI thread. The main parts of the sample
are described below:</p>
<li>The familiar basic structure of an Android application (an <code>AndroidManifest.xml</code>
file, a <code>src/</code> and <code>res</code> directories). The AndroidManifest.xml declares
that the application is native and specifies the .so file of the native activity. See {@link} for the source or see the
<code>&lt;ndk_root&gt;/platforms/samples/native-activity/AndroidManifest.xml</code> file.</li>
<li>A <code>jni/</code> directory contains the native activity, main.c, which uses the
<code>android_native_app_glue.h</code> interface to implement the activity. The that
describes the native module to the build system also exists here.</li>
<p>To build this sample application:</p>
<li>Create a new project in Eclipse from the existing sample source or use the
<code>android</code> tool to update the project so it generates a build.xml file that you can
use to build the sample.
<li>In Eclipse:
<ol type="a">
<li>Click <strong>File &gt; New Android Project...</strong></li>
<li>Select the <strong>Create project from existing source</strong> radio button.</li>
<li>Select any API level above Android 2.3.</li>
<li>In the <strong>Location</strong> field, click <strong>Browse...</strong> and select
the <code>&lt;ndk-root&gt;/samples/native-activity</code> directory.</li>
<li>Click <strong>Finish</strong>.</li>
<li>On the command line:
<ol type="a">
<li>Change to the <code>&lt;ndk-root&gt;/samples/native-activity</code> directory.</li>
<li>Run the following command to generate a build.xml file:
<pre class="no-pretty-print">
android update project -p . -s