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* Copyright (C) 2017 The Android Open Source Project
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
#include <string>
#include "base/logging.h" // For InitLogging.
#include "android-base/stringprintf.h"
#include "android-base/strings.h"
#include "base/file_utils.h"
#include "base/logging.h" // For InitLogging.
#include "compiler_filter.h"
#include "class_loader_context.h"
#include "dex_file.h"
#include "noop_compiler_callbacks.h"
#include "oat_file_assistant.h"
#include "os.h"
#include "runtime.h"
#include "thread-inl.h"
#include "utils.h"
namespace art {
// See OatFileAssistant docs for the meaning of the valid return codes.
enum ReturnCodes {
kNoDexOptNeeded = 0,
kDex2OatFromScratch = 1,
kDex2OatForBootImageOat = 2,
kDex2OatForFilterOat = 3,
kDex2OatForRelocationOat = 4,
kDex2OatForBootImageOdex = 5,
kDex2OatForFilterOdex = 6,
kDex2OatForRelocationOdex = 7,
kErrorInvalidArguments = 101,
kErrorCannotCreateRuntime = 102,
kErrorUnknownDexOptNeeded = 103
static int original_argc;
static char** original_argv;
static std::string CommandLine() {
std::vector<std::string> command;
for (int i = 0; i < original_argc; ++i) {
return android::base::Join(command, ' ');
static void UsageErrorV(const char* fmt, va_list ap) {
std::string error;
android::base::StringAppendV(&error, fmt, ap);
LOG(ERROR) << error;
static void UsageError(const char* fmt, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, fmt);
UsageErrorV(fmt, ap);
NO_RETURN static void Usage(const char *fmt, ...) {
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, fmt);
UsageErrorV(fmt, ap);
UsageError("Command: %s", CommandLine().c_str());
UsageError(" Performs a dexopt analysis on the given dex file and returns whether or not");
UsageError(" the dex file needs to be dexopted.");
UsageError("Usage: dexoptanalyzer [options]...");
UsageError(" --dex-file=<filename>: the dex file which should be analyzed.");
UsageError(" --isa=<string>: the instruction set for which the analysis should be performed.");
UsageError(" --compiler-filter=<string>: the target compiler filter to be used as reference");
UsageError(" when deciding if the dex file needs to be optimized.");
UsageError(" --assume-profile-changed: assumes the profile information has changed");
UsageError(" when deciding if the dex file needs to be optimized.");
UsageError(" --image=<filename>: optional, the image to be used to decide if the associated");
UsageError(" oat file is up to date. Defaults to $ANDROID_ROOT/framework/");
UsageError(" Example: --image=/system/framework/");
UsageError(" --android-data=<directory>: optional, the directory which should be used as");
UsageError(" android-data. By default ANDROID_DATA env variable is used.");
UsageError(" --oat-fd=number: file descriptor of the oat file which should be analyzed");
UsageError(" --vdex-fd=number: file descriptor of the vdex file corresponding to the oat file");
UsageError(" --zip-fd=number: specifies a file descriptor corresponding to the dex file.");
UsageError(" --downgrade: optional, if the purpose of dexopt is to downgrade the dex file");
UsageError(" By default, dexopt considers upgrade case.");
UsageError("Return code:");
UsageError(" To make it easier to integrate with the internal tools this command will make");
UsageError(" available its result (dexoptNeeded) as the exit/return code. i.e. it will not");
UsageError(" return 0 for success and a non zero values for errors as the conventional");
UsageError(" commands. The following return codes are possible:");
UsageError(" kNoDexOptNeeded = 0");
UsageError(" kDex2OatFromScratch = 1");
UsageError(" kDex2OatForBootImageOat = 2");
UsageError(" kDex2OatForFilterOat = 3");
UsageError(" kDex2OatForRelocationOat = 4");
UsageError(" kDex2OatForBootImageOdex = 5");
UsageError(" kDex2OatForFilterOdex = 6");
UsageError(" kDex2OatForRelocationOdex = 7");
UsageError(" kErrorInvalidArguments = 101");
UsageError(" kErrorCannotCreateRuntime = 102");
UsageError(" kErrorUnknownDexOptNeeded = 103");
class DexoptAnalyzer FINAL {
DexoptAnalyzer() :
downgrade_(false) {}
void ParseArgs(int argc, char **argv) {
original_argc = argc;
original_argv = argv;
InitLogging(argv, Runtime::Abort);
// Skip over the command name.
if (argc == 0) {
Usage("No arguments specified");
for (int i = 0; i < argc; ++i) {
const StringPiece option(argv[i]);
if (option == "--assume-profile-changed") {
assume_profile_changed_ = true;
} else if (option.starts_with("--dex-file=")) {
dex_file_ = option.substr(strlen("--dex-file=")).ToString();
} else if (option.starts_with("--compiler-filter=")) {
std::string filter_str = option.substr(strlen("--compiler-filter=")).ToString();
if (!CompilerFilter::ParseCompilerFilter(filter_str.c_str(), &compiler_filter_)) {
Usage("Invalid compiler filter '%s'",;
} else if (option.starts_with("--isa=")) {
std::string isa_str = option.substr(strlen("--isa=")).ToString();
isa_ = GetInstructionSetFromString(isa_str.c_str());
if (isa_ == InstructionSet::kNone) {
Usage("Invalid isa '%s'",;
} else if (option.starts_with("--image=")) {
image_ = option.substr(strlen("--image=")).ToString();
} else if (option.starts_with("--android-data=")) {
// Overwrite android-data if needed (oat file assistant relies on a valid directory to
// compute dalvik-cache folder). This is mostly used in tests.
std::string new_android_data = option.substr(strlen("--android-data=")).ToString();
setenv("ANDROID_DATA", new_android_data.c_str(), 1);
} else if (option.starts_with("--downgrade")) {
downgrade_ = true;
} else if (option.starts_with("--oat-fd")) {
oat_fd_ = std::stoi(option.substr(strlen("--oat-fd=")).ToString(), nullptr, 0);
if (oat_fd_ < 0) {
Usage("Invalid --oat-fd %d", oat_fd_);
} else if (option.starts_with("--vdex-fd")) {
vdex_fd_ = std::stoi(option.substr(strlen("--vdex-fd=")).ToString(), nullptr, 0);
if (vdex_fd_ < 0) {
Usage("Invalid --vdex-fd %d", vdex_fd_);
} else if (option.starts_with("--zip-fd")) {
zip_fd_ = std::stoi(option.substr(strlen("--zip-fd=")).ToString(), nullptr, 0);
if (zip_fd_ < 0) {
Usage("Invalid --zip-fd %d", zip_fd_);
} else if (option.starts_with("--class-loader-context=")) {
std::string context_str = option.substr(strlen("--class-loader-context=")).ToString();
class_loader_context_ = ClassLoaderContext::Create(context_str);
if (class_loader_context_ == nullptr) {
Usage("Invalid --class-loader-context '%s'", context_str.c_str());
} else {
Usage("Unknown argument '%s'",;
if (image_.empty()) {
// If we don't receive the image, try to use the default one.
// Tests may specify a different image (e.g. core image).
std::string error_msg;
image_ = GetDefaultBootImageLocation(&error_msg);
if (image_.empty()) {
LOG(ERROR) << error_msg;
Usage("--image unspecified and ANDROID_ROOT not set or image file does not exist.");
bool CreateRuntime() {
RuntimeOptions options;
// The image could be custom, so make sure we explicitly pass it.
std::string img = "-Ximage:" + image_;
options.push_back(std::make_pair(img.c_str(), nullptr));
// The instruction set of the image should match the instruction set we will test.
const void* isa_opt = reinterpret_cast<const void*>(GetInstructionSetString(isa_));
options.push_back(std::make_pair("imageinstructionset", isa_opt));
// Disable libsigchain. We don't don't need it to evaluate DexOptNeeded status.
options.push_back(std::make_pair("-Xno-sig-chain", nullptr));
// Pretend we are a compiler so that we can re-use the same infrastructure to load a different
// ISA image and minimize the amount of things that get started.
NoopCompilerCallbacks callbacks;
options.push_back(std::make_pair("compilercallbacks", &callbacks));
// Make sure we don't attempt to relocate. The tool should only retrieve the DexOptNeeded
// status and not attempt to relocate the boot image.
options.push_back(std::make_pair("-Xnorelocate", nullptr));
if (!Runtime::Create(options, false)) {
LOG(ERROR) << "Unable to initialize runtime";
return false;
// Runtime::Create acquired the mutator_lock_ that is normally given away when we
// Runtime::Start. Give it away now.
return true;
int GetDexOptNeeded() {
// If the file does not exist there's nothing to do.
// This is a fast path to avoid creating the runtime (b/34385298).
if (!OS::FileExists(dex_file_.c_str())) {
return kNoDexOptNeeded;
if (!CreateRuntime()) {
return kErrorCannotCreateRuntime;
std::unique_ptr<Runtime> runtime(Runtime::Current());
std::unique_ptr<OatFileAssistant> oat_file_assistant;
oat_file_assistant = std::make_unique<OatFileAssistant>(dex_file_.c_str(),
false /*load_executable*/,
// Always treat elements of the bootclasspath as up-to-date.
// TODO(calin): this check should be in OatFileAssistant.
if (oat_file_assistant->IsInBootClassPath()) {
return kNoDexOptNeeded;
int dexoptNeeded = oat_file_assistant->GetDexOptNeeded(
compiler_filter_, assume_profile_changed_, downgrade_, class_loader_context_.get());
// Convert OatFileAssitant codes to dexoptanalyzer codes.
switch (dexoptNeeded) {
case OatFileAssistant::kNoDexOptNeeded: return kNoDexOptNeeded;
case OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatFromScratch: return kDex2OatFromScratch;
case OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatForBootImage: return kDex2OatForBootImageOat;
case OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatForFilter: return kDex2OatForFilterOat;
case OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatForRelocation: return kDex2OatForRelocationOat;
case -OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatForBootImage: return kDex2OatForBootImageOdex;
case -OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatForFilter: return kDex2OatForFilterOdex;
case -OatFileAssistant::kDex2OatForRelocation: return kDex2OatForRelocationOdex;
LOG(ERROR) << "Unknown dexoptNeeded " << dexoptNeeded;
return kErrorUnknownDexOptNeeded;
std::string dex_file_;
InstructionSet isa_;
CompilerFilter::Filter compiler_filter_;
std::unique_ptr<ClassLoaderContext> class_loader_context_;
bool assume_profile_changed_;
bool downgrade_;
std::string image_;
int oat_fd_ = -1;
int vdex_fd_ = -1;
// File descriptor corresponding to apk, dex_file, or zip.
int zip_fd_ = -1;
static int dexoptAnalyze(int argc, char** argv) {
DexoptAnalyzer analyzer;
// Parse arguments. Argument mistakes will lead to exit(kErrorInvalidArguments) in UsageError.
analyzer.ParseArgs(argc, argv);
return analyzer.GetDexOptNeeded();
} // namespace art
int main(int argc, char **argv) {
return art::dexoptAnalyze(argc, argv);