[libc-trusty] Expand libc support

The primary intent is to support functions required by libcxx.
However, if libcxx depends on a function in a larger cartegory - math
for example - add all the other functions in that category.

locale support and time formatting were stubbed out for simplicity.

Bug: 110158907
Change-Id: Idd67b5b8b5831cbbade1bfe2f2a12dce55a1519e
5 files changed