Add buffer wrap checks and disable throwing of std::bad_alloc.

Android is built with exceptions disabled, but "operator new" and
"operator new[]" still throw std::bad_alloc on failure rather than
returning new.  In general this is a good thing, because it will cause
an immediate crash of the process rather than assigning a null pointer
which is probably not checked.  But most memory allocations in Keymaster
are checked, because it's written to run in an environment where new
does *not* throw.  This CL updates the code to explicitly use the
non-throwing new.

A handful of throwing news remain, but only in places where a crash on
failure is appropriate.

In addition, this CL also inserts buffer wrap checks in key locations
and changes the development-machine Makefile to build in 32-bit mode, to
make memory problems more apparent.

Bug: 21888473
Change-Id: I8ebc5ec12053e4f5274f6f57ce312abc10611cef
31 files changed