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* Copyright (C) 2019 The Android Open Source Project
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
#include "library_namespaces.h"
#include <dirent.h>
#include <dlfcn.h>
#include <regex>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <android-base/file.h>
#include <android-base/logging.h>
#include <android-base/macros.h>
#include <android-base/properties.h>
#include <android-base/strings.h>
#include <nativehelper/ScopedUtfChars.h>
#include "nativeloader/dlext_namespaces.h"
#include "public_libraries.h"
#include "utils.h"
namespace android::nativeloader {
namespace {
// The device may be configured to have the vendor libraries loaded to a separate namespace.
// For historical reasons this namespace was named sphal but effectively it is intended
// to use to load vendor libraries to separate namespace with controlled interface between
// vendor and system namespaces.
constexpr const char* kVendorNamespaceName = "sphal";
constexpr const char* kVndkNamespaceName = "vndk";
constexpr const char* kRuntimeNamespaceName = "runtime";
// classloader-namespace is a linker namespace that is created for the loaded
// app. To be specific, it is created for the app classloader. When
// System.load() is called from a Java class that is loaded from the
// classloader, the classloader-namespace namespace associated with that
// classloader is selected for dlopen. The namespace is configured so that its
// search path is set to the app-local JNI directory and it is linked to the
// platform namespace with the names of libs listed in the public.libraries.txt.
// This way an app can only load its own JNI libraries along with the public libs.
constexpr const char* kClassloaderNamespaceName = "classloader-namespace";
// Same thing for vendor APKs.
constexpr const char* kVendorClassloaderNamespaceName = "vendor-classloader-namespace";
// (http://b/27588281) This is a workaround for apps using custom classloaders and calling
// System.load() with an absolute path which is outside of the classloader library search path.
// This list includes all directories app is allowed to access this way.
constexpr const char* kWhitelistedDirectories = "/data:/mnt/expand";
constexpr const char* kVendorLibPath = "/vendor/" LIB;
constexpr const char* kProductLibPath = "/product/" LIB ":/system/product/" LIB;
const std::regex kVendorDexPathRegex("(^|:)/vendor/");
const std::regex kProductDexPathRegex("(^|:)(/system)?/product/");
// Define origin of APK if it is from vendor partition or product partition
typedef enum {
} ApkOrigin;
jobject GetParentClassLoader(JNIEnv* env, jobject class_loader) {
jclass class_loader_class = env->FindClass("java/lang/ClassLoader");
jmethodID get_parent =
env->GetMethodID(class_loader_class, "getParent", "()Ljava/lang/ClassLoader;");
return env->CallObjectMethod(class_loader, get_parent);
ApkOrigin GetApkOriginFromDexPath(JNIEnv* env, jstring dex_path) {
ApkOrigin apk_origin = APK_ORIGIN_DEFAULT;
if (dex_path != nullptr) {
ScopedUtfChars dex_path_utf_chars(env, dex_path);
if (std::regex_search(dex_path_utf_chars.c_str(), kVendorDexPathRegex)) {
apk_origin = APK_ORIGIN_VENDOR;
if (std::regex_search(dex_path_utf_chars.c_str(), kProductDexPathRegex)) {
"Dex path contains both vendor and product partition : %s",
apk_origin = APK_ORIGIN_PRODUCT;
return apk_origin;
} // namespace
void LibraryNamespaces::Initialize() {
// Once public namespace is initialized there is no
// point in running this code - it will have no effect
// on the current list of public libraries.
if (initialized_) {
// android_init_namespaces() expects all the public libraries
// to be loaded so that they can be found by soname alone.
// TODO(dimitry): this is a bit misleading since we do not know
// if the vendor public library is going to be opened from /vendor/lib
// we might as well end up loading them from /system/lib or /product/lib
// For now we rely on CTS test to catch things like this but
// it should probably be addressed in the future.
for (const auto& soname : android::base::Split(default_public_libraries(), ":")) {
LOG_ALWAYS_FATAL_IF(dlopen(soname.c_str(), RTLD_NOW | RTLD_NODELETE) == nullptr,
"Error preloading public library %s: %s", soname.c_str(), dlerror());
NativeLoaderNamespace* LibraryNamespaces::Create(JNIEnv* env, uint32_t target_sdk_version,
jobject class_loader, bool is_shared,
jstring dex_path, jstring java_library_path,
jstring java_permitted_path,
std::string* error_msg) {
std::string library_path; // empty string by default.
if (java_library_path != nullptr) {
ScopedUtfChars library_path_utf_chars(env, java_library_path);
library_path = library_path_utf_chars.c_str();
ApkOrigin apk_origin = GetApkOriginFromDexPath(env, dex_path);
// (http://b/27588281) This is a workaround for apps using custom
// classloaders and calling System.load() with an absolute path which
// is outside of the classloader library search path.
// This part effectively allows such a classloader to access anything
// under /data and /mnt/expand
std::string permitted_path = kWhitelistedDirectories;
if (java_permitted_path != nullptr) {
ScopedUtfChars path(env, java_permitted_path);
if (path.c_str() != nullptr && path.size() > 0) {
permitted_path = permitted_path + ":" + path.c_str();
// Initialize the anonymous namespace with the first non-empty library path.
if (!library_path.empty() && !initialized_ &&
!InitPublicNamespace(library_path.c_str(), error_msg)) {
return nullptr;
bool found = FindNamespaceByClassLoader(env, class_loader);
LOG_ALWAYS_FATAL_IF(found, "There is already a namespace associated with this classloader");
std::string system_exposed_libraries = default_public_libraries();
const char* namespace_name = kClassloaderNamespaceName;
bool unbundled_vendor_or_product_app = false;
if ((apk_origin == APK_ORIGIN_VENDOR ||
(apk_origin == APK_ORIGIN_PRODUCT && target_sdk_version > 29)) &&
!is_shared) {
unbundled_vendor_or_product_app = true;
// For vendor / product apks, give access to the vendor / product lib even though
// they are treated as unbundled; the libs and apks are still bundled
// together in the vendor / product partition.
const char* origin_partition;
const char* origin_lib_path;
switch (apk_origin) {
origin_partition = "vendor";
origin_lib_path = kVendorLibPath;
origin_partition = "product";
origin_lib_path = kProductLibPath;
origin_partition = "unknown";
origin_lib_path = "";
library_path = library_path + ":" + origin_lib_path;
permitted_path = permitted_path + ":" + origin_lib_path;
// Also give access to LLNDK libraries since they are available to vendors
system_exposed_libraries = system_exposed_libraries + ":" + llndk_libraries().c_str();
// Different name is useful for debugging
namespace_name = kVendorClassloaderNamespaceName;
ALOGD("classloader namespace configured for unbundled %s apk. library_path=%s",
origin_partition, library_path.c_str());
} else {
// extended public libraries are NOT available to vendor apks, otherwise it
// would be system->vendor violation.
if (!extended_public_libraries().empty()) {
system_exposed_libraries = system_exposed_libraries + ':' + extended_public_libraries();
// Create the app namespace
NativeLoaderNamespace* parent_ns = FindParentNamespaceByClassLoader(env, class_loader);
auto app_ns =
NativeLoaderNamespace::Create(namespace_name, library_path, permitted_path, parent_ns,
is_shared, target_sdk_version < 24 /* is_greylist_enabled */);
if (app_ns.IsNil()) {
*error_msg = app_ns.GetError();
return nullptr;
// ... and link to other namespaces to allow access to some public libraries
bool is_bridged = app_ns.IsBridged();
auto platform_ns = NativeLoaderNamespace::GetPlatformNamespace(is_bridged);
if (!app_ns.Link(platform_ns, system_exposed_libraries)) {
*error_msg = app_ns.GetError();
return nullptr;
auto runtime_ns = NativeLoaderNamespace::GetExportedNamespace(kRuntimeNamespaceName, is_bridged);
// Runtime apex does not exist in host, and under certain build conditions.
if (!runtime_ns.IsNil()) {
if (!app_ns.Link(runtime_ns, runtime_public_libraries())) {
*error_msg = app_ns.GetError();
return nullptr;
// Give access to VNDK-SP libraries from the 'vndk' namespace.
if (unbundled_vendor_or_product_app && !vndksp_libraries().empty()) {
auto vndk_ns = NativeLoaderNamespace::GetExportedNamespace(kVndkNamespaceName, is_bridged);
if (!vndk_ns.IsNil() && !app_ns.Link(vndk_ns, vndksp_libraries())) {
*error_msg = app_ns.GetError();
return nullptr;
// Note that when vendor_ns is not configured, vendor_ns.IsNil() will be true
// and it will result in linking to the default namespace which is expected
// behavior in this case.
if (!vendor_public_libraries().empty()) {
auto vendor_ns = NativeLoaderNamespace::GetExportedNamespace(kVendorNamespaceName, is_bridged);
if (!app_ns.Link(vendor_ns, vendor_public_libraries())) {
*error_msg = dlerror();
return nullptr;
namespaces_.push_back(std::make_pair(env->NewWeakGlobalRef(class_loader), app_ns));
return &(namespaces_.back().second);
NativeLoaderNamespace* LibraryNamespaces::FindNamespaceByClassLoader(JNIEnv* env,
jobject class_loader) {
auto it = std::find_if(namespaces_.begin(), namespaces_.end(),
[&](const std::pair<jweak, NativeLoaderNamespace>& value) {
return env->IsSameObject(value.first, class_loader);
if (it != namespaces_.end()) {
return &it->second;
return nullptr;
bool LibraryNamespaces::InitPublicNamespace(const char* library_path, std::string* error_msg) {
// Ask native bride if this apps library path should be handled by it
bool is_native_bridge = NativeBridgeIsPathSupported(library_path);
// (http://b/25844435) - Some apps call dlopen from generated code (mono jited
// code is one example) unknown to linker in which case linker uses anonymous
// namespace. The second argument specifies the search path for the anonymous
// namespace which is the library_path of the classloader.
initialized_ = android_init_anonymous_namespace(default_public_libraries().c_str(),
is_native_bridge ? nullptr : library_path);
if (!initialized_) {
*error_msg = dlerror();
return false;
// and now initialize native bridge namespaces if necessary.
if (NativeBridgeInitialized()) {
initialized_ = NativeBridgeInitAnonymousNamespace(default_public_libraries().c_str(),
is_native_bridge ? library_path : nullptr);
if (!initialized_) {
*error_msg = NativeBridgeGetError();
return initialized_;
NativeLoaderNamespace* LibraryNamespaces::FindParentNamespaceByClassLoader(JNIEnv* env,
jobject class_loader) {
jobject parent_class_loader = GetParentClassLoader(env, class_loader);
while (parent_class_loader != nullptr) {
NativeLoaderNamespace* ns;
if ((ns = FindNamespaceByClassLoader(env, parent_class_loader)) != nullptr) {
return ns;
parent_class_loader = GetParentClassLoader(env, parent_class_loader);
return nullptr;
} // namespace android::nativeloader