blob: c0016a8198cdbbdb7e2665d0209fb585c2e38b22 [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
""" This module tries to retrieve as much platform-identifying data as
possible. It makes this information available via function APIs.
If called from the command line, it prints the platform
information concatenated as single string to stdout. The output
format is useable as part of a filename.
# This module is maintained by Marc-Andre Lemburg <>.
# If you find problems, please submit bug reports/patches via the
# Python bug tracker ( and assign them to "lemburg".
# Note: Please keep this module compatible to Python 1.5.2.
# Still needed:
# * more support for WinCE
# * support for MS-DOS (PythonDX ?)
# * support for Amiga and other still unsupported platforms running Python
# * support for additional Linux distributions
# Many thanks to all those who helped adding platform-specific
# checks (in no particular order):
# Charles G Waldman, David Arnold, Gordon McMillan, Ben Darnell,
# Jeff Bauer, Cliff Crawford, Ivan Van Laningham, Josef
# Betancourt, Randall Hopper, Karl Putland, John Farrell, Greg
# Andruk, Just van Rossum, Thomas Heller, Mark R. Levinson, Mark
# Hammond, Bill Tutt, Hans Nowak, Uwe Zessin (OpenVMS support),
# Colin Kong, Trent Mick, Guido van Rossum, Anthony Baxter
# History:
# <see CVS and SVN checkin messages for history>
# 1.0.7 - added DEV_NULL
# 1.0.6 - added linux_distribution()
# 1.0.5 - fixed Java support to allow running the module on Jython
# 1.0.4 - added IronPython support
# 1.0.3 - added normalization of Windows system name
# 1.0.2 - added more Windows support
# 1.0.1 - reformatted to make happy
# 1.0.0 - reformatted a bit and checked into Python CVS
# 0.8.0 - added sys.version parser and various new access
# APIs (python_version(), python_compiler(), etc.)
# 0.7.2 - fixed architecture() to use sizeof(pointer) where available
# 0.7.1 - added support for Caldera OpenLinux
# 0.7.0 - some fixes for WinCE; untabified the source file
# 0.6.2 - support for OpenVMS - requires version 1.5.2-V006 or higher and
# vms_lib.getsyi() configured
# 0.6.1 - added code to prevent 'uname -p' on platforms which are
# known not to support it
# 0.6.0 - fixed win32_ver() to hopefully work on Win95,98,NT and Win2k;
# did some cleanup of the interfaces - some APIs have changed
# 0.5.5 - fixed another type in the MacOS code... should have
# used more coffee today ;-)
# 0.5.4 - fixed a few typos in the MacOS code
# 0.5.3 - added experimental MacOS support; added better popen()
# workarounds in _syscmd_ver() -- still not 100% elegant
# though
# 0.5.2 - fixed uname() to return '' instead of 'unknown' in all
# return values (the system uname command tends to return
# 'unknown' instead of just leaving the field emtpy)
# 0.5.1 - included code for slackware dist; added exception handlers
# to cover up situations where platforms don't have os.popen
# (e.g. Mac) or fail on socket.gethostname(); fixed libc
# detection RE
# 0.5.0 - changed the API names referring to system commands to *syscmd*;
# added java_ver(); made syscmd_ver() a private
# API (was system_ver() in previous versions) -- use uname()
# instead; extended the win32_ver() to also return processor
# type information
# 0.4.0 - added win32_ver() and modified the platform() output for WinXX
# 0.3.4 - fixed a bug in _follow_symlinks()
# 0.3.3 - fixed popen() and "file" command invokation bugs
# 0.3.2 - added architecture() API and support for it in platform()
# 0.3.1 - fixed syscmd_ver() RE to support Windows NT
# 0.3.0 - added system alias support
# 0.2.3 - removed 'wince' again... oh well.
# 0.2.2 - added 'wince' to syscmd_ver() supported platforms
# 0.2.1 - added cache logic and changed the platform string format
# 0.2.0 - changed the API to use functions instead of module globals
# since some action take too long to be run on module import
# 0.1.0 - first release
# You can always get the latest version of this module at:
# If that URL should fail, try contacting the author.
__copyright__ = """
Copyright (c) 1999-2000, Marc-Andre Lemburg;
Copyright (c) 2000-2010, Software GmbH;
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee or royalty is hereby granted,
provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation or portions thereof, including modifications,
that you make.
__version__ = '1.0.7'
import sys,string,os,re
### Globals & Constants
# Determine the platform's /dev/null device
DEV_NULL = os.devnull
except AttributeError:
# os.devnull was added in Python 2.4, so emulate it for earlier
# Python versions
if sys.platform in ('dos','win32','win16','os2'):
# Use the old CP/M NUL as device name
# Standard Unix uses /dev/null
DEV_NULL = '/dev/null'
### Platform specific APIs
_libc_search = re.compile(r'(__libc_init)'
def libc_ver(executable=sys.executable,lib='',version='',
""" Tries to determine the libc version that the file executable
(which defaults to the Python interpreter) is linked against.
Returns a tuple of strings (lib,version) which default to the
given parameters in case the lookup fails.
Note that the function has intimate knowledge of how different
libc versions add symbols to the executable and thus is probably
only useable for executables compiled using gcc.
The file is read and scanned in chunks of chunksize bytes.
if hasattr(os.path, 'realpath'):
# Python 2.2 introduced os.path.realpath(); it is used
# here to work around problems with Cygwin not being
# able to open symlinks for reading
executable = os.path.realpath(executable)
f = open(executable,'rb')
binary =
pos = 0
while 1:
m =,pos)
if not m:
binary =
if not binary:
pos = 0
libcinit,glibc,glibcversion,so,threads,soversion = m.groups()
if libcinit and not lib:
lib = 'libc'
elif glibc:
if lib != 'glibc':
lib = 'glibc'
version = glibcversion
elif glibcversion > version:
version = glibcversion
elif so:
if lib != 'glibc':
lib = 'libc'
if soversion and soversion > version:
version = soversion
if threads and version[-len(threads):] != threads:
version = version + threads
pos = m.end()
return lib,version
def _dist_try_harder(distname,version,id):
""" Tries some special tricks to get the distribution
information in case the default method fails.
Currently supports older SuSE Linux, Caldera OpenLinux and
Slackware Linux distributions.
if os.path.exists('/var/adm/inst-log/info'):
# SuSE Linux stores distribution information in that file
info = open('/var/adm/inst-log/info').readlines()
distname = 'SuSE'
for line in info:
tv = string.split(line)
if len(tv) == 2:
tag,value = tv
if tag == 'MIN_DIST_VERSION':
version = string.strip(value)
elif tag == 'DIST_IDENT':
values = string.split(value,'-')
id = values[2]
return distname,version,id
if os.path.exists('/etc/.installed'):
# Caldera OpenLinux has some infos in that file (thanks to Colin Kong)
info = open('/etc/.installed').readlines()
for line in info:
pkg = string.split(line,'-')
if len(pkg) >= 2 and pkg[0] == 'OpenLinux':
# XXX does Caldera support non Intel platforms ? If yes,
# where can we find the needed id ?
return 'OpenLinux',pkg[1],id
if os.path.isdir('/usr/lib/setup'):
# Check for slackware verson tag file (thanks to Greg Andruk)
verfiles = os.listdir('/usr/lib/setup')
for n in range(len(verfiles)-1, -1, -1):
if verfiles[n][:14] != 'slack-version-':
del verfiles[n]
if verfiles:
distname = 'slackware'
version = verfiles[-1][14:]
return distname,version,id
return distname,version,id
_release_filename = re.compile(r'(\w+)[-_](release|version)')
_lsb_release_version = re.compile(r'(.+)'
' release '
_release_version = re.compile(r'([^0-9]+)'
'(?: release )?'
# See also
# and
# and
# and
_supported_dists = (
'SuSE', 'debian', 'fedora', 'redhat', 'centos',
'mandrake', 'mandriva', 'rocks', 'slackware', 'yellowdog', 'gentoo',
'UnitedLinux', 'turbolinux')
def _parse_release_file(firstline):
# Default to empty 'version' and 'id' strings. Both defaults are used
# when 'firstline' is empty. 'id' defaults to empty when an id can not
# be deduced.
version = ''
id = ''
# Parse the first line
m = _lsb_release_version.match(firstline)
if m is not None:
# LSB format: "distro release x.x (codename)"
return tuple(m.groups())
# Pre-LSB format: "distro x.x (codename)"
m = _release_version.match(firstline)
if m is not None:
return tuple(m.groups())
# Unkown format... take the first two words
l = string.split(string.strip(firstline))
if l:
version = l[0]
if len(l) > 1:
id = l[1]
return '', version, id
def linux_distribution(distname='', version='', id='',
""" Tries to determine the name of the Linux OS distribution name.
The function first looks for a distribution release file in
/etc and then reverts to _dist_try_harder() in case no
suitable files are found.
supported_dists may be given to define the set of Linux
distributions to look for. It defaults to a list of currently
supported Linux distributions identified by their release file
If full_distribution_name is true (default), the full
distribution read from the OS is returned. Otherwise the short
name taken from supported_dists is used.
Returns a tuple (distname,version,id) which default to the
args given as parameters.
etc = os.listdir('/etc')
except os.error:
# Probably not a Unix system
return distname,version,id
for file in etc:
m = _release_filename.match(file)
if m is not None:
_distname,dummy = m.groups()
if _distname in supported_dists:
distname = _distname
return _dist_try_harder(distname,version,id)
# Read the first line
f = open('/etc/'+file, 'r')
firstline = f.readline()
_distname, _version, _id = _parse_release_file(firstline)
if _distname and full_distribution_name:
distname = _distname
if _version:
version = _version
if _id:
id = _id
return distname, version, id
# To maintain backwards compatibility:
def dist(distname='',version='',id='',
""" Tries to determine the name of the Linux OS distribution name.
The function first looks for a distribution release file in
/etc and then reverts to _dist_try_harder() in case no
suitable files are found.
Returns a tuple (distname,version,id) which default to the
args given as parameters.
return linux_distribution(distname, version, id,
class _popen:
""" Fairly portable (alternative) popen implementation.
This is mostly needed in case os.popen() is not available, or
doesn't work as advertised, e.g. in Win9X GUI programs like
PythonWin or IDLE.
Writing to the pipe is currently not supported.
tmpfile = ''
pipe = None
bufsize = None
mode = 'r'
def __init__(self,cmd,mode='r',bufsize=None):
if mode != 'r':
raise ValueError,'popen()-emulation only supports read mode'
import tempfile
self.tmpfile = tmpfile = tempfile.mktemp()
os.system(cmd + ' > %s' % tmpfile)
self.pipe = open(tmpfile,'rb')
self.bufsize = bufsize
self.mode = mode
def read(self):
def readlines(self):
if self.bufsize is not None:
return self.pipe.readlines()
def close(self,
if self.pipe:
rc = self.pipe.close()
rc = 255
if self.tmpfile:
except error:
return rc
# Alias
__del__ = close
def popen(cmd, mode='r', bufsize=None):
""" Portable popen() interface.
# Find a working popen implementation preferring win32pipe.popen
# over os.popen over _popen
popen = None
if os.environ.get('OS','') == 'Windows_NT':
# On NT win32pipe should work; on Win9x it hangs due to bugs
# in the MS C lib (see MS KnowledgeBase article Q150956)
import win32pipe
except ImportError:
popen = win32pipe.popen
if popen is None:
if hasattr(os,'popen'):
popen = os.popen
# Check whether it works... it doesn't in GUI programs
# on Windows platforms
if sys.platform == 'win32': # XXX Others too ?
except os.error:
popen = _popen
popen = _popen
if bufsize is None:
return popen(cmd,mode)
return popen(cmd,mode,bufsize)
def _norm_version(version, build=''):
""" Normalize the version and build strings and return a single
version string using the format (or patchlevel).
l = string.split(version,'.')
if build:
ints = map(int,l)
except ValueError:
strings = l
strings = map(str,ints)
version = string.join(strings[:3],'.')
return version
_ver_output = re.compile(r'(?:([\w ]+) ([\w.]+) '
'\[.* ([\d.]+)\])')
# Examples of VER command output:
# Windows 2000: Microsoft Windows 2000 [Version 5.00.2195]
# Windows XP: Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600]
# Windows Vista: Microsoft Windows [Version 6.0.6002]
# Note that the "Version" string gets localized on different
# Windows versions.
def _syscmd_ver(system='', release='', version='',
""" Tries to figure out the OS version used and returns
a tuple (system,release,version).
It uses the "ver" shell command for this which is known
to exists on Windows, DOS and OS/2. XXX Others too ?
In case this fails, the given parameters are used as
if sys.platform not in supported_platforms:
return system,release,version
# Try some common cmd strings
for cmd in ('ver','command /c ver','cmd /c ver'):
pipe = popen(cmd)
info =
if pipe.close():
raise os.error,'command failed'
# XXX How can I suppress shell errors from being written
# to stderr ?
except os.error,why:
#print 'Command %s failed: %s' % (cmd,why)
except IOError,why:
#print 'Command %s failed: %s' % (cmd,why)
return system,release,version
# Parse the output
info = string.strip(info)
m = _ver_output.match(info)
if m is not None:
system,release,version = m.groups()
# Strip trailing dots from version and release
if release[-1] == '.':
release = release[:-1]
if version[-1] == '.':
version = version[:-1]
# Normalize the version and build strings (eliminating additional
# zeros)
version = _norm_version(version)
return system,release,version
def _win32_getvalue(key,name,default=''):
""" Read a value for name from the registry key.
In case this fails, default is returned.
# Use win32api if available
from win32api import RegQueryValueEx
except ImportError:
# On Python 2.0 and later, emulate using _winreg
import _winreg
RegQueryValueEx = _winreg.QueryValueEx
return RegQueryValueEx(key,name)
return default
def win32_ver(release='',version='',csd='',ptype=''):
""" Get additional version information from the Windows Registry
and return a tuple (version,csd,ptype) referring to version
number, CSD level (service pack), and OS type (multi/single
As a hint: ptype returns 'Uniprocessor Free' on single
processor NT machines and 'Multiprocessor Free' on multi
processor machines. The 'Free' refers to the OS version being
free of debugging code. It could also state 'Checked' which
means the OS version uses debugging code, i.e. code that
checks arguments, ranges, etc. (Thomas Heller).
Note: this function works best with Mark Hammond's win32
package installed, but also on Python 2.3 and later. It
obviously only runs on Win32 compatible platforms.
# XXX Is there any way to find out the processor type on WinXX ?
# XXX Is win32 available on Windows CE ?
# Adapted from code posted by Karl Putland to comp.lang.python.
# The mappings between reg. values and release names can be found
# here:
# Import the needed APIs
import win32api
from win32api import RegQueryValueEx, RegOpenKeyEx, \
RegCloseKey, GetVersionEx
from win32con import HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, VER_PLATFORM_WIN32_NT, \
except ImportError:
# Emulate the win32api module using Python APIs
except AttributeError:
# No emulation possible, so return the defaults...
return release,version,csd,ptype
# Emulation using _winreg (added in Python 2.0) and
# sys.getwindowsversion() (added in Python 2.3)
import _winreg
GetVersionEx = sys.getwindowsversion
RegQueryValueEx = _winreg.QueryValueEx
RegOpenKeyEx = _winreg.OpenKeyEx
RegCloseKey = _winreg.CloseKey
REG_SZ = 1
# Find out the registry key and some general version infos
winver = GetVersionEx()
maj,min,buildno,plat,csd = winver
version = '%i.%i.%i' % (maj,min,buildno & 0xFFFF)
if hasattr(winver, "service_pack"):
if winver.service_pack != "":
csd = 'SP%s' % winver.service_pack_major
if csd[:13] == 'Service Pack ':
csd = 'SP' + csd[13:]
regkey = 'SOFTWARE\\Microsoft\\Windows\\CurrentVersion'
# Try to guess the release name
if maj == 4:
if min == 0:
release = '95'
elif min == 10:
release = '98'
elif min == 90:
release = 'Me'
release = 'postMe'
elif maj == 5:
release = '2000'
elif plat == VER_PLATFORM_WIN32_NT:
regkey = 'SOFTWARE\\Microsoft\\Windows NT\\CurrentVersion'
if maj <= 4:
release = 'NT'
elif maj == 5:
if min == 0:
release = '2000'
elif min == 1:
release = 'XP'
elif min == 2:
release = '2003Server'
release = 'post2003'
elif maj == 6:
if hasattr(winver, "product_type"):
product_type = winver.product_type
product_type = VER_NT_WORKSTATION
# Without an OSVERSIONINFOEX capable sys.getwindowsversion(),
# or help from the registry, we cannot properly identify
# non-workstation versions.
key = RegOpenKeyEx(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, regkey)
name, type = RegQueryValueEx(key, "ProductName")
# Discard any type that isn't REG_SZ
if type == REG_SZ and name.find("Server") != -1:
product_type = VER_NT_SERVER
except WindowsError:
# Use default of VER_NT_WORKSTATION
if min == 0:
if product_type == VER_NT_WORKSTATION:
release = 'Vista'
release = '2008Server'
elif min == 1:
if product_type == VER_NT_WORKSTATION:
release = '7'
release = '2008ServerR2'
elif min == 2:
if product_type == VER_NT_WORKSTATION:
release = '8'
release = '2012Server'
release = 'post2012Server'
if not release:
# E.g. Win3.1 with win32s
release = '%i.%i' % (maj,min)
return release,version,csd,ptype
# Open the registry key
keyCurVer = RegOpenKeyEx(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, regkey)
# Get a value to make sure the key exists...
RegQueryValueEx(keyCurVer, 'SystemRoot')
return release,version,csd,ptype
# Parse values
#subversion = _win32_getvalue(keyCurVer,
# 'SubVersionNumber',
# ('',1))[0]
#if subversion:
# release = release + subversion # 95a, 95b, etc.
build = _win32_getvalue(keyCurVer,
ptype = _win32_getvalue(keyCurVer,
# Normalize version
version = _norm_version(version,build)
# Close key
return release,version,csd,ptype
def _mac_ver_lookup(selectors,default=None):
from gestalt import gestalt
import MacOS
l = []
append = l.append
for selector in selectors:
except (RuntimeError, MacOS.Error):
return l
def _bcd2str(bcd):
return hex(bcd)[2:]
def _mac_ver_gestalt():
Thanks to Mark R. Levinson for mailing documentation links and
code examples for this function. Documentation for the
gestalt() API is available online at:
# Check whether the version info module is available
import gestalt
import MacOS
except ImportError:
return None
# Get the infos
sysv,sysa = _mac_ver_lookup(('sysv','sysa'))
# Decode the infos
if sysv:
major = (sysv & 0xFF00) >> 8
minor = (sysv & 0x00F0) >> 4
patch = (sysv & 0x000F)
if (major, minor) >= (10, 4):
# the 'sysv' gestald cannot return patchlevels
# higher than 9. Apple introduced 3 new
# gestalt codes in 10.4 to deal with this
# issue (needed because patch levels can
# run higher than 9, such as 10.4.11)
major,minor,patch = _mac_ver_lookup(('sys1','sys2','sys3'))
release = '%i.%i.%i' %(major, minor, patch)
release = '%s.%i.%i' % (_bcd2str(major),minor,patch)
if sysa:
machine = {0x1: '68k',
0x2: 'PowerPC',
0xa: 'i386'}.get(sysa,'')
versioninfo=('', '', '')
return release,versioninfo,machine
def _mac_ver_xml():
fn = '/System/Library/CoreServices/SystemVersion.plist'
if not os.path.exists(fn):
return None
import plistlib
except ImportError:
return None
pl = plistlib.readPlist(fn)
release = pl['ProductVersion']
versioninfo=('', '', '')
machine = os.uname()[4]
if machine in ('ppc', 'Power Macintosh'):
# for compatibility with the gestalt based code
machine = 'PowerPC'
return release,versioninfo,machine
def mac_ver(release='',versioninfo=('','',''),machine=''):
""" Get MacOS version information and return it as tuple (release,
versioninfo, machine) with versioninfo being a tuple (version,
dev_stage, non_release_version).
Entries which cannot be determined are set to the paramter values
which default to ''. All tuple entries are strings.
# First try reading the information from an XML file which should
# always be present
info = _mac_ver_xml()
if info is not None:
return info
# If that doesn't work for some reason fall back to reading the
# information using gestalt calls.
info = _mac_ver_gestalt()
if info is not None:
return info
# If that also doesn't work return the default values
return release,versioninfo,machine
def _java_getprop(name,default):
from java.lang import System
value = System.getProperty(name)
if value is None:
return default
return value
except AttributeError:
return default
def java_ver(release='',vendor='',vminfo=('','',''),osinfo=('','','')):
""" Version interface for Jython.
Returns a tuple (release,vendor,vminfo,osinfo) with vminfo being
a tuple (vm_name,vm_release,vm_vendor) and osinfo being a
tuple (os_name,os_version,os_arch).
Values which cannot be determined are set to the defaults
given as parameters (which all default to '').
# Import the needed APIs
import java.lang
except ImportError:
return release,vendor,vminfo,osinfo
vendor = _java_getprop('java.vendor', vendor)
release = _java_getprop('java.version', release)
vm_name, vm_release, vm_vendor = vminfo
vm_name = _java_getprop('', vm_name)
vm_vendor = _java_getprop('java.vm.vendor', vm_vendor)
vm_release = _java_getprop('java.vm.version', vm_release)
vminfo = vm_name, vm_release, vm_vendor
os_name, os_version, os_arch = osinfo
os_arch = _java_getprop('java.os.arch', os_arch)
os_name = _java_getprop('', os_name)
os_version = _java_getprop('java.os.version', os_version)
osinfo = os_name, os_version, os_arch
return release, vendor, vminfo, osinfo
### System name aliasing
def system_alias(system,release,version):
""" Returns (system,release,version) aliased to common
marketing names used for some systems.
It also does some reordering of the information in some cases
where it would otherwise cause confusion.
if system == 'Rhapsody':
# Apple's BSD derivative
# XXX How can we determine the marketing release number ?
return 'MacOS X Server',system+release,version
elif system == 'SunOS':
# Sun's OS
if release < '5':
# These releases use the old name SunOS
return system,release,version
# Modify release (marketing release = SunOS release - 3)
l = string.split(release,'.')
if l:
major = int(l[0])
except ValueError:
major = major - 3
l[0] = str(major)
release = string.join(l,'.')
if release < '6':
system = 'Solaris'
# XXX Whatever the new SunOS marketing name is...
system = 'Solaris'
elif system == 'IRIX64':
# IRIX reports IRIX64 on platforms with 64-bit support; yet it
# is really a version and not a different platform, since 32-bit
# apps are also supported..
system = 'IRIX'
if version:
version = version + ' (64bit)'
version = '64bit'
elif system in ('win32','win16'):
# In case one of the other tricks
system = 'Windows'
return system,release,version
### Various internal helpers
def _platform(*args):
""" Helper to format the platform string in a filename
compatible format e.g. "system-version-machine".
# Format the platform string
platform = string.join(
filter(len, args)),
# Cleanup some possible filename obstacles...
replace = string.replace
platform = replace(platform,' ','_')
platform = replace(platform,'/','-')
platform = replace(platform,'\\','-')
platform = replace(platform,':','-')
platform = replace(platform,';','-')
platform = replace(platform,'"','-')
platform = replace(platform,'(','-')
platform = replace(platform,')','-')
# No need to report 'unknown' information...
platform = replace(platform,'unknown','')
# Fold '--'s and remove trailing '-'
while 1:
cleaned = replace(platform,'--','-')
if cleaned == platform:
platform = cleaned
while platform[-1] == '-':
platform = platform[:-1]
return platform
def _node(default=''):
""" Helper to determine the node name of this machine.
import socket
except ImportError:
# No sockets...
return default
return socket.gethostname()
except socket.error:
# Still not working...
return default
# os.path.abspath is new in Python 1.5.2:
if not hasattr(os.path,'abspath'):
def _abspath(path,
if not isabs(path):
path = join(getcwd(), path)
return normpath(path)
_abspath = os.path.abspath
def _follow_symlinks(filepath):
""" In case filepath is a symlink, follow it until a
real file is reached.
filepath = _abspath(filepath)
while os.path.islink(filepath):
filepath = os.path.normpath(
return filepath
def _syscmd_uname(option,default=''):
""" Interface to the system's uname command.
if sys.platform in ('dos','win32','win16','os2'):
# XXX Others too ?
return default
f = os.popen('uname %s 2> %s' % (option, DEV_NULL))
except (AttributeError,os.error):
return default
output = string.strip(
rc = f.close()
if not output or rc:
return default
return output
def _syscmd_file(target,default=''):
""" Interface to the system's file command.
The function uses the -b option of the file command to have it
ommit the filename in its output and if possible the -L option
to have the command follow symlinks. It returns default in
case the command should fail.
# We do the import here to avoid a bootstrap issue.
# See c73b90b6dadd changeset.
# [..]
# ranlib libpython2.7.a
# gcc -o python \
# Modules/python.o \
# libpython2.7.a -lsocket -lnsl -ldl -lm
# Traceback (most recent call last):
# File "./", line 8, in <module>
# from platform import machine as platform_machine
# File "[..]/build/Lib/", line 116, in <module>
# import sys,string,os,re,subprocess
# File "[..]/build/Lib/", line 429, in <module>
# import select
# ImportError: No module named select
import subprocess
if sys.platform in ('dos','win32','win16','os2'):
# XXX Others too ?
return default
target = _follow_symlinks(target)
proc = subprocess.Popen(['file', target],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT)
except (AttributeError,os.error):
return default
output = proc.communicate()[0]
rc = proc.wait()
if not output or rc:
return default
return output
### Information about the used architecture
# Default values for architecture; non-empty strings override the
# defaults given as parameters
_default_architecture = {
'win32': ('','WindowsPE'),
'win16': ('','Windows'),
'dos': ('','MSDOS'),
_architecture_split = re.compile(r'[\s,]').split
def architecture(executable=sys.executable,bits='',linkage=''):
""" Queries the given executable (defaults to the Python interpreter
binary) for various architecture information.
Returns a tuple (bits,linkage) which contains information about
the bit architecture and the linkage format used for the
executable. Both values are returned as strings.
Values that cannot be determined are returned as given by the
parameter presets. If bits is given as '', the sizeof(pointer)
(or sizeof(long) on Python version < 1.5.2) is used as
indicator for the supported pointer size.
The function relies on the system's "file" command to do the
actual work. This is available on most if not all Unix
platforms. On some non-Unix platforms where the "file" command
does not exist and the executable is set to the Python interpreter
binary defaults from _default_architecture are used.
# Use the sizeof(pointer) as default number of bits if nothing
# else is given as default.
if not bits:
import struct
size = struct.calcsize('P')
except struct.error:
# Older installations can only query longs
size = struct.calcsize('l')
bits = str(size*8) + 'bit'
# Get data from the 'file' system command
if executable:
output = _syscmd_file(executable, '')
output = ''
if not output and \
executable == sys.executable:
# "file" command did not return anything; we'll try to provide
# some sensible defaults then...
if sys.platform in _default_architecture:
b, l = _default_architecture[sys.platform]
if b:
bits = b
if l:
linkage = l
return bits, linkage
# Split the output into a list of strings omitting the filename
fileout = _architecture_split(output)[1:]
if 'executable' not in fileout:
# Format not supported
return bits,linkage
# Bits
if '32-bit' in fileout:
bits = '32bit'
elif 'N32' in fileout:
# On Irix only
bits = 'n32bit'
elif '64-bit' in fileout:
bits = '64bit'
# Linkage
if 'ELF' in fileout:
linkage = 'ELF'
elif 'PE' in fileout:
# E.g. Windows uses this format
if 'Windows' in fileout:
linkage = 'WindowsPE'
linkage = 'PE'
elif 'COFF' in fileout:
linkage = 'COFF'
elif 'MS-DOS' in fileout:
linkage = 'MSDOS'
# XXX the A.OUT format also falls under this class...
return bits,linkage
### Portable uname() interface
_uname_cache = None
def uname():
""" Fairly portable uname interface. Returns a tuple
of strings (system,node,release,version,machine,processor)
identifying the underlying platform.
Note that unlike the os.uname function this also returns
possible processor information as an additional tuple entry.
Entries which cannot be determined are set to ''.
global _uname_cache
no_os_uname = 0
if _uname_cache is not None:
return _uname_cache
processor = ''
# Get some infos from the builtin os.uname API...
system,node,release,version,machine = os.uname()
except AttributeError:
no_os_uname = 1
if no_os_uname or not filter(None, (system, node, release, version, machine)):
# Hmm, no there is either no uname or uname has returned
#'unknowns'... we'll have to poke around the system then.
if no_os_uname:
system = sys.platform
release = ''
version = ''
node = _node()
machine = ''
use_syscmd_ver = 1
# Try win32_ver() on win32 platforms
if system == 'win32':
release,version,csd,ptype = win32_ver()
if release and version:
use_syscmd_ver = 0
# Try to use the PROCESSOR_* environment variables
# available on Win XP and later; see
# and
if not machine:
# WOW64 processes mask the native architecture
if "PROCESSOR_ARCHITEW6432" in os.environ:
machine = os.environ.get("PROCESSOR_ARCHITEW6432", '')
machine = os.environ.get('PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE', '')
if not processor:
processor = os.environ.get('PROCESSOR_IDENTIFIER', machine)
# Try the 'ver' system command available on some
# platforms
if use_syscmd_ver:
system,release,version = _syscmd_ver(system)
# Normalize system to what win32_ver() normally returns
# (_syscmd_ver() tends to return the vendor name as well)
if system == 'Microsoft Windows':
system = 'Windows'
elif system == 'Microsoft' and release == 'Windows':
# Under Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008,
# Microsoft changed the output of the ver command. The
# release is no longer printed. This causes the
# system and release to be misidentified.
system = 'Windows'
if '6.0' == version[:3]:
release = 'Vista'
release = ''
# In case we still don't know anything useful, we'll try to
# help ourselves
if system in ('win32','win16'):
if not version:
if system == 'win32':
version = '32bit'
version = '16bit'
system = 'Windows'
elif system[:4] == 'java':
release,vendor,vminfo,osinfo = java_ver()
system = 'Java'
version = string.join(vminfo,', ')
if not version:
version = vendor
# System specific extensions
if system == 'OpenVMS':
# OpenVMS seems to have release and version mixed up
if not release or release == '0':
release = version
version = ''
# Get processor information
import vms_lib
except ImportError:
csid, cpu_number = vms_lib.getsyi('SYI$_CPU',0)
if (cpu_number >= 128):
processor = 'Alpha'
processor = 'VAX'
if not processor:
# Get processor information from the uname system command
processor = _syscmd_uname('-p','')
#If any unknowns still exist, replace them with ''s, which are more portable
if system == 'unknown':
system = ''
if node == 'unknown':
node = ''
if release == 'unknown':
release = ''
if version == 'unknown':
version = ''
if machine == 'unknown':
machine = ''
if processor == 'unknown':
processor = ''
# normalize name
if system == 'Microsoft' and release == 'Windows':
system = 'Windows'
release = 'Vista'
_uname_cache = system,node,release,version,machine,processor
return _uname_cache
### Direct interfaces to some of the uname() return values
def system():
""" Returns the system/OS name, e.g. 'Linux', 'Windows' or 'Java'.
An empty string is returned if the value cannot be determined.
return uname()[0]
def node():
""" Returns the computer's network name (which may not be fully
An empty string is returned if the value cannot be determined.
return uname()[1]
def release():
""" Returns the system's release, e.g. '2.2.0' or 'NT'
An empty string is returned if the value cannot be determined.
return uname()[2]
def version():
""" Returns the system's release version, e.g. '#3 on degas'
An empty string is returned if the value cannot be determined.
return uname()[3]
def machine():
""" Returns the machine type, e.g. 'i386'
An empty string is returned if the value cannot be determined.
return uname()[4]
def processor():
""" Returns the (true) processor name, e.g. 'amdk6'
An empty string is returned if the value cannot be
determined. Note that many platforms do not provide this
information or simply return the same value as for machine(),
e.g. NetBSD does this.
return uname()[5]
### Various APIs for extracting information from sys.version
_sys_version_parser = re.compile(
'\(#?([^,]+),\s*([\w ]+),\s*([\w :]+)\)\s*'
_ironpython_sys_version_parser = re.compile(
'(?: \(([\d\.]+)\))?'
' on (.NET [\d\.]+)')
_pypy_sys_version_parser = re.compile(
'\(#?([^,]+),\s*([\w ]+),\s*([\w :]+)\)\s*'
'\[PyPy [^\]]+\]?')
_sys_version_cache = {}
def _sys_version(sys_version=None):
""" Returns a parsed version of Python's sys.version as tuple
(name, version, branch, revision, buildno, builddate, compiler)
referring to the Python implementation name, version, branch,
revision, build number, build date/time as string and the compiler
identification string.
Note that unlike the Python sys.version, the returned value
for the Python version will always include the patchlevel (it
defaults to '.0').
The function returns empty strings for tuple entries that
cannot be determined.
sys_version may be given to parse an alternative version
string, e.g. if the version was read from a different Python
# Get the Python version
if sys_version is None:
sys_version = sys.version
# Try the cache first
result = _sys_version_cache.get(sys_version, None)
if result is not None:
return result
# Parse it
if sys_version[:10] == 'IronPython':
# IronPython
name = 'IronPython'
match = _ironpython_sys_version_parser.match(sys_version)
if match is None:
raise ValueError(
'failed to parse IronPython sys.version: %s' %
version, alt_version, compiler = match.groups()
buildno = ''
builddate = ''
elif sys.platform[:4] == 'java':
# Jython
name = 'Jython'
match = _sys_version_parser.match(sys_version)
if match is None:
raise ValueError(
'failed to parse Jython sys.version: %s' %
version, buildno, builddate, buildtime, _ = match.groups()
compiler = sys.platform
elif "PyPy" in sys_version:
# PyPy
name = "PyPy"
match = _pypy_sys_version_parser.match(sys_version)
if match is None:
raise ValueError("failed to parse PyPy sys.version: %s" %
version, buildno, builddate, buildtime = match.groups()
compiler = ""
# CPython
match = _sys_version_parser.match(sys_version)
if match is None:
raise ValueError(
'failed to parse CPython sys.version: %s' %
version, buildno, builddate, buildtime, compiler = \
name = 'CPython'
builddate = builddate + ' ' + buildtime
if hasattr(sys, 'subversion'):
# sys.subversion was added in Python 2.5
_, branch, revision = sys.subversion
branch = ''
revision = ''
# Add the patchlevel version if missing
l = string.split(version, '.')
if len(l) == 2:
version = string.join(l, '.')
# Build and cache the result
result = (name, version, branch, revision, buildno, builddate, compiler)
_sys_version_cache[sys_version] = result
return result
def python_implementation():
""" Returns a string identifying the Python implementation.
Currently, the following implementations are identified:
'CPython' (C implementation of Python),
'IronPython' (.NET implementation of Python),
'Jython' (Java implementation of Python),
'PyPy' (Python implementation of Python).
return _sys_version()[0]
def python_version():
""" Returns the Python version as string 'major.minor.patchlevel'
Note that unlike the Python sys.version, the returned value
will always include the patchlevel (it defaults to 0).
return _sys_version()[1]
def python_version_tuple():
""" Returns the Python version as tuple (major, minor, patchlevel)
of strings.
Note that unlike the Python sys.version, the returned value
will always include the patchlevel (it defaults to 0).
return tuple(string.split(_sys_version()[1], '.'))
def python_branch():
""" Returns a string identifying the Python implementation
For CPython this is the Subversion branch from which the
Python binary was built.
If not available, an empty string is returned.
return _sys_version()[2]
def python_revision():
""" Returns a string identifying the Python implementation
For CPython this is the Subversion revision from which the
Python binary was built.
If not available, an empty string is returned.
return _sys_version()[3]
def python_build():
""" Returns a tuple (buildno, builddate) stating the Python
build number and date as strings.
return _sys_version()[4:6]
def python_compiler():
""" Returns a string identifying the compiler used for compiling
return _sys_version()[6]
### The Opus Magnum of platform strings :-)
_platform_cache = {}
def platform(aliased=0, terse=0):
""" Returns a single string identifying the underlying platform
with as much useful information as possible (but no more :).
The output is intended to be human readable rather than
machine parseable. It may look different on different
platforms and this is intended.
If "aliased" is true, the function will use aliases for
various platforms that report system names which differ from
their common names, e.g. SunOS will be reported as
Solaris. The system_alias() function is used to implement
Setting terse to true causes the function to return only the
absolute minimum information needed to identify the platform.
result = _platform_cache.get((aliased, terse), None)
if result is not None:
return result
# Get uname information and then apply platform specific cosmetics
# to it...
system,node,release,version,machine,processor = uname()
if machine == processor:
processor = ''
if aliased:
system,release,version = system_alias(system,release,version)
if system == 'Windows':
# MS platforms
rel,vers,csd,ptype = win32_ver(version)
if terse:
platform = _platform(system,release)
platform = _platform(system,release,version,csd)
elif system in ('Linux',):
# Linux based systems
distname,distversion,distid = dist('')
if distname and not terse:
platform = _platform(system,release,machine,processor,
# If the distribution name is unknown check for libc vs. glibc
libcname,libcversion = libc_ver(sys.executable)
platform = _platform(system,release,machine,processor,
elif system == 'Java':
# Java platforms
r,v,vminfo,(os_name,os_version,os_arch) = java_ver()
if terse or not os_name:
platform = _platform(system,release,version)
platform = _platform(system,release,version,
elif system == 'MacOS':
# MacOS platforms
if terse:
platform = _platform(system,release)
platform = _platform(system,release,machine)
# Generic handler
if terse:
platform = _platform(system,release)
bits,linkage = architecture(sys.executable)
platform = _platform(system,release,machine,processor,bits,linkage)
_platform_cache[(aliased, terse)] = platform
return platform
### Command line interface
if __name__ == '__main__':
# Default is to print the aliased verbose platform string
terse = ('terse' in sys.argv or '--terse' in sys.argv)
aliased = (not 'nonaliased' in sys.argv and not '--nonaliased' in sys.argv)
print platform(aliased,terse)