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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
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Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".
INFO-DIR-SECTION Software development
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* Binutils: (binutils). The GNU binary utilities.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
INFO-DIR-SECTION Individual utilities
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* addr2line: (binutils)addr2line. Convert addresses to file and line.
* ar: (binutils)ar. Create, modify, and extract from archives.
* c++filt: (binutils)c++filt. Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols.
* cxxfilt: (binutils)c++filt. MS-DOS name for c++filt.
* dlltool: (binutils)dlltool. Create files needed to build and use DLLs.
* nlmconv: (binutils)nlmconv. Converts object code into an NLM.
* nm: (binutils)nm. List symbols from object files.
* objcopy: (binutils)objcopy. Copy and translate object files.
* objdump: (binutils)objdump. Display information from object files.
* ranlib: (binutils)ranlib. Generate index to archive contents.
* readelf: (binutils)readelf. Display the contents of ELF format files.
* size: (binutils)size. List section sizes and total size.
* strings: (binutils)strings. List printable strings from files.
* strip: (binutils)strip. Discard symbols.
* elfedit: (binutils)elfedit. Update the ELF header of ELF files.
* windmc: (binutils)windmc. Generator for Windows message resources.
* windres: (binutils)windres. Manipulate Windows resources.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY

File: binutils.info, Node: Top, Next: ar, Up: (dir)
Introduction
************
This brief manual contains documentation for the GNU binary utilities
(GNU Binutils) version 2.21:
This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License version 1.3. A copy of the license is included
in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
* Menu:
* ar:: Create, modify, and extract from archives
* nm:: List symbols from object files
* objcopy:: Copy and translate object files
* objdump:: Display information from object files
* ranlib:: Generate index to archive contents
* readelf:: Display the contents of ELF format files
* size:: List section sizes and total size
* strings:: List printable strings from files
* strip:: Discard symbols
* elfedit:: Update the ELF header of ELF files
* c++filt:: Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols
* cxxfilt: c++filt. MS-DOS name for c++filt
* addr2line:: Convert addresses to file and line
* nlmconv:: Converts object code into an NLM
* windres:: Manipulate Windows resources
* windmc:: Generator for Windows message resources
* dlltool:: Create files needed to build and use DLLs
* Common Options:: Command-line options for all utilities
* Selecting the Target System:: How these utilities determine the target
* Reporting Bugs:: Reporting Bugs
* GNU Free Documentation License:: GNU Free Documentation License
* Binutils Index:: Binutils Index

File: binutils.info, Node: ar, Next: nm, Prev: Top, Up: Top
1 ar
****
ar [`--plugin' NAME] [-]P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...]
ar -M [ <mri-script ]
The GNU `ar' program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives.
An "archive" is a single file holding a collection of other files in a
structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual
files (called "members" of the archive).
The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner,
and group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on
extraction.
GNU `ar' can maintain archives whose members have names of any
length; however, depending on how `ar' is configured on your system, a
limit on member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with
archive formats maintained with other tools. If it exists, the limit
is often 15 characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16
characters (typical of formats related to coff).
`ar' is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort
are most often used as "libraries" holding commonly needed subroutines.
`ar' creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object
modules in the archive when you specify the modifier `s'. Once
created, this index is updated in the archive whenever `ar' makes a
change to its contents (save for the `q' update operation). An archive
with such an index speeds up linking to the library, and allows
routines in the library to call each other without regard to their
placement in the archive.
You may use `nm -s' or `nm --print-armap' to list this index table.
If an archive lacks the table, another form of `ar' called `ranlib' can
be used to add just the table.
GNU `ar' can optionally create a _thin_ archive, which contains a
symbol index and references to the original copies of the member files
of the archives. Such an archive is useful for building libraries for
use within a local build, where the relocatable objects are expected to
remain available, and copying the contents of each object would only
waste time and space. Thin archives are also _flattened_, so that
adding one or more archives to a thin archive will add the elements of
the nested archive individually. The paths to the elements of the
archive are stored relative to the archive itself.
GNU `ar' is designed to be compatible with two different facilities.
You can control its activity using command-line options, like the
different varieties of `ar' on Unix systems; or, if you specify the
single command-line option `-M', you can control it with a script
supplied via standard input, like the MRI "librarian" program.
* Menu:
* ar cmdline:: Controlling `ar' on the command line
* ar scripts:: Controlling `ar' with a script

File: binutils.info, Node: ar cmdline, Next: ar scripts, Up: ar
1.1 Controlling `ar' on the Command Line
========================================
ar [`--plugin' NAME] [`-X32_64'] [`-']P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...]
When you use `ar' in the Unix style, `ar' insists on at least two
arguments to execute: one keyletter specifying the _operation_
(optionally accompanied by other keyletters specifying _modifiers_),
and the archive name to act on.
Most operations can also accept further MEMBER arguments, specifying
particular files to operate on.
GNU `ar' allows you to mix the operation code P and modifier flags
MOD in any order, within the first command-line argument.
If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a
dash.
The P keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any
of the following, but you must specify only one of them:
`d'
_Delete_ modules from the archive. Specify the names of modules to
be deleted as MEMBER...; the archive is untouched if you specify
no files to delete.
If you specify the `v' modifier, `ar' lists each module as it is
deleted.
`m'
Use this operation to _move_ members in an archive.
The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how
programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in
more than one member.
If no modifiers are used with `m', any members you name in the
MEMBER arguments are moved to the _end_ of the archive; you can
use the `a', `b', or `i' modifiers to move them to a specified
place instead.
`p'
_Print_ the specified members of the archive, to the standard
output file. If the `v' modifier is specified, show the member
name before copying its contents to standard output.
If you specify no MEMBER arguments, all the files in the archive
are printed.
`q'
_Quick append_; Historically, add the files MEMBER... to the end of
ARCHIVE, without checking for replacement.
The modifiers `a', `b', and `i' do _not_ affect this operation;
new members are always placed at the end of the archive.
The modifier `v' makes `ar' list each file as it is appended.
Since the point of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol
table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can
use `ar s' or `ranlib' explicitly to update the symbol table index.
However, too many different systems assume quick append rebuilds
the index, so GNU `ar' implements `q' as a synonym for `r'.
`r'
Insert the files MEMBER... into ARCHIVE (with _replacement_). This
operation differs from `q' in that any previously existing members
are deleted if their names match those being added.
If one of the files named in MEMBER... does not exist, `ar'
displays an error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing
members of the archive matching that name.
By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you
may use one of the modifiers `a', `b', or `i' to request placement
relative to some existing member.
The modifier `v' used with this operation elicits a line of output
for each file inserted, along with one of the letters `a' or `r'
to indicate whether the file was appended (no old member deleted)
or replaced.
`s'
Add an index to the archive, or update it if it already exists.
Note this command is an exception to the rule that there can only
be one command letter, as it is possible to use it as either a
command or a modifier. In either case it does the same thing.
`t'
Display a _table_ listing the contents of ARCHIVE, or those of the
files listed in MEMBER... that are present in the archive.
Normally only the member name is shown; if you also want to see
the modes (permissions), timestamp, owner, group, and size, you can
request that by also specifying the `v' modifier.
If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are
listed.
If there is more than one file with the same name (say, `fie') in
an archive (say `b.a'), `ar t b.a fie' lists only the first
instance; to see them all, you must ask for a complete listing--in
our example, `ar t b.a'.
`x'
_Extract_ members (named MEMBER) from the archive. You can use
the `v' modifier with this operation, to request that `ar' list
each name as it extracts it.
If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are
extracted.
Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive.
A number of modifiers (MOD) may immediately follow the P keyletter,
to specify variations on an operation's behavior:
`a'
Add new files _after_ an existing member of the archive. If you
use the modifier `a', the name of an existing archive member must
be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE
specification.
`b'
Add new files _before_ an existing member of the archive. If you
use the modifier `b', the name of an existing archive member must
be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE
specification. (same as `i').
`c'
_Create_ the archive. The specified ARCHIVE is always created if
it did not exist, when you request an update. But a warning is
issued unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it,
by using this modifier.
`D'
Operate in _deterministic_ mode. When adding files and the archive
index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file
modes for all files. When this option is used, if `ar' is used
with identical options and identical input files, multiple runs
will create identical output files regardless of the input files'
owners, groups, file modes, or modification times.
`f'
Truncate names in the archive. GNU `ar' will normally permit file
names of any length. This will cause it to create archives which
are not compatible with the native `ar' program on some systems.
If this is a concern, the `f' modifier may be used to truncate file
names when putting them in the archive.
`i'
Insert new files _before_ an existing member of the archive. If
you use the modifier `i', the name of an existing archive member
must be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE
specification. (same as `b').
`l'
This modifier is accepted but not used.
`N'
Uses the COUNT parameter. This is used if there are multiple
entries in the archive with the same name. Extract or delete
instance COUNT of the given name from the archive.
`o'
Preserve the _original_ dates of members when extracting them. If
you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive
are stamped with the time of extraction.
`P'
Use the full path name when matching names in the archive. GNU
`ar' can not create an archive with a full path name (such archives
are not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can. This
option will cause GNU `ar' to match file names using a complete
path name, which can be convenient when extracting a single file
from an archive created by another tool.
`s'
Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing
one, even if no other change is made to the archive. You may use
this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone. Running
`ar s' on an archive is equivalent to running `ranlib' on it.
`S'
Do not generate an archive symbol table. This can speed up
building a large library in several steps. The resulting archive
can not be used with the linker. In order to build a symbol
table, you must omit the `S' modifier on the last execution of
`ar', or you must run `ranlib' on the archive.
`T'
Make the specified ARCHIVE a _thin_ archive. If it already exists
and is a regular archive, the existing members must be present in
the same directory as ARCHIVE.
`u'
Normally, `ar r'... inserts all files listed into the archive. If
you would like to insert _only_ those of the files you list that
are newer than existing members of the same names, use this
modifier. The `u' modifier is allowed only for the operation `r'
(replace). In particular, the combination `qu' is not allowed,
since checking the timestamps would lose any speed advantage from
the operation `q'.
`v'
This modifier requests the _verbose_ version of an operation. Many
operations display additional information, such as filenames
processed, when the modifier `v' is appended.
`V'
This modifier shows the version number of `ar'.
`ar' ignores an initial option spelt `-X32_64', for compatibility
with AIX. The behaviour produced by this option is the default for GNU
`ar'. `ar' does not support any of the other `-X' options; in
particular, it does not support `-X32' which is the default for AIX
`ar'.
The optional command line switch `--plugin' NAME causes `ar' to load
the plugin called NAME which adds support for more file formats. This
option is only available if the toolchain has been built with plugin
support enabled.

File: binutils.info, Node: ar scripts, Prev: ar cmdline, Up: ar
1.2 Controlling `ar' with a Script
==================================
ar -M [ <SCRIPT ]
If you use the single command-line option `-M' with `ar', you can
control its operation with a rudimentary command language. This form
of `ar' operates interactively if standard input is coming directly
from a terminal. During interactive use, `ar' prompts for input (the
prompt is `AR >'), and continues executing even after errors. If you
redirect standard input to a script file, no prompts are issued, and
`ar' abandons execution (with a nonzero exit code) on any error.
The `ar' command language is _not_ designed to be equivalent to the
command-line options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control over
archives. The only purpose of the command language is to ease the
transition to GNU `ar' for developers who already have scripts written
for the MRI "librarian" program.
The syntax for the `ar' command language is straightforward:
* commands are recognized in upper or lower case; for example, `LIST'
is the same as `list'. In the following descriptions, commands are
shown in upper case for clarity.
* a single command may appear on each line; it is the first word on
the line.
* empty lines are allowed, and have no effect.
* comments are allowed; text after either of the characters `*' or
`;' is ignored.
* Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an `ar'
command, you can separate the individual names with either commas
or blanks. Commas are shown in the explanations below, for
clarity.
* `+' is used as a line continuation character; if `+' appears at
the end of a line, the text on the following line is considered
part of the current command.
Here are the commands you can use in `ar' scripts, or when using
`ar' interactively. Three of them have special significance:
`OPEN' or `CREATE' specify a "current archive", which is a temporary
file required for most of the other commands.
`SAVE' commits the changes so far specified by the script. Prior to
`SAVE', commands affect only the temporary copy of the current archive.
`ADDLIB ARCHIVE'
`ADDLIB ARCHIVE (MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE)'
Add all the contents of ARCHIVE (or, if specified, each named
MODULE from ARCHIVE) to the current archive.
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.
`ADDMOD MEMBER, MEMBER, ... MEMBER'
Add each named MEMBER as a module in the current archive.
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.
`CLEAR'
Discard the contents of the current archive, canceling the effect
of any operations since the last `SAVE'. May be executed (with no
effect) even if no current archive is specified.
`CREATE ARCHIVE'
Creates an archive, and makes it the current archive (required for
many other commands). The new archive is created with a temporary
name; it is not actually saved as ARCHIVE until you use `SAVE'.
You can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the contents of any
existing file named ARCHIVE will not be destroyed until `SAVE'.
`DELETE MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE'
Delete each listed MODULE from the current archive; equivalent to
`ar -d ARCHIVE MODULE ... MODULE'.
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.
`DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE, ... MODULE)'
`DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE, ... MODULE) OUTPUTFILE'
List each named MODULE present in ARCHIVE. The separate command
`VERBOSE' specifies the form of the output: when verbose output is
off, output is like that of `ar -t ARCHIVE MODULE...'. When
verbose output is on, the listing is like `ar -tv ARCHIVE
MODULE...'.
Output normally goes to the standard output stream; however, if you
specify OUTPUTFILE as a final argument, `ar' directs the output to
that file.
`END'
Exit from `ar', with a `0' exit code to indicate successful
completion. This command does not save the output file; if you
have changed the current archive since the last `SAVE' command,
those changes are lost.
`EXTRACT MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE'
Extract each named MODULE from the current archive, writing them
into the current directory as separate files. Equivalent to `ar -x
ARCHIVE MODULE...'.
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.
`LIST'
Display full contents of the current archive, in "verbose" style
regardless of the state of `VERBOSE'. The effect is like `ar tv
ARCHIVE'. (This single command is a GNU `ar' enhancement, rather
than present for MRI compatibility.)
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.
`OPEN ARCHIVE'
Opens an existing archive for use as the current archive (required
for many other commands). Any changes as the result of subsequent
commands will not actually affect ARCHIVE until you next use
`SAVE'.
`REPLACE MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE'
In the current archive, replace each existing MODULE (named in the
`REPLACE' arguments) from files in the current working directory.
To execute this command without errors, both the file, and the
module in the current archive, must exist.
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.
`VERBOSE'
Toggle an internal flag governing the output from `DIRECTORY'.
When the flag is on, `DIRECTORY' output matches output from `ar
-tv '....
`SAVE'
Commit your changes to the current archive, and actually save it
as a file with the name specified in the last `CREATE' or `OPEN'
command.
Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

File: binutils.info, Node: nm, Next: objcopy, Prev: ar, Up: Top
2 nm
****
nm [`-a'|`--debug-syms']
[`-g'|`--extern-only'][`--plugin' NAME]
[`-B'] [`-C'|`--demangle'[=STYLE]] [`-D'|`--dynamic']
[`-S'|`--print-size'] [`-s'|`--print-armap']
[`-A'|`-o'|`--print-file-name'][`--special-syms']
[`-n'|`-v'|`--numeric-sort'] [`-p'|`--no-sort']
[`-r'|`--reverse-sort'] [`--size-sort'] [`-u'|`--undefined-only']
[`-t' RADIX|`--radix='RADIX] [`-P'|`--portability']
[`--target='BFDNAME] [`-f'FORMAT|`--format='FORMAT]
[`--defined-only'] [`-l'|`--line-numbers'] [`--no-demangle']
[`-V'|`--version'] [`-X 32_64'] [`--help'] [OBJFILE...]
GNU `nm' lists the symbols from object files OBJFILE.... If no
object files are listed as arguments, `nm' assumes the file `a.out'.
For each symbol, `nm' shows:
* The symbol value, in the radix selected by options (see below), or
hexadecimal by default.
* The symbol type. At least the following types are used; others
are, as well, depending on the object file format. If lowercase,
the symbol is local; if uppercase, the symbol is global (external).
`A'
The symbol's value is absolute, and will not be changed by
further linking.
`B'
`b'
The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as
BSS).
`C'
The symbol is common. Common symbols are uninitialized data.
When linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the
same name. If the symbol is defined anywhere, the common
symbols are treated as undefined references. For more
details on common symbols, see the discussion of -warn-common
in *note Linker options: (ld.info)Options.
`D'
`d'
The symbol is in the initialized data section.
`G'
`g'
The symbol is in an initialized data section for small
objects. Some object file formats permit more efficient
access to small data objects, such as a global int variable
as opposed to a large global array.
`i'
For PE format files this indicates that the symbol is in a
section specific to the implementation of DLLs. For ELF
format files this indicates that the symbol is an indirect
function. This is a GNU extension to the standard set of ELF
symbol types. It indicates a symbol which if referenced by a
relocation does not evaluate to its address, but instead must
be invoked at runtime. The runtime execution will then
return the value to be used in the relocation.
`N'
The symbol is a debugging symbol.
`p'
The symbols is in a stack unwind section.
`R'
`r'
The symbol is in a read only data section.
`S'
`s'
The symbol is in an uninitialized data section for small
objects.
`T'
`t'
The symbol is in the text (code) section.
`U'
The symbol is undefined.
`u'
The symbol is a unique global symbol. This is a GNU
extension to the standard set of ELF symbol bindings. For
such a symbol the dynamic linker will make sure that in the
entire process there is just one symbol with this name and
type in use.
`V'
`v'
The symbol is a weak object. When a weak defined symbol is
linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined
symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined symbol
is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the
weak symbol becomes zero with no error. On some systems,
uppercase indicates that a default value has been specified.
`W'
`w'
The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically
tagged as a weak object symbol. When a weak defined symbol
is linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined
symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined symbol
is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the
symbol is determined in a system-specific manner without
error. On some systems, uppercase indicates that a default
value has been specified.
`-'
The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file. In
this case, the next values printed are the stabs other field,
the stabs desc field, and the stab type. Stabs symbols are
used to hold debugging information. For more information,
see *note Stabs: (stabs.info)Top.
`?'
The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.
* The symbol name.
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.
`-A'
`-o'
`--print-file-name'
Precede each symbol by the name of the input file (or archive
member) in which it was found, rather than identifying the input
file once only, before all of its symbols.
`-a'
`--debug-syms'
Display all symbols, even debugger-only symbols; normally these
are not listed.
`-B'
The same as `--format=bsd' (for compatibility with the MIPS `nm').
`-C'
`--demangle[=STYLE]'
Decode ("demangle") low-level symbol names into user-level names.
Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
this makes C++ function names readable. Different compilers have
different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
compiler. *Note c++filt::, for more information on demangling.
`--no-demangle'
Do not demangle low-level symbol names. This is the default.
`-D'
`--dynamic'
Display the dynamic symbols rather than the normal symbols. This
is only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of
shared libraries.
`-f FORMAT'
`--format=FORMAT'
Use the output format FORMAT, which can be `bsd', `sysv', or
`posix'. The default is `bsd'. Only the first character of
FORMAT is significant; it can be either upper or lower case.
`-g'
`--extern-only'
Display only external symbols.
`--plugin NAME'
Load the plugin called NAME to add support for extra target types.
This option is only available if the toolchain has been built with
plugin support enabled.
`-l'
`--line-numbers'
For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find a
filename and line number. For a defined symbol, look for the line
number of the address of the symbol. For an undefined symbol,
look for the line number of a relocation entry which refers to the
symbol. If line number information can be found, print it after
the other symbol information.
`-n'
`-v'
`--numeric-sort'
Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, rather than
alphabetically by their names.
`-p'
`--no-sort'
Do not bother to sort the symbols in any order; print them in the
order encountered.
`-P'
`--portability'
Use the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default
format. Equivalent to `-f posix'.
`-S'
`--print-size'
Print both value and size of defined symbols for the `bsd' output
style. This option has no effect for object formats that do not
record symbol sizes, unless `--size-sort' is also used in which
case a calculated size is displayed.
`-s'
`--print-armap'
When listing symbols from archive members, include the index: a
mapping (stored in the archive by `ar' or `ranlib') of which
modules contain definitions for which names.
`-r'
`--reverse-sort'
Reverse the order of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic); let
the last come first.
`--size-sort'
Sort symbols by size. The size is computed as the difference
between the value of the symbol and the value of the symbol with
the next higher value. If the `bsd' output format is used the
size of the symbol is printed, rather than the value, and `-S'
must be used in order both size and value to be printed.
`--special-syms'
Display symbols which have a target-specific special meaning.
These symbols are usually used by the target for some special
processing and are not normally helpful when included included in
the normal symbol lists. For example for ARM targets this option
would skip the mapping symbols used to mark transitions between
ARM code, THUMB code and data.
`-t RADIX'
`--radix=RADIX'
Use RADIX as the radix for printing the symbol values. It must be
`d' for decimal, `o' for octal, or `x' for hexadecimal.
`--target=BFDNAME'
Specify an object code format other than your system's default
format. *Note Target Selection::, for more information.
`-u'
`--undefined-only'
Display only undefined symbols (those external to each object
file).
`--defined-only'
Display only defined symbols for each object file.
`-V'
`--version'
Show the version number of `nm' and exit.
`-X'
This option is ignored for compatibility with the AIX version of
`nm'. It takes one parameter which must be the string `32_64'.
The default mode of AIX `nm' corresponds to `-X 32', which is not
supported by GNU `nm'.
`--help'
Show a summary of the options to `nm' and exit.

File: binutils.info, Node: objcopy, Next: objdump, Prev: nm, Up: Top
3 objcopy
*********
objcopy [`-F' BFDNAME|`--target='BFDNAME]
[`-I' BFDNAME|`--input-target='BFDNAME]
[`-O' BFDNAME|`--output-target='BFDNAME]
[`-B' BFDARCH|`--binary-architecture='BFDARCH]
[`-S'|`--strip-all']
[`-g'|`--strip-debug']
[`-K' SYMBOLNAME|`--keep-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`-N' SYMBOLNAME|`--strip-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`--strip-unneeded-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`-G' SYMBOLNAME|`--keep-global-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`--localize-hidden']
[`-L' SYMBOLNAME|`--localize-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`--globalize-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`-W' SYMBOLNAME|`--weaken-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`-w'|`--wildcard']
[`-x'|`--discard-all']
[`-X'|`--discard-locals']
[`-b' BYTE|`--byte='BYTE]
[`-i' [BREADTH]|`--interleave'[=BREADTH]]
[`--interleave-width='WIDTH]
[`-j' SECTIONNAME|`--only-section='SECTIONNAME]
[`-R' SECTIONNAME|`--remove-section='SECTIONNAME]
[`-p'|`--preserve-dates']
[`--debugging']
[`--gap-fill='VAL]
[`--pad-to='ADDRESS]
[`--set-start='VAL]
[`--adjust-start='INCR]
[`--change-addresses='INCR]
[`--change-section-address' SECTION{=,+,-}VAL]
[`--change-section-lma' SECTION{=,+,-}VAL]
[`--change-section-vma' SECTION{=,+,-}VAL]
[`--change-warnings'] [`--no-change-warnings']
[`--set-section-flags' SECTION=FLAGS]
[`--add-section' SECTIONNAME=FILENAME]
[`--rename-section' OLDNAME=NEWNAME[,FLAGS]]
[`--long-section-names' {enable,disable,keep}]
[`--change-leading-char'] [`--remove-leading-char']
[`--reverse-bytes='NUM]
[`--srec-len='IVAL] [`--srec-forceS3']
[`--redefine-sym' OLD=NEW]
[`--redefine-syms='FILENAME]
[`--weaken']
[`--keep-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--strip-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--strip-unneeded-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--keep-global-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--localize-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--globalize-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--weaken-symbols='FILENAME]
[`--alt-machine-code='INDEX]
[`--prefix-symbols='STRING]
[`--prefix-sections='STRING]
[`--prefix-alloc-sections='STRING]
[`--add-gnu-debuglink='PATH-TO-FILE]
[`--keep-file-symbols']
[`--only-keep-debug']
[`--extract-symbol']
[`--writable-text']
[`--readonly-text']
[`--pure']
[`--impure']
[`--file-alignment='NUM]
[`--heap='SIZE]
[`--image-base='ADDRESS]
[`--section-alignment='NUM]
[`--stack='SIZE]
[`--subsystem='WHICH:MAJOR.MINOR]
[`--compress-debug-sections']
[`--decompress-debug-sections']
[`-v'|`--verbose']
[`-V'|`--version']
[`--help'] [`--info']
INFILE [OUTFILE]
The GNU `objcopy' utility copies the contents of an object file to
another. `objcopy' uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the
object files. It can write the destination object file in a format
different from that of the source object file. The exact behavior of
`objcopy' is controlled by command-line options. Note that `objcopy'
should be able to copy a fully linked file between any two formats.
However, copying a relocatable object file between any two formats may
not work as expected.
`objcopy' creates temporary files to do its translations and deletes
them afterward. `objcopy' uses BFD to do all its translation work; it
has access to all the formats described in BFD and thus is able to
recognize most formats without being told explicitly. *Note BFD:
(ld.info)BFD.
`objcopy' can be used to generate S-records by using an output
target of `srec' (e.g., use `-O srec').
`objcopy' can be used to generate a raw binary file by using an
output target of `binary' (e.g., use `-O binary'). When `objcopy'
generates a raw binary file, it will essentially produce a memory dump
of the contents of the input object file. All symbols and relocation
information will be discarded. The memory dump will start at the load
address of the lowest section copied into the output file.
When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful
to use `-S' to remove sections containing debugging information. In
some cases `-R' will be useful to remove sections which contain
information that is not needed by the binary file.
Note--`objcopy' is not able to change the endianness of its input
files. If the input format has an endianness (some formats do not),
`objcopy' can only copy the inputs into file formats that have the same
endianness or which have no endianness (e.g., `srec'). (However, see
the `--reverse-bytes' option.)
`INFILE'
`OUTFILE'
The input and output files, respectively. If you do not specify
OUTFILE, `objcopy' creates a temporary file and destructively
renames the result with the name of INFILE.
`-I BFDNAME'
`--input-target=BFDNAME'
Consider the source file's object format to be BFDNAME, rather than
attempting to deduce it. *Note Target Selection::, for more
information.
`-O BFDNAME'
`--output-target=BFDNAME'
Write the output file using the object format BFDNAME. *Note
Target Selection::, for more information.
`-F BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
Use BFDNAME as the object format for both the input and the output
file; i.e., simply transfer data from source to destination with no
translation. *Note Target Selection::, for more information.
`-B BFDARCH'
`--binary-architecture=BFDARCH'
Useful when transforming a architecture-less input file into an
object file. In this case the output architecture can be set to
BFDARCH. This option will be ignored if the input file has a
known BFDARCH. You can access this binary data inside a program
by referencing the special symbols that are created by the
conversion process. These symbols are called
_binary_OBJFILE_start, _binary_OBJFILE_end and
_binary_OBJFILE_size. e.g. you can transform a picture file into
an object file and then access it in your code using these symbols.
`-j SECTIONNAME'
`--only-section=SECTIONNAME'
Copy only the named section from the input file to the output file.
This option may be given more than once. Note that using this
option inappropriately may make the output file unusable.
`-R SECTIONNAME'
`--remove-section=SECTIONNAME'
Remove any section named SECTIONNAME from the output file. This
option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
inappropriately may make the output file unusable.
`-S'
`--strip-all'
Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source file.
`-g'
`--strip-debug'
Do not copy debugging symbols or sections from the source file.
`--strip-unneeded'
Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.
`-K SYMBOLNAME'
`--keep-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
When stripping symbols, keep symbol SYMBOLNAME even if it would
normally be stripped. This option may be given more than once.
`-N SYMBOLNAME'
`--strip-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Do not copy symbol SYMBOLNAME from the source file. This option
may be given more than once.
`--strip-unneeded-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Do not copy symbol SYMBOLNAME from the source file unless it is
needed by a relocation. This option may be given more than once.
`-G SYMBOLNAME'
`--keep-global-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Keep only symbol SYMBOLNAME global. Make all other symbols local
to the file, so that they are not visible externally. This option
may be given more than once.
`--localize-hidden'
In an ELF object, mark all symbols that have hidden or internal
visibility as local. This option applies on top of
symbol-specific localization options such as `-L'.
`-L SYMBOLNAME'
`--localize-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Make symbol SYMBOLNAME local to the file, so that it is not
visible externally. This option may be given more than once.
`-W SYMBOLNAME'
`--weaken-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Make symbol SYMBOLNAME weak. This option may be given more than
once.
`--globalize-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Give symbol SYMBOLNAME global scoping so that it is visible
outside of the file in which it is defined. This option may be
given more than once.
`-w'
`--wildcard'
Permit regular expressions in SYMBOLNAMEs used in other command
line options. The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\)
and square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the
symbol name. If the first character of the symbol name is the
exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for
that symbol. For example:
-w -W !foo -W fo*
would cause objcopy to weaken all symbols that start with "fo"
except for the symbol "foo".
`-x'
`--discard-all'
Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.
`-X'
`--discard-locals'
Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually
start with `L' or `.'.)
`-b BYTE'
`--byte=BYTE'
If interleaving has been enabled via the `--interleave' option
then start the range of bytes to keep at the BYTEth byte. BYTE
can be in the range from 0 to BREADTH-1, where BREADTH is the
value given by the `--interleave' option.
`-i [BREADTH]'
`--interleave[=BREADTH]'
Only copy a range out of every BREADTH bytes. (Header data is not
affected). Select which byte in the range begins the copy with
the `--byte' option. Select the width of the range with the
`--interleave-width' option.
This option is useful for creating files to program ROM. It is
typically used with an `srec' output target. Note that `objcopy'
will complain if you do not specify the `--byte' option as well.
The default interleave breadth is 4, so with `--byte' set to 0,
`objcopy' would copy the first byte out of every four bytes from
the input to the output.
`--interleave-width=WIDTH'
When used with the `--interleave' option, copy WIDTH bytes at a
time. The start of the range of bytes to be copied is set by the
`--byte' option, and the extent of the range is set with the
`--interleave' option.
The default value for this option is 1. The value of WIDTH plus
the BYTE value set by the `--byte' option must not exceed the
interleave breadth set by the `--interleave' option.
This option can be used to create images for two 16-bit flashes
interleaved in a 32-bit bus by passing `-b 0 -i 4
--interleave-width=2' and `-b 2 -i 4 --interleave-width=2' to two
`objcopy' commands. If the input was '12345678' then the outputs
would be '1256' and '3478' respectively.
`-p'
`--preserve-dates'
Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be the
same as those of the input file.
`--debugging'
Convert debugging information, if possible. This is not the
default because only certain debugging formats are supported, and
the conversion process can be time consuming.
`--gap-fill VAL'
Fill gaps between sections with VAL. This operation applies to
the _load address_ (LMA) of the sections. It is done by increasing
the size of the section with the lower address, and filling in the
extra space created with VAL.
`--pad-to ADDRESS'
Pad the output file up to the load address ADDRESS. This is done
by increasing the size of the last section. The extra space is
filled in with the value specified by `--gap-fill' (default zero).
`--set-start VAL'
Set the start address of the new file to VAL. Not all object file
formats support setting the start address.
`--change-start INCR'
`--adjust-start INCR'
Change the start address by adding INCR. Not all object file
formats support setting the start address.
`--change-addresses INCR'
`--adjust-vma INCR'
Change the VMA and LMA addresses of all sections, as well as the
start address, by adding INCR. Some object file formats do not
permit section addresses to be changed arbitrarily. Note that
this does not relocate the sections; if the program expects
sections to be loaded at a certain address, and this option is
used to change the sections such that they are loaded at a
different address, the program may fail.
`--change-section-address SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
`--adjust-section-vma SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
Set or change both the VMA address and the LMA address of the named
SECTION. If `=' is used, the section address is set to VAL.
Otherwise, VAL is added to or subtracted from the section address.
See the comments under `--change-addresses', above. If SECTION
does not exist in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
`--no-change-warnings' is used.
`--change-section-lma SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
Set or change the LMA address of the named SECTION. The LMA
address is the address where the section will be loaded into
memory at program load time. Normally this is the same as the VMA
address, which is the address of the section at program run time,
but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in
ROM, the two can be different. If `=' is used, the section
address is set to VAL. Otherwise, VAL is added to or subtracted
from the section address. See the comments under
`--change-addresses', above. If SECTION does not exist in the
input file, a warning will be issued, unless
`--no-change-warnings' is used.
`--change-section-vma SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
Set or change the VMA address of the named SECTION. The VMA
address is the address where the section will be located once the
program has started executing. Normally this is the same as the
LMA address, which is the address where the section will be loaded
into memory, but on some systems, especially those where a program
is held in ROM, the two can be different. If `=' is used, the
section address is set to VAL. Otherwise, VAL is added to or
subtracted from the section address. See the comments under
`--change-addresses', above. If SECTION does not exist in the
input file, a warning will be issued, unless
`--no-change-warnings' is used.
`--change-warnings'
`--adjust-warnings'
If `--change-section-address' or `--change-section-lma' or
`--change-section-vma' is used, and the named section does not
exist, issue a warning. This is the default.
`--no-change-warnings'
`--no-adjust-warnings'
Do not issue a warning if `--change-section-address' or
`--adjust-section-lma' or `--adjust-section-vma' is used, even if
the named section does not exist.
`--set-section-flags SECTION=FLAGS'
Set the flags for the named section. The FLAGS argument is a
comma separated string of flag names. The recognized names are
`alloc', `contents', `load', `noload', `readonly', `code', `data',
`rom', `share', and `debug'. You can set the `contents' flag for
a section which does not have contents, but it is not meaningful
to clear the `contents' flag of a section which does have
contents-just remove the section instead. Not all flags are
meaningful for all object file formats.
`--add-section SECTIONNAME=FILENAME'
Add a new section named SECTIONNAME while copying the file. The
contents of the new section are taken from the file FILENAME. The
size of the section will be the size of the file. This option only
works on file formats which can support sections with arbitrary
names.
`--rename-section OLDNAME=NEWNAME[,FLAGS]'
Rename a section from OLDNAME to NEWNAME, optionally changing the
section's flags to FLAGS in the process. This has the advantage
over usng a linker script to perform the rename in that the output
stays as an object file and does not become a linked executable.
This option is particularly helpful when the input format is
binary, since this will always create a section called .data. If
for example, you wanted instead to create a section called .rodata
containing binary data you could use the following command line to
achieve it:
objcopy -I binary -O <output_format> -B <architecture> \
--rename-section .data=.rodata,alloc,load,readonly,data,contents \
<input_binary_file> <output_object_file>
`--long-section-names {enable,disable,keep}'
Controls the handling of long section names when processing `COFF'
and `PE-COFF' object formats. The default behaviour, `keep', is
to preserve long section names if any are present in the input
file. The `enable' and `disable' options forcibly enable or
disable the use of long section names in the output object; when
`disable' is in effect, any long section names in the input object
will be truncated. The `enable' option will only emit long
section names if any are present in the inputs; this is mostly the
same as `keep', but it is left undefined whether the `enable'
option might force the creation of an empty string table in the
output file.
`--change-leading-char'
Some object file formats use special characters at the start of
symbols. The most common such character is underscore, which
compilers often add before every symbol. This option tells
`objcopy' to change the leading character of every symbol when it
converts between object file formats. If the object file formats
use the same leading character, this option has no effect.
Otherwise, it will add a character, or remove a character, or
change a character, as appropriate.
`--remove-leading-char'
If the first character of a global symbol is a special symbol
leading character used by the object file format, remove the
character. The most common symbol leading character is
underscore. This option will remove a leading underscore from all
global symbols. This can be useful if you want to link together
objects of different file formats with different conventions for
symbol names. This is different from `--change-leading-char'
because it always changes the symbol name when appropriate,
regardless of the object file format of the output file.
`--reverse-bytes=NUM'
Reverse the bytes in a section with output contents. A section
length must be evenly divisible by the value given in order for
the swap to be able to take place. Reversing takes place before
the interleaving is performed.
This option is used typically in generating ROM images for
problematic target systems. For example, on some target boards,
the 32-bit words fetched from 8-bit ROMs are re-assembled in
little-endian byte order regardless of the CPU byte order.
Depending on the programming model, the endianness of the ROM may
need to be modified.
Consider a simple file with a section containing the following
eight bytes: `12345678'.
Using `--reverse-bytes=2' for the above example, the bytes in the
output file would be ordered `21436587'.
Using `--reverse-bytes=4' for the above example, the bytes in the
output file would be ordered `43218765'.
By using `--reverse-bytes=2' for the above example, followed by
`--reverse-bytes=4' on the output file, the bytes in the second
output file would be ordered `34127856'.
`--srec-len=IVAL'
Meaningful only for srec output. Set the maximum length of the
Srecords being produced to IVAL. This length covers both address,
data and crc fields.
`--srec-forceS3'
Meaningful only for srec output. Avoid generation of S1/S2
records, creating S3-only record format.
`--redefine-sym OLD=NEW'
Change the name of a symbol OLD, to NEW. This can be useful when
one is trying link two things together for which you have no
source, and there are name collisions.
`--redefine-syms=FILENAME'
Apply `--redefine-sym' to each symbol pair "OLD NEW" listed in the
file FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol
pair per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
character. This option may be given more than once.
`--weaken'
Change all global symbols in the file to be weak. This can be
useful when building an object which will be linked against other
objects using the `-R' option to the linker. This option is only
effective when using an object file format which supports weak
symbols.
`--keep-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--keep-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
`--strip-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--strip-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
`--strip-unneeded-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--strip-unneeded-symbol' option to each symbol listed in
the file FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one
symbol name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
character. This option may be given more than once.
`--keep-global-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--keep-global-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the
file FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol
name per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash
character. This option may be given more than once.
`--localize-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--localize-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
`--globalize-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--globalize-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
`--weaken-symbols=FILENAME'
Apply `--weaken-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
FILENAME. FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
per line. Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
This option may be given more than once.
`--alt-machine-code=INDEX'
If the output architecture has alternate machine codes, use the
INDEXth code instead of the default one. This is useful in case a
machine is assigned an official code and the tool-chain adopts the
new code, but other applications still depend on the original code
being used. For ELF based architectures if the INDEX alternative
does not exist then the value is treated as an absolute number to
be stored in the e_machine field of the ELF header.
`--writable-text'
Mark the output text as writable. This option isn't meaningful
for all object file formats.
`--readonly-text'
Make the output text write protected. This option isn't
meaningful for all object file formats.
`--pure'
Mark the output file as demand paged. This option isn't
meaningful for all object file formats.
`--impure'
Mark the output file as impure. This option isn't meaningful for
all object file formats.
`--prefix-symbols=STRING'
Prefix all symbols in the output file with STRING.
`--prefix-sections=STRING'
Prefix all section names in the output file with STRING.
`--prefix-alloc-sections=STRING'
Prefix all the names of all allocated sections in the output file
with STRING.
`--add-gnu-debuglink=PATH-TO-FILE'
Creates a .gnu_debuglink section which contains a reference to
PATH-TO-FILE and adds it to the output file.
`--keep-file-symbols'
When stripping a file, perhaps with `--strip-debug' or
`--strip-unneeded', retain any symbols specifying source file
names, which would otherwise get stripped.
`--only-keep-debug'
Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
stripped by `--strip-debug' and leaving the debugging sections
intact. In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the
output.
The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with
`--add-gnu-debuglink' to create a two part executable. One a
stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
distribution and the second a debugging information file which is
only needed if debugging abilities are required. The suggested
procedure to create these files is as follows:
1. Link the executable as normal. Assuming that is is called
`foo' then...
2. Run `objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg' to create a file
containing the debugging info.
3. Run `objcopy --strip-debug foo' to create a stripped
executable.
4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo' to add a link
to the debugging info into the stripped executable.
Note--the choice of `.dbg' as an extension for the debug info file
is arbitrary. Also the `--only-keep-debug' step is optional. You
could instead do this:
1. Link the executable as normal.
2. Copy `foo' to `foo.full'
3. Run `objcopy --strip-debug foo'
4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo'
i.e., the file pointed to by the `--add-gnu-debuglink' can be the
full executable. It does not have to be a file created by the
`--only-keep-debug' switch.
Note--this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files.
It does not make sense to use it on object files where the
debugging information may be incomplete. Besides the
gnu_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one
filename containing debugging information, not multiple filenames
on a one-per-object-file basis.
`--file-alignment NUM'
Specify the file alignment. Sections in the file will always
begin at file offsets which are multiples of this number. This
defaults to 512. [This option is specific to PE targets.]
`--heap RESERVE'
`--heap RESERVE,COMMIT'
Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally
commit) to be used as heap for this program. [This option is
specific to PE targets.]
`--image-base VALUE'
Use VALUE as the base address of your program or dll. This is the
lowest memory location that will be used when your program or dll
is loaded. To reduce the need to relocate and improve performance
of your dlls, each should have a unique base address and not
overlap any other dlls. The default is 0x400000 for executables,
and 0x10000000 for dlls. [This option is specific to PE targets.]
`--section-alignment NUM'
Sets the section alignment. Sections in memory will always begin
at addresses which are a multiple of this number. Defaults to
0x1000. [This option is specific to PE targets.]
`--stack RESERVE'
`--stack RESERVE,COMMIT'
Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally
commit) to be used as stack for this program. [This option is
specific to PE targets.]
`--subsystem WHICH'
`--subsystem WHICH:MAJOR'
`--subsystem WHICH:MAJOR.MINOR'
Specifies the subsystem under which your program will execute. The
legal values for WHICH are `native', `windows', `console',
`posix', `efi-app', `efi-bsd', `efi-rtd', `sal-rtd', and `xbox'.
You may optionally set the subsystem version also. Numeric values
are also accepted for WHICH. [This option is specific to PE
targets.]
`--extract-symbol'
Keep the file's section flags and symbols but remove all section
data. Specifically, the option:
* removes the contents of all sections;
* sets the size of every section to zero; and
* sets the file's start address to zero.
This option is used to build a `.sym' file for a VxWorks kernel.
It can also be a useful way of reducing the size of a
`--just-symbols' linker input file.
`--compress-debug-sections'
Compress DWARF debug sections using zlib.
`--decompress-debug-sections'
Decompress DWARF debug sections using zlib.
`-V'
`--version'
Show the version number of `objcopy'.
`-v'
`--verbose'
Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
archives, `objcopy -V' lists all members of the archive.
`--help'
Show a summary of the options to `objcopy'.
`--info'
Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
available.

File: binutils.info, Node: objdump, Next: ranlib, Prev: objcopy, Up: Top
4 objdump
*********
objdump [`-a'|`--archive-headers']
[`-b' BFDNAME|`--target=BFDNAME']
[`-C'|`--demangle'[=STYLE] ]
[`-d'|`--disassemble']
[`-D'|`--disassemble-all']
[`-z'|`--disassemble-zeroes']
[`-EB'|`-EL'|`--endian='{big | little }]
[`-f'|`--file-headers']
[`-F'|`--file-offsets']
[`--file-start-context']
[`-g'|`--debugging']
[`-e'|`--debugging-tags']
[`-h'|`--section-headers'|`--headers']
[`-i'|`--info']
[`-j' SECTION|`--section='SECTION]
[`-l'|`--line-numbers']
[`-S'|`--source']
[`-m' MACHINE|`--architecture='MACHINE]
[`-M' OPTIONS|`--disassembler-options='OPTIONS]
[`-p'|`--private-headers']
[`-r'|`--reloc']
[`-R'|`--dynamic-reloc']
[`-s'|`--full-contents']
[`-W[lLiaprmfFsoRt]'|
`--dwarf'[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges]]
[`-G'|`--stabs']
[`-t'|`--syms']
[`-T'|`--dynamic-syms']
[`-x'|`--all-headers']
[`-w'|`--wide']
[`--start-address='ADDRESS]
[`--stop-address='ADDRESS]
[`--prefix-addresses']
[`--[no-]show-raw-insn']
[`--adjust-vma='OFFSET]
[`--special-syms']
[`--prefix='PREFIX]
[`--prefix-strip='LEVEL]
[`--insn-width='WIDTH]
[`-V'|`--version']
[`-H'|`--help']
OBJFILE...
`objdump' displays information about one or more object files. The
options control what particular information to display. This
information is mostly useful to programmers who are working on the
compilation tools, as opposed to programmers who just want their
program to compile and work.
OBJFILE... are the object files to be examined. When you specify
archives, `objdump' shows information on each of the member object
files.
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent. At least one option from the list
`-a,-d,-D,-e,-f,-g,-G,-h,-H,-p,-r,-R,-s,-S,-t,-T,-V,-x' must be given.
`-a'
`--archive-header'
If any of the OBJFILE files are archives, display the archive
header information (in a format similar to `ls -l'). Besides the
information you could list with `ar tv', `objdump -a' shows the
object file format of each archive member.
`--adjust-vma=OFFSET'
When dumping information, first add OFFSET to all the section
addresses. This is useful if the section addresses do not
correspond to the symbol table, which can happen when putting
sections at particular addresses when using a format which can not
represent section addresses, such as a.out.
`-b BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
BFDNAME. This option may not be necessary; OBJDUMP can
automatically recognize many formats.
For example,
objdump -b oasys -m vax -h fu.o
displays summary information from the section headers (`-h') of
`fu.o', which is explicitly identified (`-m') as a VAX object file
in the format produced by Oasys compilers. You can list the
formats available with the `-i' option. *Note Target Selection::,
for more information.
`-C'
`--demangle[=STYLE]'
Decode ("demangle") low-level symbol names into user-level names.
Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
this makes C++ function names readable. Different compilers have
different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
compiler. *Note c++filt::, for more information on demangling.
`-g'
`--debugging'
Display debugging information. This attempts to parse STABS and
IEEE debugging format information stored in the file and print it
out using a C like syntax. If neither of these formats are found
this option falls back on the `-W' option to print any DWARF
information in the file.
`-e'
`--debugging-tags'
Like `-g', but the information is generated in a format compatible
with ctags tool.
`-d'
`--disassemble'
Display the assembler mnemonics for the machine instructions from
OBJFILE. This option only disassembles those sections which are
expected to contain instructions.
`-D'
`--disassemble-all'
Like `-d', but disassemble the contents of all sections, not just
those expected to contain instructions.
If the target is an ARM architecture this switch also has the
effect of forcing the disassembler to decode pieces of data found
in code sections as if they were instructions.
`--prefix-addresses'
When disassembling, print the complete address on each line. This
is the older disassembly format.
`-EB'
`-EL'
`--endian={big|little}'
Specify the endianness of the object files. This only affects
disassembly. This can be useful when disassembling a file format
which does not describe endianness information, such as S-records.
`-f'
`--file-headers'
Display summary information from the overall header of each of the
OBJFILE files.
`-F'
`--file-offsets'
When disassembling sections, whenever a symbol is displayed, also
display the file offset of the region of data that is about to be
dumped. If zeroes are being skipped, then when disassembly
resumes, tell the user how many zeroes were skipped and the file
offset of the location from where the disassembly resumes. When
dumping sections, display the file offset of the location from
where the dump starts.
`--file-start-context'
Specify that when displaying interlisted source code/disassembly
(assumes `-S') from a file that has not yet been displayed, extend
the context to the start of the file.
`-h'
`--section-headers'
`--headers'
Display summary information from the section headers of the object
file.
File segments may be relocated to nonstandard addresses, for
example by using the `-Ttext', `-Tdata', or `-Tbss' options to
`ld'. However, some object file formats, such as a.out, do not
store the starting address of the file segments. In those
situations, although `ld' relocates the sections correctly, using
`objdump -h' to list the file section headers cannot show the
correct addresses. Instead, it shows the usual addresses, which
are implicit for the target.
`-H'
`--help'
Print a summary of the options to `objdump' and exit.
`-i'
`--info'
Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
available for specification with `-b' or `-m'.
`-j NAME'
`--section=NAME'
Display information only for section NAME.
`-l'
`--line-numbers'
Label the display (using debugging information) with the filename
and source line numbers corresponding to the object code or relocs
shown. Only useful with `-d', `-D', or `-r'.
`-m MACHINE'
`--architecture=MACHINE'
Specify the architecture to use when disassembling object files.
This can be useful when disassembling object files which do not
describe architecture information, such as S-records. You can
list the available architectures with the `-i' option.
If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch has an
additional effect. It restricts the disassembly to only those
instructions supported by the architecture specified by MACHINE.
If it is necessary to use this switch because the input file does
not contain any architecture information, but it is also desired to
disassemble all the instructions use `-marm'.
`-M OPTIONS'
`--disassembler-options=OPTIONS'
Pass target specific information to the disassembler. Only
supported on some targets. If it is necessary to specify more
than one disassembler option then multiple `-M' options can be
used or can be placed together into a comma separated list.
If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch can be used
to select which register name set is used during disassembler.
Specifying `-M reg-names-std' (the default) will select the
register names as used in ARM's instruction set documentation, but
with register 13 called 'sp', register 14 called 'lr' and register
15 called 'pc'. Specifying `-M reg-names-apcs' will select the
name set used by the ARM Procedure Call Standard, whilst
specifying `-M reg-names-raw' will just use `r' followed by the
register number.
There are also two variants on the APCS register naming scheme
enabled by `-M reg-names-atpcs' and `-M reg-names-special-atpcs'
which use the ARM/Thumb Procedure Call Standard naming
conventions. (Either with the normal register names or the
special register names).
This option can also be used for ARM architectures to force the
disassembler to interpret all instructions as Thumb instructions by
using the switch `--disassembler-options=force-thumb'. This can be
useful when attempting to disassemble thumb code produced by other
compilers.
For the x86, some of the options duplicate functions of the `-m'
switch, but allow finer grained control. Multiple selections from
the following may be specified as a comma separated string.
`x86-64', `i386' and `i8086' select disassembly for the given
architecture. `intel' and `att' select between intel syntax mode
and AT&T syntax mode. `intel-mnemonic' and `att-mnemonic' select
between intel mnemonic mode and AT&T mnemonic mode.
`intel-mnemonic' implies `intel' and `att-mnemonic' implies `att'.
`addr64', `addr32', `addr16', `data32' and `data16' specify the
default address size and operand size. These four options will be
overridden if `x86-64', `i386' or `i8086' appear later in the
option string. Lastly, `suffix', when in AT&T mode, instructs the
disassembler to print a mnemonic suffix even when the suffix could
be inferred by the operands.
For PowerPC, `booke' controls the disassembly of BookE
instructions. `32' and `64' select PowerPC and PowerPC64
disassembly, respectively. `e300' selects disassembly for the
e300 family. `440' selects disassembly for the PowerPC 440.
`ppcps' selects disassembly for the paired single instructions of
the PPC750CL.
For MIPS, this option controls the printing of instruction mnemonic
names and register names in disassembled instructions. Multiple
selections from the following may be specified as a comma separated
string, and invalid options are ignored:
`no-aliases'
Print the 'raw' instruction mnemonic instead of some pseudo
instruction mnemonic. I.e., print 'daddu' or 'or' instead of
'move', 'sll' instead of 'nop', etc.
`gpr-names=ABI'
Print GPR (general-purpose register) names as appropriate for
the specified ABI. By default, GPR names are selected
according to the ABI of the binary being disassembled.
`fpr-names=ABI'
Print FPR (floating-point register) names as appropriate for
the specified ABI. By default, FPR numbers are printed
rather than names.
`cp0-names=ARCH'
Print CP0 (system control coprocessor; coprocessor 0)
register names as appropriate for the CPU or architecture
specified by ARCH. By default, CP0 register names are
selected according to the architecture and CPU of the binary
being disassembled.
`hwr-names=ARCH'
Print HWR (hardware register, used by the `rdhwr'
instruction) names as appropriate for the CPU or architecture
specified by ARCH. By default, HWR names are selected
according to the architecture and CPU of the binary being
disassembled.
`reg-names=ABI'
Print GPR and FPR names as appropriate for the selected ABI.
`reg-names=ARCH'
Print CPU-specific register names (CP0 register and HWR names)
as appropriate for the selected CPU or architecture.
For any of the options listed above, ABI or ARCH may be specified
as `numeric' to have numbers printed rather than names, for the
selected types of registers. You can list the available values of
ABI and ARCH using the `--help' option.
For VAX, you can specify function entry addresses with `-M
entry:0xf00ba'. You can use this multiple times to properly
disassemble VAX binary files that don't contain symbol tables (like
ROM dumps). In these cases, the function entry mask would
otherwise be decoded as VAX instructions, which would probably
lead the rest of the function being wrongly disassembled.
`-p'
`--private-headers'
Print information that is specific to the object file format. The
exact information printed depends upon the object file format.
For some object file formats, no additional information is printed.
`-r'
`--reloc'
Print the relocation entries of the file. If used with `-d' or
`-D', the relocations are printed interspersed with the
disassembly.
`-R'
`--dynamic-reloc'
Print the dynamic relocation entries of the file. This is only
meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
libraries. As for `-r', if used with `-d' or `-D', the
relocations are printed interspersed with the disassembly.
`-s'
`--full-contents'
Display the full contents of any sections requested. By default
all non-empty sections are displayed.
`-S'
`--source'
Display source code intermixed with disassembly, if possible.
Implies `-d'.
`--prefix=PREFIX'
Specify PREFIX to add to the absolute paths when used with `-S'.
`--prefix-strip=LEVEL'
Indicate how many initial directory names to strip off the
hardwired absolute paths. It has no effect without
`--prefix='PREFIX.
`--show-raw-insn'
When disassembling instructions, print the instruction in hex as
well as in symbolic form. This is the default except when
`--prefix-addresses' is used.
`--no-show-raw-insn'
When disassembling instructions, do not print the instruction
bytes. This is the default when `--prefix-addresses' is used.
`--insn-width=WIDTH'
Display WIDTH bytes on a single line when disassembling
instructions.
`-W[lLiaprmfFsoRt]'
`--dwarf[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges]'
Displays the contents of the debug sections in the file, if any are
present. If one of the optional letters or words follows the
switch then only data found in those specific sections will be
dumped.
Note that there is no single letter option to display the content
of trace sections.
`-G'
`--stabs'
Display the full contents of any sections requested. Display the
contents of the .stab and .stab.index and .stab.excl sections from
an ELF file. This is only useful on systems (such as Solaris 2.0)
in which `.stab' debugging symbol-table entries are carried in an
ELF section. In most other file formats, debugging symbol-table
entries are interleaved with linkage symbols, and are visible in
the `--syms' output. For more information on stabs symbols, see
*note Stabs: (stabs.info)Top.
`--start-address=ADDRESS'
Start displaying data at the specified address. This affects the
output of the `-d', `-r' and `-s' options.
`--stop-address=ADDRESS'
Stop displaying data at the specified address. This affects the
output of the `-d', `-r' and `-s' options.
`-t'
`--syms'
Print the symbol table entries of the file. This is similar to
the information provided by the `nm' program, although the display
format is different. The format of the output depends upon the
format of the file being dumped, but there are two main types.
One looks like this:
[ 4](sec 3)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 3) (nx 1) 0x00000000 .bss
[ 6](sec 1)(fl 0x00)(ty 0)(scl 2) (nx 0) 0x00000000 fred
where the number inside the square brackets is the number of the
entry in the symbol table, the SEC number is the section number,
the FL value are the symbol's flag bits, the TY number is the
symbol's type, the SCL number is the symbol's storage class and
the NX value is the number of auxilary entries associated with the
symbol. The last two fields are the symbol's value and its name.
The other common output format, usually seen with ELF based files,
looks like this:
00000000 l d .bss 00000000 .bss
00000000 g .text 00000000 fred
Here the first number is the symbol's value (sometimes refered to
as its address). The next field is actually a set of characters
and spaces indicating the flag bits that are set on the symbol.
These characters are described below. Next is the section with
which the symbol is associated or _*ABS*_ if the section is
absolute (ie not connected with any section), or _*UND*_ if the
section is referenced in the file being dumped, but not defined
there.
After the section name comes another field, a number, which for
common symbols is the alignment and for other symbol is the size.
Finally the symbol's name is displayed.
The flag characters are divided into 7 groups as follows:
`l'
`g'
`u'
`!'
The symbol is a local (l), global (g), unique global (u),
neither global nor local (a space) or both global and local
(!). A symbol can be neither local or global for a variety
of reasons, e.g., because it is used for debugging, but it is
probably an indication of a bug if it is ever both local and
global. Unique global symbols are a GNU extension to the
standard set of ELF symbol bindings. For such a symbol the
dynamic linker will make sure that in the entire process
there is just one symbol with this name and type in use.
`w'
The symbol is weak (w) or strong (a space).
`C'
The symbol denotes a constructor (C) or an ordinary symbol (a
space).
`W'
The symbol is a warning (W) or a normal symbol (a space). A
warning symbol's name is a message to be displayed if the
symbol following the warning symbol is ever referenced.
`I'
`i'
The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol (I), a
function to be evaluated during reloc processing (i) or a
normal symbol (a space).
`d'
`D'
The symbol is a debugging symbol (d) or a dynamic symbol (D)
or a normal symbol (a space).
`F'
`f'
`O'
The symbol is the name of a function (F) or a file (f) or an
object (O) or just a normal symbol (a space).
`-T'
`--dynamic-syms'
Print the dynamic symbol table entries of the file. This is only
meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
libraries. This is similar to the information provided by the `nm'
program when given the `-D' (`--dynamic') option.
`--special-syms'
When displaying symbols include those which the target considers
to be special in some way and which would not normally be of
interest to the user.
`-V'
`--version'
Print the version number of `objdump' and exit.
`-x'
`--all-headers'
Display all available header information, including the symbol
table and relocation entries. Using `-x' is equivalent to
specifying all of `-a -f -h -p -r -t'.
`-w'
`--wide'
Format some lines for output devices that have more than 80
columns. Also do not truncate symbol names when they are
displayed.
`-z'
`--disassemble-zeroes'
Normally the disassembly output will skip blocks of zeroes. This
option directs the disassembler to disassemble those blocks, just
like any other data.

File: binutils.info, Node: ranlib, Next: readelf, Prev: objdump, Up: Top
5 ranlib
********
ranlib [`-vVt'] ARCHIVE
`ranlib' generates an index to the contents of an archive and stores
it in the archive. The index lists each symbol defined by a member of
an archive that is a relocatable object file.
You may use `nm -s' or `nm --print-armap' to list this index.
An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library and
allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to
their placement in the archive.
The GNU `ranlib' program is another form of GNU `ar'; running
`ranlib' is completely equivalent to executing `ar -s'. *Note ar::.
`-v'
`-V'
`--version'
Show the version number of `ranlib'.
`-t'
Update the timestamp of the symbol map of an archive.

File: binutils.info, Node: size, Next: strings, Prev: readelf, Up: Top
6 size
******
size [`-A'|`-B'|`--format='COMPATIBILITY]
[`--help']
[`-d'|`-o'|`-x'|`--radix='NUMBER]
[`--common']
[`-t'|`--totals']
[`--target='BFDNAME] [`-V'|`--version']
[OBJFILE...]
The GNU `size' utility lists the section sizes--and the total
size--for each of the object or archive files OBJFILE in its argument
list. By default, one line of output is generated for each object file
or each module in an archive.
OBJFILE... are the object files to be examined. If none are
specified, the file `a.out' will be used.
The command line options have the following meanings:
`-A'
`-B'
`--format=COMPATIBILITY'
Using one of these options, you can choose whether the output from
GNU `size' resembles output from System V `size' (using `-A', or
`--format=sysv'), or Berkeley `size' (using `-B', or
`--format=berkeley'). The default is the one-line format similar
to Berkeley's.
Here is an example of the Berkeley (default) format of output from
`size':
$ size --format=Berkeley ranlib size
text data bss dec hex filename
294880 81920 11592 388392 5ed28 ranlib
294880 81920 11888 388688 5ee50 size
This is the same data, but displayed closer to System V
conventions:
$ size --format=SysV ranlib size
ranlib :
section size addr
.text 294880 8192
.data 81920 303104
.bss 11592 385024
Total 388392
size :
section size addr
.text 294880 8192
.data 81920 303104
.bss 11888 385024
Total 388688
`--help'
Show a summary of acceptable arguments and options.
`-d'
`-o'
`-x'
`--radix=NUMBER'
Using one of these options, you can control whether the size of
each section is given in decimal (`-d', or `--radix=10'); octal
(`-o', or `--radix=8'); or hexadecimal (`-x', or `--radix=16').
In `--radix=NUMBER', only the three values (8, 10, 16) are
supported. The total size is always given in two radices; decimal
and hexadecimal for `-d' or `-x' output, or octal and hexadecimal
if you're using `-o'.
`--common'
Print total size of common symbols in each file. When using
Berkeley format these are included in the bss size.
`-t'
`--totals'
Show totals of all objects listed (Berkeley format listing mode
only).
`--target=BFDNAME'
Specify that the object-code format for OBJFILE is BFDNAME. This
option may not be necessary; `size' can automatically recognize
many formats. *Note Target Selection::, for more information.
`-V'
`--version'
Display the version number of `size'.

File: binutils.info, Node: strings, Next: strip, Prev: size, Up: Top
7 strings
*********
strings [`-afovV'] [`-'MIN-LEN]
[`-n' MIN-LEN] [`--bytes='MIN-LEN]
[`-t' RADIX] [`--radix='RADIX]
[`-e' ENCODING] [`--encoding='ENCODING]
[`-'] [`--all'] [`--print-file-name']
[`-T' BFDNAME] [`--target='BFDNAME]
[`--help'] [`--version'] FILE...
For each FILE given, GNU `strings' prints the printable character
sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or the number given with
the options below) and are followed by an unprintable character. By
default, it only prints the strings from the initialized and loaded
sections of object files; for other types of files, it prints the
strings from the whole file.
`strings' is mainly useful for determining the contents of non-text
files.
`-a'
`--all'
`-'
Do not scan only the initialized and loaded sections of object
files; scan the whole files.
`-f'
`--print-file-name'
Print the name of the file before each string.
`--help'
Print a summary of the program usage on the standard output and
exit.
`-MIN-LEN'
`-n MIN-LEN'
`--bytes=MIN-LEN'
Print sequences of characters that are at least MIN-LEN characters
long, instead of the default 4.
`-o'
Like `-t o'. Some other versions of `strings' have `-o' act like
`-t d' instead. Since we can not be compatible with both ways, we
simply chose one.
`-t RADIX'
`--radix=RADIX'
Print the offset within the file before each string. The single
character argument specifies the radix of the offset--`o' for
octal, `x' for hexadecimal, or `d' for decimal.
`-e ENCODING'
`--encoding=ENCODING'
Select the character encoding of the strings that are to be found.
Possible values for ENCODING are: `s' = single-7-bit-byte
characters (ASCII, ISO 8859, etc., default), `S' =
single-8-bit-byte characters, `b' = 16-bit bigendian, `l' = 16-bit
littleendian, `B' = 32-bit bigendian, `L' = 32-bit littleendian.
Useful for finding wide character strings. (`l' and `b' apply to,
for example, Unicode UTF-16/UCS-2 encodings).
`-T BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
Specify an object code format other than your system's default
format. *Note Target Selection::, for more information.
`-v'
`-V'
`--version'
Print the program version number on the standard output and exit.

File: binutils.info, Node: strip, Next: elfedit, Prev: strings, Up: Top
8 strip
*******
strip [`-F' BFDNAME |`--target='BFDNAME]
[`-I' BFDNAME |`--input-target='BFDNAME]
[`-O' BFDNAME |`--output-target='BFDNAME]
[`-s'|`--strip-all']
[`-S'|`-g'|`-d'|`--strip-debug']
[`-K' SYMBOLNAME |`--keep-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`-N' SYMBOLNAME |`--strip-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
[`-w'|`--wildcard']
[`-x'|`--discard-all'] [`-X' |`--discard-locals']
[`-R' SECTIONNAME |`--remove-section='SECTIONNAME]
[`-o' FILE] [`-p'|`--preserve-dates']
[`--keep-file-symbols']
[`--only-keep-debug']
[`-v' |`--verbose'] [`-V'|`--version']
[`--help'] [`--info']
OBJFILE...
GNU `strip' discards all symbols from object files OBJFILE. The
list of object files may include archives. At least one object file
must be given.
`strip' modifies the files named in its argument, rather than
writing modified copies under different names.
`-F BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
Treat the original OBJFILE as a file with the object code format
BFDNAME, and rewrite it in the same format. *Note Target
Selection::, for more information.
`--help'
Show a summary of the options to `strip' and exit.
`--info'
Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
available.
`-I BFDNAME'
`--input-target=BFDNAME'
Treat the original OBJFILE as a file with the object code format
BFDNAME. *Note Target Selection::, for more information.
`-O BFDNAME'
`--output-target=BFDNAME'
Replace OBJFILE with a file in the output format BFDNAME. *Note
Target Selection::, for more information.
`-R SECTIONNAME'
`--remove-section=SECTIONNAME'
Remove any section named SECTIONNAME from the output file. This
option may be given more than once. Note that using this option
inappropriately may make the output file unusable.
`-s'
`--strip-all'
Remove all symbols.
`-g'
`-S'
`-d'
`--strip-debug'
Remove debugging symbols only.
`--strip-unneeded'
Remove all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.
`-K SYMBOLNAME'
`--keep-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
When stripping symbols, keep symbol SYMBOLNAME even if it would
normally be stripped. This option may be given more than once.
`-N SYMBOLNAME'
`--strip-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
Remove symbol SYMBOLNAME from the source file. This option may be
given more than once, and may be combined with strip options other
than `-K'.
`-o FILE'
Put the stripped output in FILE, rather than replacing the
existing file. When this argument is used, only one OBJFILE
argument may be specified.
`-p'
`--preserve-dates'
Preserve the access and modification dates of the file.
`-w'
`--wildcard'
Permit regular expressions in SYMBOLNAMEs used in other command
line options. The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\)
and square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the
symbol name. If the first character of the symbol name is the
exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for
that symbol. For example:
-w -K !foo -K fo*
would cause strip to only keep symbols that start with the letters
"fo", but to discard the symbol "foo".
`-x'
`--discard-all'
Remove non-global symbols.
`-X'
`--discard-locals'
Remove compiler-generated local symbols. (These usually start
with `L' or `.'.)
`--keep-file-symbols'
When stripping a file, perhaps with `--strip-debug' or
`--strip-unneeded', retain any symbols specifying source file
names, which would otherwise get stripped.
`--only-keep-debug'
Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
stripped by `--strip-debug' and leaving the debugging sections
intact. In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the
output.
The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with
`--add-gnu-debuglink' to create a two part executable. One a
stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
distribution and the second a debugging information file which is
only needed if debugging abilities are required. The suggested
procedure to create these files is as follows:
1. Link the executable as normal. Assuming that is is called
`foo' then...
2. Run `objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg' to create a file
containing the debugging info.
3. Run `objcopy --strip-debug foo' to create a stripped
executable.
4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo' to add a link
to the debugging info into the stripped executable.
Note--the choice of `.dbg' as an extension for the debug info file
is arbitrary. Also the `--only-keep-debug' step is optional. You
could instead do this:
1. Link the executable as normal.
2. Copy `foo' to `foo.full'
3. Run `strip --strip-debug foo'
4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo'
i.e., the file pointed to by the `--add-gnu-debuglink' can be the
full executable. It does not have to be a file created by the
`--only-keep-debug' switch.
Note--this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files.
It does not make sense to use it on object files where the
debugging information may be incomplete. Besides the
gnu_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one
filename containing debugging information, not multiple filenames
on a one-per-object-file basis.
`-V'
`--version'
Show the version number for `strip'.
`-v'
`--verbose'
Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the case of
archives, `strip -v' lists all members of the archive.

File: binutils.info, Node: c++filt, Next: addr2line, Prev: elfedit, Up: Top
9 c++filt
*********
c++filt [`-_'|`--strip-underscores']
[`-n'|`--no-strip-underscores']
[`-p'|`--no-params']
[`-t'|`--types']
[`-i'|`--no-verbose']
[`-s' FORMAT|`--format='FORMAT]
[`--help'] [`--version'] [SYMBOL...]
The C++ and Java languages provide function overloading, which means
that you can write many functions with the same name, providing that
each function takes parameters of different types. In order to be able
to distinguish these similarly named functions C++ and Java encode them
into a low-level assembler name which uniquely identifies each
different version. This process is known as "mangling". The `c++filt'
(1) program does the inverse mapping: it decodes ("demangles") low-level
names into user-level names so that they can be read.
Every alphanumeric word (consisting of letters, digits, underscores,
dollars, or periods) seen in the input is a potential mangled name. If
the name decodes into a C++ name, the C++ name replaces the low-level
name in the output, otherwise the original word is output. In this way
you can pass an entire assembler source file, containing mangled names,
through `c++filt' and see the same source file containing demangled
names.
You can also use `c++filt' to decipher individual symbols by passing
them on the command line:
c++filt SYMBOL
If no SYMBOL arguments are given, `c++filt' reads symbol names from
the standard input instead. All the results are printed on the
standard output. The difference between reading names from the command
line versus reading names from the standard input is that command line
arguments are expected to be just mangled names and no checking is
performed to separate them from surrounding text. Thus for example:
c++filt -n _Z1fv
will work and demangle the name to "f()" whereas:
c++filt -n _Z1fv,
will not work. (Note the extra comma at the end of the mangled name
which makes it invalid). This command however will work:
echo _Z1fv, | c++filt -n
and will display "f(),", i.e., the demangled name followed by a
trailing comma. This behaviour is because when the names are read from
the standard input it is expected that they might be part of an
assembler source file where there might be extra, extraneous characters
trailing after a mangled name. For example:
.type _Z1fv, @function
`-_'
`--strip-underscores'
On some systems, both the C and C++ compilers put an underscore in
front of every name. For example, the C name `foo' gets the
low-level name `_foo'. This option removes the initial
underscore. Whether `c++filt' removes the underscore by default
is target dependent.
`-n'
`--no-strip-underscores'
Do not remove the initial underscore.
`-p'
`--no-params'
When demangling the name of a function, do not display the types of
the function's parameters.
`-t'
`--types'
Attempt to demangle types as well as function names. This is
disabled by default since mangled types are normally only used
internally in the compiler, and they can be confused with
non-mangled names. For example, a function called "a" treated as
a mangled type name would be demangled to "signed char".
`-i'
`--no-verbose'
Do not include implementation details (if any) in the demangled
output.
`-s FORMAT'
`--format=FORMAT'
`c++filt' can decode various methods of mangling, used by
different compilers. The argument to this option selects which
method it uses:
`auto'
Automatic selection based on executable (the default method)
`gnu'
the one used by the GNU C++ compiler (g++)
`lucid'
the one used by the Lucid compiler (lcc)
`arm'
the one specified by the C++ Annotated Reference Manual
`hp'
the one used by the HP compiler (aCC)
`edg'
the one used by the EDG compiler
`gnu-v3'
the one used by the GNU C++ compiler (g++) with the V3 ABI.
`java'
the one used by the GNU Java compiler (gcj)
`gnat'
the one used by the GNU Ada compiler (GNAT).
`--help'
Print a summary of the options to `c++filt' and exit.
`--version'
Print the version number of `c++filt' and exit.
_Warning:_ `c++filt' is a new utility, and the details of its user
interface are subject to change in future releases. In particular,
a command-line option may be required in the future to decode a
name passed as an argument on the command line; in other words,
c++filt SYMBOL
may in a future release become
c++filt OPTION SYMBOL
---------- Footnotes ----------
(1) MS-DOS does not allow `+' characters in file names, so on MS-DOS
this program is named `CXXFILT'.

File: binutils.info, Node: addr2line, Next: nlmconv, Prev: c++filt, Up: Top
10 addr2line
************
addr2line [`-a'|`--addresses']
[`-b' BFDNAME|`--target='BFDNAME]
[`-C'|`--demangle'[=STYLE]]
[`-e' FILENAME|`--exe='FILENAME]
[`-f'|`--functions'] [`-s'|`--basename']
[`-i'|`--inlines']
[`-p'|`--pretty-print']
[`-j'|`--section='NAME]
[`-H'|`--help'] [`-V'|`--version']
[addr addr ...]
`addr2line' translates addresses into file names and line numbers.
Given an address in an executable or an offset in a section of a
relocatable object, it uses the debugging information to figure out
which file name and line number are associated with it.
The executable or relocatable object to use is specified with the
`-e' option. The default is the file `a.out'. The section in the
relocatable object to use is specified with the `-j' option.
`addr2line' has two modes of operation.
In the first, hexadecimal addresses are specified on the command
line, and `addr2line' displays the file name and line number for each
address.
In the second, `addr2line' reads hexadecimal addresses from standard
input, and prints the file name and line number for each address on
standard output. In this mode, `addr2line' may be used in a pipe to
convert dynamically chosen addresses.
The format of the output is `FILENAME:LINENO'. The file name and
line number for each address is printed on a separate line. If the
`-f' option is used, then each `FILENAME:LINENO' line is preceded by a
`FUNCTIONNAME' line which is the name of the function containing the
address. If the `-a' option is used, then the address read is first
printed.
If the file name or function name can not be determined, `addr2line'
will print two question marks in their place. If the line number can
not be determined, `addr2line' will print 0.
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.
`-a'
`--addresses'
Display address before function names or file and line number
information. The address is printed with a `0x' prefix to easily
identify it.
`-b BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
BFDNAME.
`-C'
`--demangle[=STYLE]'
Decode ("demangle") low-level symbol names into user-level names.
Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
this makes C++ function names readable. Different compilers have
different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
compiler. *Note c++filt::, for more information on demangling.
`-e FILENAME'
`--exe=FILENAME'
Specify the name of the executable for which addresses should be
translated. The default file is `a.out'.
`-f'
`--functions'
Display function names as well as file and line number information.
`-s'
`--basenames'
Display only the base of each file name.
`-i'
`--inlines'
If the address belongs to a function that was inlined, the source
information for all enclosing scopes back to the first non-inlined
function will also be printed. For example, if `main' inlines
`callee1' which inlines `callee2', and address is from `callee2',
the source information for `callee1' and `main' will also be
printed.
`-j'
`--section'
Read offsets relative to the specified section instead of absolute
addresses.
`-p'
`--pretty-print'
Make the output more human friendly: each location are printed on
one line. If option `-i' is specified, lines for all enclosing
scopes are prefixed with `(inlined by)'.

File: binutils.info, Node: nlmconv, Next: windres, Prev: addr2line, Up: Top
11 nlmconv
**********
`nlmconv' converts a relocatable object file into a NetWare Loadable
Module.
_Warning:_ `nlmconv' is not always built as part of the binary
utilities, since it is only useful for NLM targets.
nlmconv [`-I' BFDNAME|`--input-target='BFDNAME]
[`-O' BFDNAME|`--output-target='BFDNAME]
[`-T' HEADERFILE|`--header-file='HEADERFILE]
[`-d'|`--debug'] [`-l' LINKER|`--linker='LINKER]
[`-h'|`--help'] [`-V'|`--version']
INFILE OUTFILE
`nlmconv' converts the relocatable `i386' object file INFILE into
the NetWare Loadable Module OUTFILE, optionally reading HEADERFILE for
NLM header information. For instructions on writing the NLM command
file language used in header files, see the `linkers' section,
`NLMLINK' in particular, of the `NLM Development and Tools Overview',
which is part of the NLM Software Developer's Kit ("NLM SDK"),
available from Novell, Inc. `nlmconv' uses the GNU Binary File
Descriptor library to read INFILE; see *note BFD: (ld.info)BFD, for
more information.
`nlmconv' can perform a link step. In other words, you can list
more than one object file for input if you list them in the definitions
file (rather than simply specifying one input file on the command line).
In this case, `nlmconv' calls the linker for you.
`-I BFDNAME'
`--input-target=BFDNAME'
Object format of the input file. `nlmconv' can usually determine
the format of a given file (so no default is necessary). *Note
Target Selection::, for more information.
`-O BFDNAME'
`--output-target=BFDNAME'
Object format of the output file. `nlmconv' infers the output
format based on the input format, e.g. for a `i386' input file the
output format is `nlm32-i386'. *Note Target Selection::, for more
information.
`-T HEADERFILE'
`--header-file=HEADERFILE'
Reads HEADERFILE for NLM header information. For instructions on
writing the NLM command file language used in header files, see
see the `linkers' section, of the `NLM Development and Tools
Overview', which is part of the NLM Software Developer's Kit,
available from Novell, Inc.
`-d'
`--debug'
Displays (on standard error) the linker command line used by
`nlmconv'.
`-l LINKER'
`--linker=LINKER'
Use LINKER for any linking. LINKER can be an absolute or a
relative pathname.
`-h'
`--help'
Prints a usage summary.
`-V'
`--version'
Prints the version number for `nlmconv'.

File: binutils.info, Node: windmc, Next: dlltool, Prev: windres, Up: Top
12 windmc
*********
`windmc' may be used to generator Windows message resources.
_Warning:_ `windmc' is not always built as part of the binary
utilities, since it is only useful for Windows targets.
windmc [options] input-file
`windmc' reads message definitions from an input file (.mc) and
translate them into a set of output files. The output files may be of
four kinds:
`h'
A C header file containing the message definitions.
`rc'
A resource file compilable by the `windres' tool.
`bin'
One or more binary files containing the resource data for a
specific message language.
`dbg'
A C include file that maps message id's to their symbolic name.
The exact description of these different formats is available in
documentation from Microsoft.
When `windmc' converts from the `mc' format to the `bin' format,
`rc', `h', and optional `dbg' it is acting like the Windows Message
Compiler.
`-a'
`--ascii_in'
Specifies that the input file specified is ASCII. This is the
default behaviour.
`-A'
`--ascii_out'
Specifies that messages in the output `bin' files should be in
ASCII format.
`-b'
`--binprefix'
Specifies that `bin' filenames should have to be prefixed by the
basename of the source file.
`-c'
`--customflag'
Sets the customer bit in all message id's.
`-C CODEPAGE'
`--codepage_in CODEPAGE'
Sets the default codepage to be used to convert input file to
UTF16. The default is ocdepage 1252.
`-d'
`--decimal_values'
Outputs the constants in the header file in decimal. Default is
using hexadecimal output.
`-e EXT'
`--extension EXT'
The extension for the header file. The default is .h extension.
`-F TARGET'
`--target TARGET'
Specify the BFD format to use for a bin file as output. This is a
BFD target name; you can use the `--help' option to see a list of
supported targets. Normally `windmc' will use the default format,
which is the first one listed by the `--help' option. *note
Target Selection::.
`-h PATH'
`--headerdir PATH'
The target directory of the generated header file. The default is
the current directory.
`-H'
`--help'
Displays a list of command line options and then exits.
`-m CHARACTERS'
`--maxlength CHARACTERS'
Instructs `windmc' to generate a warning if the length of any
message exceeds the number specified.
`-n'
`--nullterminate'
Terminate message text in `bin' files by zero. By default they are
terminated by CR/LF.
`-o'
`--hresult_use'
Not yet implemented. Instructs `windmc' to generate an OLE2 header
file, using HRESULT definitions. Status codes are used if the flag
is not specified.
`-O CODEPAGE'
`--codepage_out CODEPAGE'
Sets the default codepage to be used to output text files. The
default is ocdepage 1252.
`-r PATH'
`--rcdir PATH'
The target directory for the generated `rc' script and the
generated `bin' files that the resource compiler script includes.
The default is the current directory.
`-u'
`--unicode_in'
Specifies that the input file is UTF16.
`-U'
`--unicode_out'
Specifies that messages in the output `bin' file should be in UTF16
format. This is the default behaviour.
`-v'
`--verbose'
Enable verbose mode.
`-V'
`--version'
Prints the version number for `windmc'.
`-x PATH'
`--xdgb PATH'
The path of the `dbg' C include file that maps message id's to the
symbolic name. No such file is generated without specifying the
switch.

File: binutils.info, Node: windres, Next: windmc, Prev: nlmconv, Up: Top
13 windres
**********
`windres' may be used to manipulate Windows resources.
_Warning:_ `windres' is not always built as part of the binary
utilities, since it is only useful for Windows targets.
windres [options] [input-file] [output-file]
`windres' reads resources from an input file and copies them into an
output file. Either file may be in one of three formats:
`rc'
A text format read by the Resource Compiler.
`res'
A binary format generated by the Resource Compiler.
`coff'
A COFF object or executable.
The exact description of these different formats is available in
documentation from Microsoft.
When `windres' converts from the `rc' format to the `res' format, it
is acting like the Windows Resource Compiler. When `windres' converts
from the `res' format to the `coff' format, it is acting like the
Windows `CVTRES' program.
When `windres' generates an `rc' file, the output is similar but not
identical to the format expected for the input. When an input `rc'
file refers to an external filename, an output `rc' file will instead
include the file contents.
If the input or output format is not specified, `windres' will guess
based on the file name, or, for the input file, the file contents. A
file with an extension of `.rc' will be treated as an `rc' file, a file
with an extension of `.res' will be treated as a `res' file, and a file
with an extension of `.o' or `.exe' will be treated as a `coff' file.
If no output file is specified, `windres' will print the resources
in `rc' format to standard output.
The normal use is for you to write an `rc' file, use `windres' to
convert it to a COFF object file, and then link the COFF file into your
application. This will make the resources described in the `rc' file
available to Windows.
`-i FILENAME'
`--input FILENAME'
The name of the input file. If this option is not used, then
`windres' will use the first non-option argument as the input file
name. If there are no non-option arguments, then `windres' will
read from standard input. `windres' can not read a COFF file from
standard input.
`-o FILENAME'
`--output FILENAME'
The name of the output file. If this option is not used, then
`windres' will use the first non-option argument, after any used
for the input file name, as the output file name. If there is no
non-option argument, then `windres' will write to standard output.
`windres' can not write a COFF file to standard output. Note, for
compatibility with `rc' the option `-fo' is also accepted, but its
use is not recommended.
`-J FORMAT'
`--input-format FORMAT'
The input format to read. FORMAT may be `res', `rc', or `coff'.
If no input format is specified, `windres' will guess, as
described above.
`-O FORMAT'
`--output-format FORMAT'
The output format to generate. FORMAT may be `res', `rc', or
`coff'. If no output format is specified, `windres' will guess,
as described above.
`-F TARGET'
`--target TARGET'
Specify the BFD format to use for a COFF file as input or output.
This is a BFD target name; you can use the `--help' option to see
a list of supported targets. Normally `windres' will use the
default format, which is the first one listed by the `--help'
option. *note Target Selection::.
`--preprocessor PROGRAM'
When `windres' reads an `rc' file, it runs it through the C
preprocessor first. This option may be used to specify the
preprocessor to use, including any leading arguments. The default
preprocessor argument is `gcc -E -xc-header -DRC_INVOKED'.
`-I DIRECTORY'
`--include-dir DIRECTORY'
Specify an include directory to use when reading an `rc' file.
`windres' will pass this to the preprocessor as an `-I' option.
`windres' will also search this directory when looking for files
named in the `rc' file. If the argument passed to this command
matches any of the supported FORMATS (as described in the `-J'
option), it will issue a deprecation warning, and behave just like
the `-J' option. New programs should not use this behaviour. If a
directory happens to match a FORMAT, simple prefix it with `./' to
disable the backward compatibility.
`-D TARGET'
`--define SYM[=VAL]'
Specify a `-D' option to pass to the preprocessor when reading an
`rc' file.
`-U TARGET'
`--undefine SYM'
Specify a `-U' option to pass to the preprocessor when reading an
`rc' file.
`-r'
Ignored for compatibility with rc.
`-v'
Enable verbose mode. This tells you what the preprocessor is if
you didn't specify one.
`-c VAL'
`--codepage VAL'
Specify the default codepage to use when reading an `rc' file.
VAL should be a hexadecimal prefixed by `0x' or decimal codepage
code. The valid range is from zero up to 0xffff, but the validity
of the codepage is host and configuration dependent.
`-l VAL'
`--language VAL'
Specify the default language to use when reading an `rc' file.
VAL should be a hexadecimal language code. The low eight bits are
the language, and the high eight bits are the sublanguage.
`--use-temp-file'
Use a temporary file to instead of using popen to read the output
of the preprocessor. Use this option if the popen implementation
is buggy on the host (eg., certain non-English language versions
of Windows 95 and Windows 98 are known to have buggy popen where
the output will instead go the console).
`--no-use-temp-file'
Use popen, not a temporary file, to read the output of the
preprocessor. This is the default behaviour.
`-h'
`--help'
Prints a usage summary.
`-V'
`--version'
Prints the version number for `windres'.
`--yydebug'
If `windres' is compiled with `YYDEBUG' defined as `1', this will
turn on parser debugging.

File: binutils.info, Node: dlltool, Next: Common Options, Prev: windmc, Up: Top
14 dlltool
**********
`dlltool' is used to create the files needed to create dynamic link
libraries (DLLs) on systems which understand PE format image files such
as Windows. A DLL contains an export table which contains information
that the runtime loader needs to resolve references from a referencing
program.
The export table is generated by this program by reading in a `.def'
file or scanning the `.a' and `.o' files which will be in the DLL. A
`.o' file can contain information in special `.drectve' sections with
export information.
_Note:_ `dlltool' is not always built as part of the binary
utilities, since it is only useful for those targets which support
DLLs.
dlltool [`-d'|`--input-def' DEF-FILE-NAME]
[`-b'|`--base-file' BASE-FILE-NAME]
[`-e'|`--output-exp' EXPORTS-FILE-NAME]
[`-z'|`--output-def' DEF-FILE-NAME]
[`-l'|`--output-lib' LIBRARY-FILE-NAME]
[`-y'|`--output-delaylib' LIBRARY-FILE-NAME]
[`--export-all-symbols'] [`--no-export-all-symbols']
[`--exclude-symbols' LIST]
[`--no-default-excludes']
[`-S'|`--as' PATH-TO-ASSEMBLER] [`-f'|`--as-flags' OPTIONS]
[`-D'|`--dllname' NAME] [`-m'|`--machine' MACHINE]
[`-a'|`--add-indirect']
[`-U'|`--add-underscore'] [`--add-stdcall-underscore']
[`-k'|`--kill-at'] [`-A'|`--add-stdcall-alias']
[`-p'|`--ext-prefix-alias' PREFIX]
[`-x'|`--no-idata4'] [`-c'|`--no-idata5']
[`--use-nul-prefixed-import-tables']
[`-I'|`--identify' LIBRARY-FILE-NAME] [`--identify-strict']
[`-i'|`--interwork']
[`-n'|`--nodelete'] [`-t'|`--temp-prefix' PREFIX]
[`-v'|`--verbose']
[`-h'|`--help'] [`-V'|`--version']
[`--no-leading-underscore'] [`--leading-underscore']
[object-file ...]
`dlltool' reads its inputs, which can come from the `-d' and `-b'
options as well as object files specified on the command line. It then
processes these inputs and if the `-e' option has been specified it
creates a exports file. If the `-l' option has been specified it
creates a library file and if the `-z' option has been specified it
creates a def file. Any or all of the `-e', `-l' and `-z' options can
be present in one invocation of dlltool.
When creating a DLL, along with the source for the DLL, it is
necessary to have three other files. `dlltool' can help with the
creation of these files.
The first file is a `.def' file which specifies which functions are
exported from the DLL, which functions the DLL imports, and so on. This
is a text file and can be created by hand, or `dlltool' can be used to
create it using the `-z' option. In this case `dlltool' will scan the
object files specified on its command line looking for those functions
which have been specially marked as being exported and put entries for
them in the `.def' file it creates.
In order to mark a function as being exported from a DLL, it needs to
have an `-export:<name_of_function>' entry in the `.drectve' section of
the object file. This can be done in C by using the asm() operator:
asm (".section .drectve");
asm (".ascii \"-export:my_func\"");
int my_func (void) { ... }
The second file needed for DLL creation is an exports file. This
file is linked with the object files that make up the body of the DLL
and it handles the interface between the DLL and the outside world.
This is a binary file and it can be created by giving the `-e' option to
`dlltool' when it is creating or reading in a `.def' file.
The third file needed for DLL creation is the library file that
programs will link with in order to access the functions in the DLL (an
`import library'). This file can be created by giving the `-l' option
to dlltool when it is creating or reading in a `.def' file.
If the `-y' option is specified, dlltool generates a delay-import
library that can be used instead of the normal import library to allow
a program to link to the dll only as soon as an imported function is
called for the first time. The resulting executable will need to be
linked to the static delayimp library containing __delayLoadHelper2(),
which in turn will import LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddress from kernel32.
`dlltool' builds the library file by hand, but it builds the exports
file by creating temporary files containing assembler statements and
then assembling these. The `-S' command line option can be used to
specify the path to the assembler that dlltool will use, and the `-f'
option can be used to pass specific flags to that assembler. The `-n'
can be used to prevent dlltool from deleting these temporary assembler
files when it is done, and if `-n' is specified twice then this will
prevent dlltool from deleting the temporary object files it used to
build the library.
Here is an example of creating a DLL from a source file `dll.c' and
also creating a program (from an object file called `program.o') that
uses that DLL:
gcc -c dll.c
dlltool -e exports.o -l dll.lib dll.o
gcc dll.o exports.o -o dll.dll
gcc program.o dll.lib -o program
`dlltool' may also be used to query an existing import library to
determine the name of the DLL to which it is associated. See the
description of the `-I' or `--identify' option.
The command line options have the following meanings:
`-d FILENAME'
`--input-def FILENAME'
Specifies the name of a `.def' file to be read in and processed.
`-b FILENAME'
`--base-file FILENAME'
Specifies the name of a base file to be read in and processed. The
contents of this file will be added to the relocation section in
the exports file generated by dlltool.
`-e FILENAME'
`--output-exp FILENAME'
Specifies the name of the export file to be created by dlltool.
`-z FILENAME'
`--output-def FILENAME'
Specifies the name of the `.def' file to be created by dlltool.
`-l FILENAME'
`--output-lib FILENAME'
Specifies the name of the library file to be created by dlltool.
`-y FILENAME'
`--output-delaylib FILENAME'
Specifies the name of the delay-import library file to be created
by dlltool.
`--export-all-symbols'
Treat all global and weak defined symbols found in the input object
files as symbols to be exported. There is a small list of symbols
which are not exported by default; see the `--no-default-excludes'
option. You may add to the list of symbols to not export by using
the `--exclude-symbols' option.
`--no-export-all-symbols'
Only export symbols explicitly listed in an input `.def' file or in
`.drectve' sections in the input object files. This is the default
behaviour. The `.drectve' sections are created by `dllexport'
attributes in the source code.
`--exclude-symbols LIST'
Do not export the symbols in LIST. This is a list of symbol names
separated by comma or colon characters. The symbol names should
not contain a leading underscore. This is only meaningful when
`--export-all-symbols' is used.
`--no-default-excludes'
When `--export-all-symbols' is used, it will by default avoid
exporting certain special symbols. The current list of symbols to
avoid exporting is `DllMain@12', `DllEntryPoint@0', `impure_ptr'.
You may use the `--no-default-excludes' option to go ahead and
export these special symbols. This is only meaningful when
`--export-all-symbols' is used.
`-S PATH'
`--as PATH'
Specifies the path, including the filename, of the assembler to be
used to create the exports file.
`-f OPTIONS'
`--as-flags OPTIONS'
Specifies any specific command line options to be passed to the
assembler when building the exports file. This option will work
even if the `-S' option is not used. This option only takes one
argument, and if it occurs more than once on the command line,
then later occurrences will override earlier occurrences. So if
it is necessary to pass multiple options to the assembler they
should be enclosed in double quotes.
`-D NAME'
`--dll-name NAME'
Specifies the name to be stored in the `.def' file as the name of
the DLL when the `-e' option is used. If this option is not
present, then the filename given to the `-e' option will be used
as the name of the DLL.
`-m MACHINE'
`-machine MACHINE'
Specifies the type of machine for which the library file should be
built. `dlltool' has a built in default type, depending upon how
it was created, but this option can be used to override that.
This is normally only useful when creating DLLs for an ARM
processor, when the contents of the DLL are actually encode using
Thumb instructions.
`-a'
`--add-indirect'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
should add a section which allows the exported functions to be
referenced without using the import library. Whatever the hell
that means!
`-U'
`--add-underscore'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
should prepend an underscore to the names of _all_ exported
symbols.
`--no-leading-underscore'
`--leading-underscore'
Specifies whether standard symbol should be forced to be prefixed,
or not.
`--add-stdcall-underscore'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
should prepend an underscore to the names of exported _stdcall_
functions. Variable names and non-stdcall function names are not
modified. This option is useful when creating GNU-compatible
import libs for third party DLLs that were built with MS-Windows
tools.
`-k'
`--kill-at'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
should not append the string `@ <number>'. These numbers are
called ordinal numbers and they represent another way of accessing
the function in a DLL, other than by name.
`-A'
`--add-stdcall-alias'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
should add aliases for stdcall symbols without `@ <number>' in
addition to the symbols with `@ <number>'.
`-p'
`--ext-prefix-alias PREFIX'
Causes `dlltool' to create external aliases for all DLL imports
with the specified prefix. The aliases are created for both
external and import symbols with no leading underscore.
`-x'
`--no-idata4'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports and library
files it should omit the `.idata4' section. This is for
compatibility with certain operating systems.
`--use-nul-prefixed-import-tables'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports and library
files it should prefix the `.idata4' and `.idata5' by zero an
element. This emulates old gnu import library generation of
`dlltool'. By default this option is turned off.
`-c'
`--no-idata5'
Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports and library
files it should omit the `.idata5' section. This is for
compatibility with certain operating systems.
`-I FILENAME'
`--identify FILENAME'
Specifies that `dlltool' should inspect the import library
indicated by FILENAME and report, on `stdout', the name(s) of the
associated DLL(s). This can be performed in addition to any other
operations indicated by the other options and arguments.
`dlltool' fails if the import library does not exist or is not
actually an import library. See also `--identify-strict'.
`--identify-strict'
Modifies the behavior of the `--identify' option, such that an
error is reported if FILENAME is associated with more than one DLL.
`-i'
`--interwork'
Specifies that `dlltool' should mark the objects in the library
file and exports file that it produces as supporting interworking
between ARM and Thumb code.
`-n'
`--nodelete'
Makes `dlltool' preserve the temporary assembler files it used to
create the exports file. If this option is repeated then dlltool
will also preserve the temporary object files it uses to create
the library file.
`-t PREFIX'
`--temp-prefix PREFIX'
Makes `dlltool' use PREFIX when constructing the names of
temporary assembler and object files. By default, the temp file
prefix is generated from the pid.
`-v'
`--verbose'
Make dlltool describe what it is doing.
`-h'
`--help'
Displays a list of command line options and then exits.
`-V'
`--version'
Displays dlltool's version number and then exits.
* Menu:
* def file format:: The format of the dlltool `.def' file

File: binutils.info, Node: def file format, Up: dlltool
14.1 The format of the `dlltool' `.def' file
============================================
A `.def' file contains any number of the following commands:
`NAME' NAME `[ ,' BASE `]'
The result is going to be named NAME`.exe'.
`LIBRARY' NAME `[ ,' BASE `]'
The result is going to be named NAME`.dll'.
`EXPORTS ( ( (' NAME1 `[ = ' NAME2 `] ) | ( ' NAME1 `=' MODULE-NAME `.' EXTERNAL-NAME `) ) [ == ' ITS_NAME `]'
`[' INTEGER `] [ NONAME ] [ CONSTANT ] [ DATA ] [ PRIVATE ] ) *'
Declares NAME1 as an exported symbol from the DLL, with optional
ordinal number INTEGER, or declares NAME1 as an alias (forward) of
the function EXTERNAL-NAME in the DLL. If ITS_NAME is specified,
this name is used as string in export table. MODULE-NAME.
`IMPORTS ( (' INTERNAL-NAME `=' MODULE-NAME `.' INTEGER `) | [' INTERNAL-NAME `= ]' MODULE-NAME `.' EXTERNAL-NAME `) [ == ) ITS_NAME `]' *'
Declares that EXTERNAL-NAME or the exported function whose ordinal
number is INTEGER is to be imported from the file MODULE-NAME. If
INTERNAL-NAME is specified then this is the name that the imported
function will be referred to in the body of the DLL. If ITS_NAME
is specified, this name is used as string in import table.
`DESCRIPTION' STRING
Puts STRING into the output `.exp' file in the `.rdata' section.
`STACKSIZE' NUMBER-RESERVE `[, ' NUMBER-COMMIT `]'
`HEAPSIZE' NUMBER-RESERVE `[, ' NUMBER-COMMIT `]'
Generates `--stack' or `--heap' NUMBER-RESERVE,NUMBER-COMMIT in
the output `.drectve' section. The linker will see this and act
upon it.
`CODE' ATTR `+'
`DATA' ATTR `+'
`SECTIONS (' SECTION-NAME ATTR` + ) *'
Generates `--attr' SECTION-NAME ATTR in the output `.drectve'
section, where ATTR is one of `READ', `WRITE', `EXECUTE' or
`SHARED'. The linker will see this and act upon it.

File: binutils.info, Node: readelf, Next: size, Prev: ranlib, Up: Top
15 readelf
**********
readelf [`-a'|`--all']
[`-h'|`--file-header']
[`-l'|`--program-headers'|`--segments']
[`-S'|`--section-headers'|`--sections']
[`-g'|`--section-groups']
[`-t'|`--section-details']
[`-e'|`--headers']
[`-s'|`--syms'|`--symbols']
[`--dyn-syms']
[`-n'|`--notes']
[`-r'|`--relocs']
[`-u'|`--unwind']
[`-d'|`--dynamic']
[`-V'|`--version-info']
[`-A'|`--arch-specific']
[`-D'|`--use-dynamic']
[`-x' <number or name>|`--hex-dump='<number or name>]
[`-p' <number or name>|`--string-dump='<number or name>]
[`-R' <number or name>|`--relocated-dump='<number or name>]
[`-c'|`--archive-index']
[`-w[lLiaprmfFsoRt]'|
`--debug-dump'[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges]]
[`-I'|`--histogram']
[`-v'|`--version']
[`-W'|`--wide']
[`-H'|`--help']
ELFFILE...
`readelf' displays information about one or more ELF format object
files. The options control what particular information to display.
ELFFILE... are the object files to be examined. 32-bit and 64-bit
ELF files are supported, as are archives containing ELF files.
This program performs a similar function to `objdump' but it goes
into more detail and it exists independently of the BFD library, so if
there is a bug in BFD then readelf will not be affected.
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent. At least one option besides `-v' or `-H' must be given.
`-a'
`--all'
Equivalent to specifying `--file-header', `--program-headers',
`--sections', `--symbols', `--relocs', `--dynamic', `--notes' and
`--version-info'.
`-h'
`--file-header'
Displays the information contained in the ELF header at the start
of the file.
`-l'
`--program-headers'
`--segments'
Displays the information contained in the file's segment headers,
if it has any.
`-S'
`--sections'
`--section-headers'
Displays the information contained in the file's section headers,
if it has any.
`-g'
`--section-groups'
Displays the information contained in the file's section groups,
if it has any.
`-t'
`--section-details'
Displays the detailed section information. Implies `-S'.
`-s'
`--symbols'
`--syms'
Displays the entries in symbol table section of the file, if it
has one.
`--dyn-syms'
Displays the entries in dynamic symbol table section of the file,
if it has one.
`-e'
`--headers'
Display all the headers in the file. Equivalent to `-h -l -S'.
`-n'
`--notes'
Displays the contents of the NOTE segments and/or sections, if any.
`-r'
`--relocs'
Displays the contents of the file's relocation section, if it has
one.
`-u'
`--unwind'
Displays the contents of the file's unwind section, if it has one.
Only the unwind sections for IA64 ELF files, as well as ARM unwind
tables (`.ARM.exidx' / `.ARM.extab') are currently supported.
`-d'
`--dynamic'
Displays the contents of the file's dynamic section, if it has one.
`-V'
`--version-info'
Displays the contents of the version sections in the file, it they
exist.
`-A'
`--arch-specific'
Displays architecture-specific information in the file, if there
is any.
`-D'
`--use-dynamic'
When displaying symbols, this option makes `readelf' use the
symbol hash tables in the file's dynamic section, rather than the
symbol table sections.
`-x <number or name>'
`--hex-dump=<number or name>'
Displays the contents of the indicated section as a hexadecimal
bytes. A number identifies a particular section by index in the
section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
name in the object file.
`-R <number or name>'
`--relocated-dump=<number or name>'
Displays the contents of the indicated section as a hexadecimal
bytes. A number identifies a particular section by index in the
section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
name in the object file. The contents of the section will be
relocated before they are displayed.
`-p <number or name>'
`--string-dump=<number or name>'
Displays the contents of the indicated section as printable
strings. A number identifies a particular section by index in the
section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
name in the object file.
`-c'
`--archive-index'
Displays the file symbol index infomation contained in the header
part of binary archives. Performs the same function as the `t'
command to `ar', but without using the BFD library. *Note ar::.
`-w[lLiaprmfFsoRt]'
`--debug-dump[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges,=pubtypes,=trace_info,=trace_abbrev,=trace_aranges]'
Displays the contents of the debug sections in the file, if any are
present. If one of the optional letters or words follows the
switch then only data found in those specific sections will be
dumped.
Note that there is no single letter option to display the content
of trace sections.
Note: the `=decodedline' option will display the interpreted
contents of a .debug_line section whereas the `=rawline' option
dumps the contents in a raw format.
Note: the `=frames-interp' option will display the interpreted
contents of a .debug_frame section whereas the `=frames' option
dumps the contents in a raw format.
`-I'
`--histogram'
Display a histogram of bucket list lengths when displaying the
contents of the symbol tables.
`-v'
`--version'
Display the version number of readelf.
`-W'
`--wide'
Don't break output lines to fit into 80 columns. By default
`readelf' breaks section header and segment listing lines for
64-bit ELF files, so that they fit into 80 columns. This option
causes `readelf' to print each section header resp. each segment
one a single line, which is far more readable on terminals wider
than 80 columns.
`-H'
`--help'
Display the command line options understood by `readelf'.

File: binutils.info, Node: elfedit, Next: c++filt, Prev: strip, Up: Top
16 elfedit
**********
elfedit [`--input-mach='MACHINE]
[`--input-type='TYPE]
[`--input-osabi='OSBI]
`--output-mach='MACHINE
`--output-type='TYPE
`--output-osabi='OSBI
[`-v'|`--version']
[`-h'|`--help']
ELFFILE...
`elfedit' updates the ELF header of ELF files which have the
matching ELF machine and file types. The options control how and which
fields in the ELF header should be updated.
ELFFILE... are the ELF files to be updated. 32-bit and 64-bit ELF
files are supported, as are archives containing ELF files.
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent. At least one of the `--output-mach', `--output-type' and
`--output-osabi' options must be given.
`--input-mach=MACHINE'
Set the matching input ELF machine type to MACHINE. If
`--input-mach' isn't specified, it will match any ELF machine
types.
The supported ELF machine types are, L1OM and X86-64.
`--output-mach=MACHINE'
Change the ELF machine type in the ELF header to MACHINE. The
supported ELF machine types are the same as `--input-mach'.
`--input-type=TYPE'
Set the matching input ELF file type to TYPE. If `--input-type'
isn't specified, it will match any ELF file types.
The supported ELF file types are, REL, EXEC and DYN.
`--output-type=TYPE'
Change the ELF file type in the ELF header to TYPE. The supported
ELF types are the same as `--input-type'.
`--input-osabi=OSABI'
Set the matching input ELF file OSABI to OSBI. If `--input-osabi'
isn't specified, it will match any ELF OSABIs.
The supported ELF OSABIs are, NONE, HPUX, NETBSD, LINUX, HURD,
SOLARIS, AIX, IRIX, FREEBSD, TRU64, MODESTO, OPENBSD, OPENVMS,
NSK, AROS and FENIXOS.
`--output-osabi=OSABI'
Change the ELF OSABI in the ELF header to TYPE. The supported ELF
OSABI are the same as `--input-osabi'.
`-v'
`--version'
Display the version number of `elfedit'.
`-h'
`--help'
Display the command line options understood by `elfedit'.

File: binutils.info, Node: Common Options, Next: Selecting the Target System, Prev: dlltool, Up: Top
17 Common Options
*****************
The following command-line options are supported by all of the programs
described in this manual.
`@FILE'
Read command-line options from FILE. The options read are
inserted in place of the original @FILE option. If FILE does not
exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated
literally, and not removed.
Options in FILE are separated by whitespace. A whitespace
character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire
option in either single or double quotes. Any character
(including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character
to be included with a backslash. The FILE may itself contain
additional @FILE options; any such options will be processed
recursively.
`--help'
Display the command-line options supported by the program.
`--version'
Display the version number of the program.

File: binutils.info, Node: Selecting the Target System, Next: Reporting Bugs, Prev: Common Options, Up: Top
18 Selecting the Target System
******************************
You can specify two aspects of the target system to the GNU binary file