blob: e314b70a15222cb18acd53b105ba598167670e5d [file] [log] [blame]
page.title=Testing UI for Multiple Apps
page.tags=testing,ui automator
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<h2>Dependencies and Prerequisites</h2>
<li>Android 4.3 (API level 18) or higher</li>
<li><a href="{@docRoot}tools/testing-support-library/index.html">
Android Testing Support Library</a></li>
<h2>This lesson teaches you to</h2>
<li><a href="#setup">Set Up UI Automator</a></li>
<li><a href="#build">Create a UI Automator Test Class</a></li>
<li><a href="#run">Run UI Automator Tests on a Device or Emulator</a></li>
<h2>You should also read</h2>
<li><a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/package-summary.html">
UI Automator API Reference</a></li>
<h2>Try it out</h2>
<li><a href=""
class="external-link">UI Automator Code Samples</a></li>
<p>A user interface (UI) test that involves user interactions across multiple apps lets you
verify that your app behaves correctly when the user flow crosses into other apps or into the
system UI. An example of such a user flow is a messaging app that lets the user enter a text
message, launches the Android contact picker so that the users can select recipients to send the
message to, and then returns control to the original app for the user to submit the message.</p>
<p>This lesson covers how to write such UI tests using the
UI Automator testing framework provided by the
<a href="{@docRoot}tools/testing-support-library/index.html">Android Testing Support Library</a>.
The UI Automator APIs let you interact with visible elements on a device, regardless of
which {@link} is in focus. Your test can look up a UI component by using
convenient descriptors such as the text displayed in that component or its content description. UI
Automator tests can run on devices running Android 4.3 (API level 18) or higher.</p>
<p>The UI Automator testing framework is an instrumentation-based API and works
with the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/runner/AndroidJUnitRunner.html">
{@code AndroidJUnitRunner}</a>
test runner.
<h2 id="setup">Set Up UI Automator</h2>
<p>Before you begin using UI Automator, you must:</p>
<strong>Install the Android Testing Support Library</strong>. The UI Automator API is
located under the {@code} package. These classes allow
you to create tests that use the Espresso testing framework. To learn how to install the
library, see <a href="{@docRoot}tools/testing-support-library/index.html#setup">
Testing Support Library Setup</a>.
<strong>Set up your project structure.</strong> In your Gradle project, the source code for
the target app that you want to test is typically placed under the {@code app/src/main}
folder. The source code for instrumentation tests, including
your UI Automator tests, must be placed under the <code>app/src/androidTest</code> folder.
To learn more about setting up your project directory, see
<a href="{@docRoot}tools/projects/index.html">Managing Projects</a>.
<strong>Specify your Android testing dependencies</strong>. In order for the
<a href="{@docRoot}tools/building/plugin-for-gradle.html">Android Plug-in for Gradle</a> to
correctly build and run your UI Automator tests, you must specify the following libraries in
the {@code build.gradle} file of your Android app module:
dependencies {
androidTestCompile ''
androidTestCompile ''
<p>To optimize your UI Automator testing, you should first inspect the target app’s UI components
and ensure that they are accessible. These optimization tips are described in the next two
<h3 id="inspecting-ui">Inspecting the UI on a device</h3>
<p>Before designing your test, inspect the UI components that are visible on the device. To
ensure that your UI Automator tests can access these components, check that these components
have visible text labels,
<a href="">
{@code android:contentDescription}</a>
values, or both.</p>
<p>The {@code uiautomatorviewer} tool provides a convenient visual interface to inspect the layout
hierarchy and view the properties of UI components that are visible on the foreground of the device.
This information lets you create more fine-grained tests using UI Automator. For example, you can
create a UI selector that matches a specific visible property. </p>
<p>To launch the {@code uiautomatorviewer} tool:</p>
<li>Launch the target app on a physical device.</li>
<li>Connect the device to your development machine.</li>
<li>Open a terminal window and navigate to the {@code &lt;android-sdk&gt;/tools/} directory.</li>
<li>Run the tool with this command:
<pre>$ uiautomatorviewer</pre>
<p>To view the UI properties for your application:</p>
<li>In the {@code uiautomatorviewer} interface, click the <strong>Device Screenshot</strong>
<li>Hover over the snapshot in the left-hand panel to see the UI components identified by the
{@code uiautomatorviewertool}. The properties are listed in the lower right-hand panel and the
layout hierarchy in the upper right-hand panel.</li>
<li>Optionally, click on the <strong>Toggle NAF Nodes</strong> button to see UI components that
are non-accessible to UI Automator. Only limited information may be available for these
<p>To learn about the common types of UI components provided by Android, see
<a href="{@docRoot}guide/topics/ui/index.html">User Interface</a>.</p>
<h3>Ensuring your Activity is accessible</h3>
<p>The UI Automator test framework depends on the accessibility features of the Android framework
to look up individual UI elements. As a developer, you should implement these minimum
optimizations in your {@link} to support UI Automator:</p>
<li>Use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/view/View.html#attr_android:contentDescription">
{@code android:contentDescription}</a>
attribute to label the {@link android.widget.ImageButton}, {@link android.widget.ImageView},
{@link android.widget.CheckBox} and other user interface controls.</li>
<li>Provide an <a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/widget/TextView.html#attr_android:hint">{@code android:hint}</a>
attribute instead of a content description for {@link android.widget.EditText} fields.</li>
<li>Associate an <a href="">
{@code android:hint}</a>
attribute with any graphical icons used by controls that provide feedback to the user
(for example, status or state information).</li>
<li>Use the {@code uiautomatorviewer} tool to ensure that the UI component is accessible to the
testing framework. You can also test the application by turning on accessibility services like
TalkBack and Explore by Touch, and try using your application using only directional controls.</li>
<p>Generally, app developers get accessibility support for free, courtesy of
the {@link android.view.View} and {@link android.view.ViewGroup}
classes. However, some apps use custom view elements to provide a richer user experience. Such
custom elements won't get the accessibility support that is provided by the standard Android UI
elements. If this applies to your app, make sure that it exposes the custom-drawn UI element to
Android accessibility services by implementing the
{@link android.view.accessibility.AccessibilityNodeProvider} class.</p>
<p>If the custom view element contains a single element, make it accessible by
<a href="{@docRoot}guide/topics/ui/accessibility/apps.html#accessibility-methods">implementing
accessibility API methods</a>.
If the custom view contains elements that are not views themselves (for example, a
{@link android.webkit.WebView}, make sure it implements the
{@link android.view.accessibility.AccessibilityNodeProvider} class. For container views that
extend an existing container implementation
(for example, a {@link android.widget.ListView}), implementing
{@link android.view.accessibility.AccessibilityNodeProvider} is not necessary.</p>
<p>For more information about implementing and testing accessibility, see
<a href="{@docRoot}guide/topics/ui/accessibility/apps.html">Making Applications Accessible</a>.</p>
<h2 id="build">Create a UI Automator Test Class</h2>
<p>To build a UI Automator test, create a class that extends
{@link android.test.InstrumentationTestCase}. Implement the following programming model in your
UI Automator test class:</p>
<li>Get a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html">{@code UiDevice}</a>
object to access the device you want to test, by calling the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html#getInstance(">
{@code getInstance()}</a>
method and passing it an {@link} object as the argument.</li>
<li>Get a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
object to access a UI component that is displayed on the device
(for example, the current view in the foreground), by calling the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html#findObject(">
{@code findObject()}</a>
<li>Simulate a specific user interaction to perform on that UI component, by calling a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
method; for example, call
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#performMultiPointerGesture(android.view.MotionEvent.PointerCoords[]...)">
{@code performMultiPointerGesture()}</a>
to simulate a multi-touch gesture, and
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#setText(java.lang.String)">{@code setText()}</a>
to edit a text field. You can call on the APIs in steps 2 and 3 repeatedly as necessary to test
more complex user interactions that involve multiple UI components or sequences of user actions.</li>
<li>Check that the UI reflects the expected state or behavior, after these user interactions are
performed. </li>
<p>These steps are covered in more detail in the sections below.</p>
<h3 id="accessing-ui-components">Accessing UI Components</h3>
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html">{@code UiDevice}</a>
object is the primary way you access and manipulate the state of the
device. In your tests, you can call
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html">{@code UiDevice}</a>
methods to check for the state of various properties, such as current orientation or display size.
Your test can use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html">{@code UiDevice}</a>
object to perform device-level actions, such as forcing the device into a specific rotation,
pressing D-pad hardware buttons, and pressing the Home and Menu buttons.</p>
<p>It’s good practice to start your test from the Home screen of the device. From the Home screen
(or some other starting location you’ve chosen in the device), you can call the methods provided by
the UI Automator API to select and interact with specific UI elements. </p>
<p>The following code snippet shows how your test might get an instance of
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html">{@code UiDevice}</a>
and simulate a Home button press:</p>
import android.test.InstrumentationTestCase;
public class CalculatorUiTest extends InstrumentationTestCase {
private UiDevice mDevice;
public void setUp() {
// Initialize UiDevice instance
mDevice = UiDevice.getInstance(getInstrumentation());
// Start from the home screen
<p>Use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiDevice.html#findObject(">{@code findObject()}</a>
method to retrieve a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
which represents a view that matches a given selector criteria. You can reuse the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
instances that you have created in other parts of your app testing, as needed. Note that the
UI Automator test framework searches the current display for a match every time your test uses a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
instance to click on a UI element or query a property.</p>
<p>The following snippet shows how your test might construct
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
instances that represent a Cancel button and a OK button in an app.</p>
UiObject cancelButton = mDevice.findObject(new UiSelector()
UiObject okButton = mDevice.findObject(new UiSelector()
// Simulate a user-click on the OK button, if found.
if(okButton.exists() &#38;&#38; okButton.isEnabled()) {;
<h4 id="specifying-selector">Specifying a selector</h4>
<p>If you want to access a specific UI component in an app, use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiSelector.html">{@code UiSelector}</a>
class. This class represents a query for specific elements in the
currently displayed UI. </p>
<p>If more than one matching element is found, the first matching element in the layout hierarchy
is returned as the target
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>.
When constructing a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiSelector.html">{@code UiSelector}</a>,
you can chain together multiple properties to refine your search. If no matching UI element is
found, a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObjectNotFoundException.html">
{@code UiAutomatorObjectNotFoundException}</a> is thrown. </p>
<p>You can use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiSelector.html#childSelector(">{@code childSelector()}</a>
method to nest multiple
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiSelector.html">{@code UiSelector}</a>
instances. For example, the following code example shows how your test might specify a search to
find the first {@link android.widget.ListView} in the currently displayed UI, then search within that
{@link android.widget.ListView} to find a UI element with the text property Apps.</p>
UiObject appItem = new UiObject(new UiSelector()
.childSelector(new UiSelector()
<p>As a best practice, when specifying a selector, you should use a Resource ID (if one is assigned
to a UI element) instead of a text element or content-descriptor. Not all elements have a text
element (for example, icons in a toolbar). Text selectors are brittle and can lead to test failures
if there are minor changes to the UI. They may also not scale across different languages; your text
selectors may not match translated strings.</p>
<p>It can be useful to specify the object state in your selector criteria. For example, if you want
to select a list of all checked elements so that you can uncheck them, call the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/By.html#checked(boolean)">
{@code checked()}</a>
method with the argument set to {@code true}.</p>
<h3 id="performing-actions">Performing Actions</h3>
<p>Once your test has obtained a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
object, you can call the methods in the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>
class to perform user interactions on the UI component represented by that
object. You can specify such actions as:</p>
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#click()">
{@code click()}</a>
: Clicks the center of the visible bounds of the UI element.</li>
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#dragTo(int, int, int)">
{@code dragTo()}</a>
: Drags this object to arbitrary coordinates.</li>
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#setText(java.lang.String)">
{@code setText()}</a>
: Sets the text in an editable field, after clearing the field's content.
Conversely, the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#clearTextField()">
{@code clearTextField()}</a>
method clears the existing text in an editable field.</li>
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#swipeUp(int)">
{@code swipeUp()}</a>
: Performs the swipe up action on the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html">{@code UiObject}</a>.
Similarly, the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#swipeDown(int)">
{@code swipeDown()}</a>,
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#swipeLeft(int)">
{@code swipeLeft()}</a>, and
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiObject.html#swipeRight(int)">
{@code swipeRight()}</a>
methods perform corresponding actions.</li>
<p>The UI Automator testing framework allows you to send an
{@link android.content.Intent}
or launch an {@link}
without using shell commands, by getting a
{@link android.content.Context}
object through
{@link getContext()}.</p>
<p>The following snippet shows how your test can use an
{@link android.content.Intent} to launch the app under test. This approach is useful when you are
only interested in testing the calculator app, and don't care about the launcher.</p>
public void setUp() {
// Launch a simple calculator app
Context context = getInstrumentation().getContext();
Intent intent = context.getPackageManager()
// Clear out any previous instances
mDevice.wait(Until.hasObject(By.pkg(CALC_PACKAGE).depth(0)), TIMEOUT);
<h4 id="actions-on-collections">Performing actions on collections</h4>
<p>Use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiCollection.html">
{@code UiCollection}</a>
class if you want to simulate user interactions on a
collection of items (for example, songs in a music album or a list of emails in an Inbox). To
create a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiCollection.html">
{@code UiCollection}</a>
object, specify a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiSelector.html">{@code UiSelector}</a>
that searches for a
UI container or a wrapper of other child UI elements, such as a layout view that contains child UI
<p>The following code snippet shows how your test might construct a
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiCollection.html">
{@code UiCollection}</a>
to represent a video album that is displayed within a {@link android.widget.FrameLayout}:</p>
UiCollection videos = new UiCollection(new UiSelector()
// Retrieve the number of videos in this collection:
int count = videos.getChildCount(new UiSelector()
// Find a specific video and simulate a user-click on it
UiObject video = videos.getChildByText(new UiSelector()
.className("android.widget.LinearLayout"), "Cute Baby Laughing");;
// Simulate selecting a checkbox that is associated with the video
UiObject checkBox = video.getChild(new UiSelector()
<h4 id="actions-on-scrollable-views">Performing actions on scrollable views</h4>
<p>Use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/uiautomator/UiScrollable.html">
{@code UiScrollable}</a>
class to simulate vertical or horizontal scrolling across a display. This technique is helpful when
a UI element is positioned off-screen and you need to scroll to bring it into view.</p>
<p>The following code snippet shows how to simulate scrolling down the Settings menu and clicking
on an About tablet option:</p>
UiScrollable settingsItem = new UiScrollable(new UiSelector()
UiObject about = settingsItem.getChildByText(new UiSelector()
.className("android.widget.LinearLayout"), "About tablet");;
<h3 id="verifying-results">Verifying Results</h3>
<p>The {@link android.test.InstrumentationTestCase} extends {@link junit.framework.TestCase}, so
you can use standard JUnit <a href=""
class="external-link">{@code Assert}</a> methods to test
that UI components in the app return the expected results. </p>
<p>The following snippet shows how your test can locate several buttons in a calculator app, click
on them in order, then verify that the correct result is displayed.</p>
private static final String CALC_PACKAGE = "com.myexample.calc";
public void testTwoPlusThreeEqualsFive() {
// Enter an equation: 2 + 3 = ?
mDevice.findObject(new UiSelector()
mDevice.findObject(new UiSelector()
mDevice.findObject(new UiSelector()
mDevice.findObject(new UiSelector()
// Verify the result = 5
UiObject result = mDevice.findObject(By.res(CALC_PACKAGE, "result"));
assertEquals("5", result.getText());
<h2 id="run">Run UI Automator Tests on a Device or Emulator</h2>
<p>UI Automator tests are based on the {@link} class. The
<a href="">
Android Plug-in for Gradle</a>
provides a default directory ({@code src/androidTest/java}) for you to store the instrumented test
classes and test suites that you want to run on a device. The plug-in compiles the test
code in that directory and then executes the test app using a test runner class. You are
strongly encouraged to use the
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/runner/AndroidJUnitRunner.html">{@code AndroidJUnitRunner}</a>
class provided in the
<a href="{@docRoot}tools/testing-support-library/index.html">Android Testing Support Library</a>
as your default test runner. </p>
<p>To run UI Automator tests in your Gradle project:</p>
<a href="{@docRoot}reference/android/support/test/runner/AndroidJUnitRunner.html">{@code AndroidJUnitRunner}</a>
as the default test instrumentation runner in your {@code build.gradle} file:
android {
defaultConfig {
testInstrumentationRunner ""
<li>Run your tests from the command-line by calling the {@code connectedCheck}
(or {@code cC}) task:
<pre>./gradlew cC</pre>