The main objective of creating a zstd wrapper for zlib is to allow a quick and smooth transition to zstd for projects already using zlib.
To build the zstd wrapper for zlib the following files are required:
The first two files are required by all projects using zlib and they are not included with the zstd distribution. The further files are supplied with the zstd distribution.
Let's assume that your project that uses zlib is compiled with:
gcc project.o -lz
To compile the zstd wrapper with your project you have to do the following:
gz*.cand a static or dynamic zstd library
The linking should be changed to:
gcc project.o zstd_zlibwrapper.o gz*.c -lz -lzstd
After embedding the zstd wrapper within your project the zstd library is turned off by default. Your project should work as before with zlib. There are two options to enable zstd compression:
#define ZWRAP_USE_ZSTD 1before
void ZWRAP_useZSTDcompression(int turn_on)function (declared in
During decompression zlib and zstd streams are automatically detected and decompressed using a proper library. This behavior can be changed using
ZWRAP_setDecompressionType(ZWRAP_FORCE_ZLIB) what will make zlib decompression slightly faster.
zlib version 1.2.8 = 0x1280, compile flags = 0x65 uncompress(): hello, hello! gzread(): hello, hello! gzgets() after gzseek: hello! inflate(): hello, hello! large_inflate(): OK after inflateSync(): hello, hello! inflate with dictionary: hello, hello!
Then we have changed
#include "zlib.h" to
#include "zstd_zlibwrapper.h", compiled the example.c file with
-DZWRAP_USE_ZSTD=1 and linked with additional
zstd_zlibwrapper.o gz*.c -lzstd. We were forced to turn off the following functions:
test_sync which use currently unsupported features. After running it shows the following results:
zlib version 1.2.8 = 0x1280, compile flags = 0x65 uncompress(): hello, hello! gzread(): hello, hello! gzgets() after gzseek: hello! inflate(): hello, hello! large_inflate(): OK inflate with dictionary: hello, hello!
The script used for compilation can be found at zlibWrapper/Makefile.
The zstd distribution contains a tool called
zwrapbench which can measure speed and ratio of zlib, zstd, and the wrapper. The benchmark is conducted using given filenames or synthetic data if filenames are not provided. The files are read into memory and processed independently. It makes benchmark more precise as it eliminates I/O overhead. Many filenames can be supplied as multiple parameters, parameters with wildcards or names of directories can be used as parameters with the -r option. One can select compression levels starting from
-b and ending with
-i parameter selects minimal time used for each of tested levels. With
-B option bigger files can be divided into smaller, independently compressed blocks. The benchmark tool can be compiled with
make zwrapbench using zlibWrapper/Makefile.
During streaming compression the compressor never knows how big is data to compress. Zstandard compression can be improved by providing size of source data to the compressor. By default streaming compressor assumes that data is bigger than 256 KB but it can hurt compression speed on smaller data. The zstd wrapper provides the
ZWRAP_setPledgedSrcSize() function that allows to change a pledged source size for a given compression stream. The function will change zstd compression parameters what may improve compression speed and/or ratio. It should be called just after
deflateReset() and before
deflateSetDictionary(). The function is only helpful when data is compressed in blocks. There will be no change in case of
deflateReset() immediately followed by
deflate(strm, Z_FINISH) as this case is automatically detected.
The ordinary zlib compression of two files/streams allocates two contexts:
The speed of compression can be improved with reusing a single context with following steps:
To check the difference we made experiments using
zwrapbench -ri6b6 with zstd and zlib compression (both at level 6). The input data was decompressed git repository downloaded from https://github.com/git/git/archive/master.zip which contains 2979 files. The table below shows that reusing contexts has a minor influence on zlib but it gives improvement for zstd. In our example (the last 2 lines) it gives 4% better compression speed and 5% better decompression speed.
|Compression type||Compression||Decompress.||Compr. size||Ratio|
|zlib 1.2.8||30.51 MB/s||219.3 MB/s||6819783||3.459|
|zlib 1.2.8 not reusing a context||30.22 MB/s||218.1 MB/s||6819783||3.459|
|zlib 1.2.8 with zlibWrapper and reusing a context||30.40 MB/s||218.9 MB/s||6819783||3.459|
|zlib 1.2.8 with zlibWrapper not reusing a context||30.28 MB/s||218.1 MB/s||6819783||3.459|
|zstd 1.1.0 using ZSTD_CCtx||68.35 MB/s||430.9 MB/s||6868521||3.435|
|zstd 1.1.0 using ZSTD_CStream||66.63 MB/s||422.3 MB/s||6868521||3.435|
|zstd 1.1.0 with zlibWrapper and reusing a context||54.01 MB/s||403.2 MB/s||6763482||3.488|
|zstd 1.1.0 with zlibWrapper not reusing a context||51.59 MB/s||383.7 MB/s||6763482||3.488|
After enabling zstd compression not all native zlib functions are supported. When calling unsupported methods they put error message into
strm->msg and return Z_STREAM_ERROR.
Ignored methods (they do nothing):