This page contains instructions to set up syzkaller to run on a FreeBSD or Linux host and fuzz an amd64 FreeBSD kernel running in a virtual machine.

Currently, syzkaller can fuzz FreeBSD running under QEMU or GCE (Google Compute Engine). Regardless of the mode of operation, some common steps must be followed.

Setting up a host

syz-manager is the component of syzkaller that manages target VMs. It runs on a host system and automatically creates, runs and destroys VMs which share a user-specified image file.

Setting up a FreeBSD host

To build syzkaller out of the box, a recent version of FreeBSD 13.0-CURRENT must be used for the host. Older versions of FreeBSD can be used but will require manual tweaking.

The required dependencies can be installed by running:

$ sudo pkg install bash gcc git gmake go llvm

To checkout the syzkaller sources, run:

$ go get -u -d

and the binaries can be built by running:

$ cd go/src/
$ gmake

Once this completes, a syz-manager executable should be available under bin/.

Setting up a Linux host

To build Go binaries do:

make manager fuzzer execprog TARGETOS=freebsd

To build C syz-executor binary, copy executor/* files to a FreeBSD machine and build there with:

c++ executor/ -o syz-executor -O1 -lpthread -DGOOS=\"freebsd\" -DGIT_REVISION=\"CURRENT_GIT_REVISION\"

Then, copy out the binary back to host into bin/freebsd_amd64 dir.

Setting up the FreeBSD VM

It is easiest to start with a snapshot image of FreeBSD. Fetch a QCOW2 disk image for QEMU or a raw image for GCE.

To enable KCOV on FreeBSD, a custom kernel must be compiled. It is easiest to do this in the VM itself. Use QEMU to start a VM using the downloaded image:

$ qemu-system-x86_64 -hda $IMAGEFILE -nographic -net user,host=,hostfwd=tcp::10022-:22 -net nic,model=e1000

When the boot loader menu is printed, escape to the loader prompt and enter the commands set console="comconsole" and boot. Once you reach a login prompt, log in as root and add a couple of configuration parameters to /boot/loader.conf:

# cat <<__EOF__ >>/boot/loader.conf

Fetch a copy of the FreeBSD kernel sources and place them in /usr/src. For instance, to get a copy of the current development sources, run:

# pkg install git
# git clone --depth=1 --branch=master /usr/src

To create a custom kernel configuration file for syzkaller and build a new kernel, run:

# cd /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf
# cat <<__EOF__ > SYZKALLER
include "./GENERIC"


options 	COVERAGE
options 	KCOV
# cd /usr/src
# make -j $(sysctl -n hw.ncpu) KERNCONF=SYZKALLER buildkernel
# make KERNCONF=SYZKALLER installkernel
# shutdown -r now

When the VM is restarted, verify that uname -i prints SYZKALLER to confirm that your newly built kernel is running.

Then, to permit remote access to the VM, you must configure DHCP and enable sshd:

# sysrc sshd_enable=YES
# sysrc ifconfig_DEFAULT=DHCP

If you plan to run the syscall executor as root, ensure that root SSH logins are permitted by adding PermitRootLogin without-password to /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Otherwise, create a new user with adduser. Install an ssh key for the user and verify that you can SSH into the VM from the host.

If all of the above worked, create a freebsd.cfg configuration file with the following contents (alter paths as necessary):

	"name": "freebsd",
	"target": "freebsd/amd64",
	"http": ":10000",
	"workdir": "/workdir",
	"syzkaller": "/gopath/src/",
	"image": "/FreeBSD-13.0-CURRENT-amd64.qcow2",
	"sshkey": "/freebsd_id_rsa",
	"sandbox": "none",
	"procs": 8,

If running the fuzzer under QEMU, add:

	"type": "qemu",
	"vm": {
		"count": 10,
		"cpu": 4,
		"mem": 2048

For GCE, add the following instead (alter the storage bucket path as necessary):

	"type": "gce",
	"vm": {
		"count": 10,
		"instance_type": "n1-standard-4",
		"gcs_path": "syzkaller"

Then, start syz-manager with:

$ bin/syz-manager -config freebsd.cfg

It should start printing output along the lines of:

booting test machines...
wait for the connection from test machine...
machine check: 253 calls enabled, kcov=true, kleakcheck=false, faultinjection=false, comps=false
executed 3622, cover 1219, crashes 0, repro 0
executed 7921, cover 1239, crashes 0, repro 0
executed 32807, cover 1244, crashes 0, repro 0
executed 35803, cover 1248, crashes 0, repro 0

If something does not work, try adding the -debug flag to syz-manager.

Missing things

  • System call descriptions. sys/freebsd/*.txt is a dirty copy from sys/linux/*.txt with everything that does not compile dropped. We need to go through syscalls and verify/fix/extend them, including devices/ioctls/etc.
  • Currently only the amd64 arch is supported. It would be useful to support a 32-bit executor in order to cover 32-bit compatibility syscalls.
  • We should support fuzzing the Linux compatibility subsystem.
  • pkg/csource needs to be taught how to generate/build C reproducers.
  • pkg/host needs to be taught how to detect supported syscalls/devices.
  • pkg/report/pkg/symbolizer need to be taught how to extract/symbolize kernel crash reports.
  • KASAN for FreeBSD would be useful.
  • On Linux we have emission of exernal networking/USB traffic into kernel using tun/gadgetfs. Implementing these for FreeBSD could uncover a number of high-profile bugs.