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// Copyright 2018 Developers of the Rand project.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 <LICENSE-APACHE or
//> or the MIT license
// <LICENSE-MIT or>, at your
// option. This file may not be copied, modified, or distributed
// except according to those terms.
//! Thread-local random number generator
use std::cell::UnsafeCell;
use std::ptr::NonNull;
use super::std::Core;
use crate::rngs::adapter::ReseedingRng;
use crate::rngs::OsRng;
use crate::{CryptoRng, Error, RngCore, SeedableRng};
// Rationale for using `UnsafeCell` in `ThreadRng`:
// Previously we used a `RefCell`, with an overhead of ~15%. There will only
// ever be one mutable reference to the interior of the `UnsafeCell`, because
// we only have such a reference inside `next_u32`, `next_u64`, etc. Within a
// single thread (which is the definition of `ThreadRng`), there will only ever
// be one of these methods active at a time.
// A possible scenario where there could be multiple mutable references is if
// `ThreadRng` is used inside `next_u32` and co. But the implementation is
// completely under our control. We just have to ensure none of them use
// `ThreadRng` internally, which is nonsensical anyway. We should also never run
// `ThreadRng` in destructors of its implementation, which is also nonsensical.
// Number of generated bytes after which to reseed `ThreadRng`.
// According to benchmarks, reseeding has a noticable impact with thresholds
// of 32 kB and less. We choose 64 kB to avoid significant overhead.
const THREAD_RNG_RESEED_THRESHOLD: u64 = 1024 * 64;
/// The type returned by [`thread_rng`], essentially just a reference to the
/// PRNG in thread-local memory.
/// `ThreadRng` uses the same PRNG as [`StdRng`] for security and performance.
/// As hinted by the name, the generator is thread-local. `ThreadRng` is a
/// handle to this generator and thus supports `Copy`, but not `Send` or `Sync`.
/// Unlike `StdRng`, `ThreadRng` uses the [`ReseedingRng`] wrapper to reseed
/// the PRNG from fresh entropy every 64 kiB of random data.
/// [`OsRng`] is used to provide seed data.
/// Note that the reseeding is done as an extra precaution against side-channel
/// attacks and mis-use (e.g. if somehow weak entropy were supplied initially).
/// The PRNG algorithms used are assumed to be secure.
/// [`ReseedingRng`]: crate::rngs::adapter::ReseedingRng
/// [`StdRng`]: crate::rngs::StdRng
#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug)]
pub struct ThreadRng {
// inner raw pointer implies type is neither Send nor Sync
rng: NonNull<ReseedingRng<Core, OsRng>>,
static THREAD_RNG_KEY: UnsafeCell<ReseedingRng<Core, OsRng>> = {
let r = Core::from_rng(OsRng).unwrap_or_else(|err|
panic!("could not initialize thread_rng: {}", err));
let rng = ReseedingRng::new(r,
/// Retrieve the lazily-initialized thread-local random number generator,
/// seeded by the system. Intended to be used in method chaining style,
/// e.g. `thread_rng().gen::<i32>()`, or cached locally, e.g.
/// `let mut rng = thread_rng();`. Invoked by the `Default` trait, making
/// `ThreadRng::default()` equivalent.
/// For more information see [`ThreadRng`].
pub fn thread_rng() -> ThreadRng {
let raw = THREAD_RNG_KEY.with(|t| t.get());
let nn = NonNull::new(raw).unwrap();
ThreadRng { rng: nn }
impl Default for ThreadRng {
fn default() -> ThreadRng {
impl RngCore for ThreadRng {
fn next_u32(&mut self) -> u32 {
unsafe { self.rng.as_mut().next_u32() }
fn next_u64(&mut self) -> u64 {
unsafe { self.rng.as_mut().next_u64() }
fn fill_bytes(&mut self, dest: &mut [u8]) {
unsafe { self.rng.as_mut().fill_bytes(dest) }
fn try_fill_bytes(&mut self, dest: &mut [u8]) -> Result<(), Error> {
unsafe { self.rng.as_mut().try_fill_bytes(dest) }
impl CryptoRng for ThreadRng {}
mod test {
fn test_thread_rng() {
use crate::Rng;
let mut r = crate::thread_rng();
assert_eq!(r.gen_range(0, 1), 0);