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// Copyright 2018 Developers of the Rand project.
//
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 <LICENSE-APACHE or
// https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0> or the MIT license
// <LICENSE-MIT or https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT>, at your
// option. This file may not be copied, modified, or distributed
// except according to those terms.
#![allow(deprecated)]
#![allow(clippy::all)]
use crate::distributions::{Distribution, Uniform};
use crate::Rng;
/// Samples uniformly from the surface of the unit sphere in three dimensions.
///
/// Implemented via a method by Marsaglia[^1].
///
/// [^1]: Marsaglia, George (1972). [*Choosing a Point from the Surface of a
/// Sphere.*](https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177692644)
/// Ann. Math. Statist. 43, no. 2, 645--646.
#[deprecated(since = "0.7.0", note = "moved to rand_distr crate")]
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug)]
pub struct UnitSphereSurface;
impl UnitSphereSurface {
/// Construct a new `UnitSphereSurface` distribution.
#[inline]
pub fn new() -> UnitSphereSurface {
UnitSphereSurface
}
}
impl Distribution<[f64; 3]> for UnitSphereSurface {
#[inline]
fn sample<R: Rng + ?Sized>(&self, rng: &mut R) -> [f64; 3] {
let uniform = Uniform::new(-1., 1.);
loop {
let (x1, x2) = (uniform.sample(rng), uniform.sample(rng));
let sum = x1 * x1 + x2 * x2;
if sum >= 1. {
continue;
}
let factor = 2. * (1.0_f64 - sum).sqrt();
return [x1 * factor, x2 * factor, 1. - 2. * sum];
}
}
}
#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
use super::UnitSphereSurface;
use crate::distributions::Distribution;
/// Assert that two numbers are almost equal to each other.
///
/// On panic, this macro will print the values of the expressions with their
/// debug representations.
macro_rules! assert_almost_eq {
($a:expr, $b:expr, $prec:expr) => {
let diff = ($a - $b).abs();
if diff > $prec {
panic!(format!(
"assertion failed: `abs(left - right) = {:.1e} < {:e}`, \
(left: `{}`, right: `{}`)",
diff, $prec, $a, $b
));
}
};
}
#[test]
fn norm() {
let mut rng = crate::test::rng(1);
let dist = UnitSphereSurface::new();
for _ in 0..1000 {
let x = dist.sample(&mut rng);
assert_almost_eq!(x[0] * x[0] + x[1] * x[1] + x[2] * x[2], 1., 1e-15);
}
}
#[test]
fn value_stability() {
let mut rng = crate::test::rng(2);
let expected = [
[0.03247542860231647, -0.7830477442152738, 0.6211131755296027],
[-0.09978440840914075, 0.9706650829833128, -0.21875184231323952],
[0.2735582468624679, 0.9435374242279655, -0.1868234852870203],
];
let samples = [
UnitSphereSurface.sample(&mut rng),
UnitSphereSurface.sample(&mut rng),
UnitSphereSurface.sample(&mut rng),
];
assert_eq!(samples, expected);
}
}