Upgrade rust/crates/protobuf to 2.22.1 am: fa77f00cb5 am: 0dec0886da am: 06993f5a0b

Original change: https://android-review.googlesource.com/c/platform/external/rust/crates/protobuf/+/1662805

Change-Id: Ie8fdcea04d282b1c99ff2d03cecd8dc00e750acf
diff --git a/.cargo_vcs_info.json b/.cargo_vcs_info.json
index e1cdbd8..0be67b3 100644
--- a/.cargo_vcs_info.json
+++ b/.cargo_vcs_info.json
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 {
   "git": {
-    "sha1": "6dc2d04102a36615e0ca9853390d77712f889b9c"
+    "sha1": "3eabf141db9d0d69961ba8a1eaf2907c7aeb8ff9"
   }
 }
diff --git a/Android.bp b/Android.bp
index 4aaf259..012442c 100644
--- a/Android.bp
+++ b/Android.bp
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
 // This file is generated by cargo2android.py --run --dependencies --device --features=bytes --copy-out --patch=patches/Android.bp.patch.
+// Do not modify this file as changes will be overridden on upgrade.
 
 package {
     default_applicable_licenses: ["external_rust_crates_protobuf_license"],
@@ -26,7 +27,6 @@
 
 rust_library {
     name: "libprotobuf",
-    // has rustc warnings
     host_supported: true,
     crate_name: "protobuf",
     srcs: [
diff --git a/Cargo.toml b/Cargo.toml
index 1af904e..165e125 100644
--- a/Cargo.toml
+++ b/Cargo.toml
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
 [package]
 edition = "2018"
 name = "protobuf"
-version = "2.22.0"
+version = "2.22.1"
 authors = ["Stepan Koltsov <stepan.koltsov@gmail.com>"]
 description = "Rust implementation of Google protocol buffers\n"
 homepage = "https://github.com/stepancheg/rust-protobuf/"
diff --git a/Cargo.toml.orig b/Cargo.toml.orig
index 24d73ad..ea70e2c 100644
--- a/Cargo.toml.orig
+++ b/Cargo.toml.orig
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 [package]
 
 name = "protobuf"
-version = "2.22.0"
+version = "2.22.1"
 authors = ["Stepan Koltsov <stepan.koltsov@gmail.com>"]
 edition = "2018"
 license = "MIT"
diff --git a/METADATA b/METADATA
index 62f030f..586a998 100644
--- a/METADATA
+++ b/METADATA
@@ -7,13 +7,13 @@
   }
   url {
     type: ARCHIVE
-    value: "https://static.crates.io/crates/protobuf/protobuf-2.22.0.crate"
+    value: "https://static.crates.io/crates/protobuf/protobuf-2.22.1.crate"
   }
-  version: "2.22.0"
+  version: "2.22.1"
   license_type: NOTICE
   last_upgrade_date {
     year: 2021
-    month: 2
-    day: 9
+    month: 4
+    day: 2
   }
 }
diff --git a/benches/coded_input_stream.rs b/benches/coded_input_stream.rs
index ad78115..d1795e5 100644
--- a/benches/coded_input_stream.rs
+++ b/benches/coded_input_stream.rs
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 use std::io;
 use std::io::Read;
 
-use protobuf::stream::CodedInputStream;
+use protobuf::CodedInputStream;
 
 use self::test::Bencher;
 
diff --git a/benches/coded_output_stream.rs b/benches/coded_output_stream.rs
index 438e980..0f57a38 100644
--- a/benches/coded_output_stream.rs
+++ b/benches/coded_output_stream.rs
@@ -5,12 +5,11 @@
 extern crate protobuf;
 extern crate test;
 
-use protobuf::stream;
-
 use self::test::Bencher;
+use protobuf::CodedOutputStream;
 
 #[inline]
-fn buffer_write_byte(os: &mut stream::CodedOutputStream) {
+fn buffer_write_byte(os: &mut CodedOutputStream) {
     for i in 0..10 {
         os.write_raw_byte(test::black_box(i as u8)).unwrap();
     }
@@ -18,7 +17,7 @@
 }
 
 #[inline]
-fn buffer_write_bytes(os: &mut stream::CodedOutputStream) {
+fn buffer_write_bytes(os: &mut CodedOutputStream) {
     for _ in 0..10 {
         os.write_raw_bytes(test::black_box(b"1234567890")).unwrap();
     }
@@ -30,7 +29,7 @@
     b.iter(|| {
         let mut v = Vec::new();
         {
-            let mut os = stream::CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v);
+            let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v);
             buffer_write_byte(&mut os);
         }
         v
@@ -42,7 +41,7 @@
     b.iter(|| {
         let mut v = Vec::new();
         {
-            let mut os = stream::CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v);
+            let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v);
             buffer_write_bytes(&mut os);
         }
         v
diff --git a/out/version.rs b/out/version.rs
index a242f31..dcf078d 100644
--- a/out/version.rs
+++ b/out/version.rs
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 /// protobuf crate version
-pub const VERSION: &'static str = "2.22.0";
+pub const VERSION: &'static str = "2.22.1";
 /// This symbol is used by codegen
 #[doc(hidden)]
-pub const VERSION_IDENT: &'static str = "VERSION_2_22_0";
+pub const VERSION_IDENT: &'static str = "VERSION_2_22_1";
 /// This symbol can be referenced to assert that proper version of crate is used
-pub const VERSION_2_22_0: () = ();
+pub const VERSION_2_22_1: () = ();
diff --git a/src/buf_read_iter.rs b/src/buf_read_iter.rs
index cf36280..21f51a1 100644
--- a/src/buf_read_iter.rs
+++ b/src/buf_read_iter.rs
@@ -14,13 +14,11 @@
 #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
 use bytes::BytesMut;
 
+use crate::coded_input_stream::READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC;
 use crate::error::WireError;
-use crate::stream::READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC;
 use crate::ProtobufError;
 use crate::ProtobufResult;
 
-use std::mem::MaybeUninit;
-
 // If an input stream is constructed with a `Read`, we create a
 // `BufReader` with an internal buffer of this size.
 const INPUT_STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE: usize = 4096;
diff --git a/src/coded_input_stream.rs b/src/coded_input_stream.rs
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..52a13a6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/coded_input_stream.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,1004 @@
+#![doc(hidden)]
+
+//! `CodedInputStream` and `CodedOutputStream` implementations
+
+use std::io;
+use std::io::BufRead;
+use std::io::Read;
+use std::mem;
+use std::slice;
+
+#[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+use crate::chars::Chars;
+#[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+use bytes::Bytes;
+
+use crate::buf_read_iter::BufReadIter;
+use crate::enums::ProtobufEnum;
+use crate::error::ProtobufError;
+use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
+use crate::error::WireError;
+use crate::message::Message;
+use crate::unknown::UnknownValue;
+use crate::wire_format;
+use crate::zigzag::decode_zig_zag_32;
+use crate::zigzag::decode_zig_zag_64;
+
+/// Default recursion level limit. 100 is the default value of C++'s implementation.
+const DEFAULT_RECURSION_LIMIT: u32 = 100;
+
+/// Max allocated vec when reading length-delimited from unknown input stream
+pub(crate) const READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC: usize = 10_000_000;
+
+/// Buffered read with handy utilities.
+pub struct CodedInputStream<'a> {
+    source: BufReadIter<'a>,
+    recursion_level: u32,
+    recursion_limit: u32,
+}
+
+impl<'a> CodedInputStream<'a> {
+    /// Wrap a `Read`.
+    ///
+    /// Note resulting `CodedInputStream` is buffered even if `Read` is not.
+    pub fn new(read: &'a mut dyn Read) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
+        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_read(read))
+    }
+
+    /// Create from `BufRead`.
+    ///
+    /// `CodedInputStream` will utilize `BufRead` buffer.
+    pub fn from_buffered_reader(buf_read: &'a mut dyn BufRead) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
+        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_buf_read(buf_read))
+    }
+
+    /// Read from byte slice
+    pub fn from_bytes(bytes: &'a [u8]) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
+        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_byte_slice(bytes))
+    }
+
+    /// Read from `Bytes`.
+    ///
+    /// `CodedInputStream` operations like
+    /// [`read_carllerche_bytes`](crate::CodedInputStream::read_carllerche_bytes)
+    /// will return a shared copy of this bytes object.
+    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+    pub fn from_carllerche_bytes(bytes: &'a Bytes) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
+        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_bytes(bytes))
+    }
+
+    fn from_buf_read_iter(source: BufReadIter<'a>) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
+        CodedInputStream {
+            source: source,
+            recursion_level: 0,
+            recursion_limit: DEFAULT_RECURSION_LIMIT,
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Set the recursion limit.
+    pub fn set_recursion_limit(&mut self, limit: u32) {
+        self.recursion_limit = limit;
+    }
+
+    #[inline]
+    pub(crate) fn incr_recursion(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        if self.recursion_level >= self.recursion_limit {
+            return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::OverRecursionLimit));
+        }
+        self.recursion_level += 1;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    #[inline]
+    pub(crate) fn decr_recursion(&mut self) {
+        self.recursion_level -= 1;
+    }
+
+    /// How many bytes processed
+    pub fn pos(&self) -> u64 {
+        self.source.pos()
+    }
+
+    /// How many bytes until current limit
+    pub fn bytes_until_limit(&self) -> u64 {
+        self.source.bytes_until_limit()
+    }
+
+    /// Read bytes into given `buf`.
+    ///
+    /// Return `0` on EOF.
+    // TODO: overload with `Read::read`
+    pub fn read(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.source.read_exact(buf)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read exact number of bytes as `Bytes` object.
+    ///
+    /// This operation returns a shared view if `CodedInputStream` is
+    /// constructed with `Bytes` parameter.
+    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+    fn read_raw_callerche_bytes(&mut self, count: usize) -> ProtobufResult<Bytes> {
+        self.source.read_exact_bytes(count)
+    }
+
+    /// Read one byte
+    #[inline(always)]
+    pub fn read_raw_byte(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u8> {
+        self.source.read_byte()
+    }
+
+    /// Push new limit, return previous limit.
+    pub fn push_limit(&mut self, limit: u64) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
+        self.source.push_limit(limit)
+    }
+
+    /// Restore previous limit.
+    pub fn pop_limit(&mut self, old_limit: u64) {
+        self.source.pop_limit(old_limit);
+    }
+
+    /// Are we at EOF?
+    #[inline(always)]
+    pub fn eof(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<bool> {
+        self.source.eof()
+    }
+
+    /// Check we are at EOF.
+    ///
+    /// Return error if we are not at EOF.
+    pub fn check_eof(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let eof = self.eof()?;
+        if !eof {
+            return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::UnexpectedEof));
+        }
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    fn read_raw_varint64_slow(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
+        let mut r: u64 = 0;
+        let mut i = 0;
+        loop {
+            if i == 10 {
+                return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::IncorrectVarint));
+            }
+            let b = self.read_raw_byte()?;
+            // TODO: may overflow if i == 9
+            r = r | (((b & 0x7f) as u64) << (i * 7));
+            i += 1;
+            if b < 0x80 {
+                return Ok(r);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Read varint
+    #[inline(always)]
+    pub fn read_raw_varint64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
+        'slow: loop {
+            let ret;
+            let consume;
+
+            loop {
+                let rem = self.source.remaining_in_buf();
+
+                if rem.len() >= 1 {
+                    // most varints are in practice fit in 1 byte
+                    if rem[0] < 0x80 {
+                        ret = rem[0] as u64;
+                        consume = 1;
+                    } else {
+                        // handle case of two bytes too
+                        if rem.len() >= 2 && rem[1] < 0x80 {
+                            ret = (rem[0] & 0x7f) as u64 | (rem[1] as u64) << 7;
+                            consume = 2;
+                        } else if rem.len() >= 10 {
+                            // Read from array when buf at at least 10 bytes,
+                            // max len for varint.
+                            let mut r: u64 = 0;
+                            let mut i: usize = 0;
+                            {
+                                let rem = rem;
+                                loop {
+                                    if i == 10 {
+                                        return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(
+                                            WireError::IncorrectVarint,
+                                        ));
+                                    }
+
+                                    let b = if true {
+                                        // skip range check
+                                        unsafe { *rem.get_unchecked(i) }
+                                    } else {
+                                        rem[i]
+                                    };
+
+                                    // TODO: may overflow if i == 9
+                                    r = r | (((b & 0x7f) as u64) << (i * 7));
+                                    i += 1;
+                                    if b < 0x80 {
+                                        break;
+                                    }
+                                }
+                            }
+                            consume = i;
+                            ret = r;
+                        } else {
+                            break 'slow;
+                        }
+                    }
+                } else {
+                    break 'slow;
+                }
+                break;
+            }
+
+            self.source.consume(consume);
+            return Ok(ret);
+        }
+
+        self.read_raw_varint64_slow()
+    }
+
+    /// Read varint
+    #[inline(always)]
+    pub fn read_raw_varint32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
+        self.read_raw_varint64().map(|v| v as u32)
+    }
+
+    /// Read little-endian 32-bit integer
+    pub fn read_raw_little_endian32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
+        let mut r = 0u32;
+        let bytes: &mut [u8] = unsafe {
+            let p: *mut u8 = mem::transmute(&mut r);
+            slice::from_raw_parts_mut(p, mem::size_of::<u32>())
+        };
+        self.read(bytes)?;
+        Ok(r.to_le())
+    }
+
+    /// Read little-endian 64-bit integer
+    pub fn read_raw_little_endian64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
+        let mut r = 0u64;
+        let bytes: &mut [u8] = unsafe {
+            let p: *mut u8 = mem::transmute(&mut r);
+            slice::from_raw_parts_mut(p, mem::size_of::<u64>())
+        };
+        self.read(bytes)?;
+        Ok(r.to_le())
+    }
+
+    /// Read tag
+    #[inline]
+    pub fn read_tag(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<wire_format::Tag> {
+        let v = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
+        match wire_format::Tag::new(v) {
+            Some(tag) => Ok(tag),
+            None => Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::IncorrectTag(v))),
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Read tag, return it is pair (field number, wire type)
+    #[inline]
+    pub fn read_tag_unpack(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<(u32, wire_format::WireType)> {
+        self.read_tag().map(|t| t.unpack())
+    }
+
+    /// Read `double`
+    pub fn read_double(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<f64> {
+        let bits = self.read_raw_little_endian64()?;
+        unsafe { Ok(mem::transmute::<u64, f64>(bits)) }
+    }
+
+    /// Read `float`
+    pub fn read_float(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<f32> {
+        let bits = self.read_raw_little_endian32()?;
+        unsafe { Ok(mem::transmute::<u32, f32>(bits)) }
+    }
+
+    /// Read `int64`
+    pub fn read_int64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i64> {
+        self.read_raw_varint64().map(|v| v as i64)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `int32`
+    pub fn read_int32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i32> {
+        self.read_raw_varint32().map(|v| v as i32)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `uint64`
+    pub fn read_uint64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
+        self.read_raw_varint64()
+    }
+
+    /// Read `uint32`
+    pub fn read_uint32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
+        self.read_raw_varint32()
+    }
+
+    /// Read `sint64`
+    pub fn read_sint64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i64> {
+        self.read_uint64().map(decode_zig_zag_64)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `sint32`
+    pub fn read_sint32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i32> {
+        self.read_uint32().map(decode_zig_zag_32)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `fixed64`
+    pub fn read_fixed64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
+        self.read_raw_little_endian64()
+    }
+
+    /// Read `fixed32`
+    pub fn read_fixed32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
+        self.read_raw_little_endian32()
+    }
+
+    /// Read `sfixed64`
+    pub fn read_sfixed64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i64> {
+        self.read_raw_little_endian64().map(|v| v as i64)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `sfixed32`
+    pub fn read_sfixed32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i32> {
+        self.read_raw_little_endian32().map(|v| v as i32)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `bool`
+    pub fn read_bool(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<bool> {
+        self.read_raw_varint32().map(|v| v != 0)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `enum` as `ProtobufEnum`
+    pub fn read_enum<E: ProtobufEnum>(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<E> {
+        let i = self.read_int32()?;
+        match ProtobufEnum::from_i32(i) {
+            Some(e) => Ok(e),
+            None => Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::InvalidEnumValue(i))),
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Read `repeated` packed `double`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_double_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<f64>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_double()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read `repeated` packed `float`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_float_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<f32>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_float()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read `repeated` packed `int64`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_int64_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<i64>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len as u64)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_int64()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `int32`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_int32_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<i32>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_int32()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `uint64`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_uint64_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<u64>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_uint64()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `uint32`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_uint32_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<u32>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_uint32()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `sint64`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sint64_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<i64>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_sint64()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `sint32`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sint32_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<i32>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_sint32()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `fixed64`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_fixed64_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<u64>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        target.reserve((len / 8) as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_fixed64()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `fixed32`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_fixed32_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<u32>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_fixed32()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `sfixed64`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sfixed64_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<i64>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        target.reserve((len / 8) as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_sfixed64()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `sfixed32`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sfixed32_into(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<i32>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_sfixed32()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `bool`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_bool_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<bool>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+
+        // regular bool value is 1-byte size
+        target.reserve(len as usize);
+
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_bool()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read repeated packed `enum` into `ProtobufEnum`
+    pub fn read_repeated_packed_enum_into<E: ProtobufEnum>(
+        &mut self,
+        target: &mut Vec<E>,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        while !self.eof()? {
+            target.push(self.read_enum()?);
+        }
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read `UnknownValue`
+    pub fn read_unknown(
+        &mut self,
+        wire_type: wire_format::WireType,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<UnknownValue> {
+        match wire_type {
+            wire_format::WireTypeVarint => {
+                self.read_raw_varint64().map(|v| UnknownValue::Varint(v))
+            }
+            wire_format::WireTypeFixed64 => self.read_fixed64().map(|v| UnknownValue::Fixed64(v)),
+            wire_format::WireTypeFixed32 => self.read_fixed32().map(|v| UnknownValue::Fixed32(v)),
+            wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+                let len = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
+                self.read_raw_bytes(len)
+                    .map(|v| UnknownValue::LengthDelimited(v))
+            }
+            _ => Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::UnexpectedWireType(
+                wire_type,
+            ))),
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Skip field
+    pub fn skip_field(&mut self, wire_type: wire_format::WireType) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.read_unknown(wire_type).map(|_| ())
+    }
+
+    /// Read raw bytes into the supplied vector.  The vector will be resized as needed and
+    /// overwritten.
+    pub fn read_raw_bytes_into(&mut self, count: u32, target: &mut Vec<u8>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        if false {
+            // Master uses this version, but keep existing version for a while
+            // to avoid possible breakages.
+            return self.source.read_exact_to_vec(count as usize, target);
+        }
+
+        let count = count as usize;
+
+        // TODO: also do some limits when reading from unlimited source
+        if count as u64 > self.source.bytes_until_limit() {
+            return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::TruncatedMessage));
+        }
+
+        unsafe {
+            target.set_len(0);
+        }
+
+        if count >= READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC {
+            // avoid calling `reserve` on buf with very large buffer: could be a malformed message
+
+            let mut take = self.by_ref().take(count as u64);
+            take.read_to_end(target)?;
+
+            if target.len() != count {
+                return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::TruncatedMessage));
+            }
+        } else {
+            target.reserve(count);
+            unsafe {
+                target.set_len(count);
+            }
+
+            self.source.read_exact(target)?;
+        }
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read exact number of bytes
+    pub fn read_raw_bytes(&mut self, count: u32) -> ProtobufResult<Vec<u8>> {
+        let mut r = Vec::new();
+        self.read_raw_bytes_into(count, &mut r)?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+
+    /// Skip exact number of bytes
+    pub fn skip_raw_bytes(&mut self, count: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        // TODO: make it more efficient
+        self.read_raw_bytes(count).map(|_| ())
+    }
+
+    /// Read `bytes` field, length delimited
+    pub fn read_bytes(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<Vec<u8>> {
+        let mut r = Vec::new();
+        self.read_bytes_into(&mut r)?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `bytes` field, length delimited
+    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+    pub fn read_carllerche_bytes(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<Bytes> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
+        self.read_raw_callerche_bytes(len as usize)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `string` field, length delimited
+    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+    pub fn read_carllerche_chars(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<Chars> {
+        let bytes = self.read_carllerche_bytes()?;
+        Ok(Chars::from_bytes(bytes)?)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `bytes` field, length delimited
+    pub fn read_bytes_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<u8>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
+        self.read_raw_bytes_into(len, target)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read `string` field, length delimited
+    pub fn read_string(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<String> {
+        let mut r = String::new();
+        self.read_string_into(&mut r)?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+
+    /// Read `string` field, length delimited
+    pub fn read_string_into(&mut self, target: &mut String) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        target.clear();
+        // take target's buffer
+        let mut vec = mem::replace(target, String::new()).into_bytes();
+        self.read_bytes_into(&mut vec)?;
+
+        let s = match String::from_utf8(vec) {
+            Ok(t) => t,
+            Err(_) => return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::Utf8Error)),
+        };
+        *target = s;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read message, do not check if message is initialized
+    pub fn merge_message<M: Message>(&mut self, message: &mut M) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
+        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
+        message.merge_from(self)?;
+        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Read message
+    pub fn read_message<M: Message>(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<M> {
+        let mut r: M = Message::new();
+        self.merge_message(&mut r)?;
+        r.check_initialized()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+impl<'a> Read for CodedInputStream<'a> {
+    fn read(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
+        self.source.read(buf).map_err(Into::into)
+    }
+}
+
+impl<'a> BufRead for CodedInputStream<'a> {
+    fn fill_buf(&mut self) -> io::Result<&[u8]> {
+        self.source.fill_buf().map_err(Into::into)
+    }
+
+    fn consume(&mut self, amt: usize) {
+        self.source.consume(amt)
+    }
+}
+
+/// Helper internal utility, should not be used directly
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub trait WithCodedInputStream {
+    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>;
+}
+
+impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a mut (dyn Read + 'a) {
+    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
+    {
+        let mut is = CodedInputStream::new(self);
+        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
+        is.check_eof()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a mut (dyn BufRead + 'a) {
+    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
+    {
+        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_buffered_reader(self);
+        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
+        is.check_eof()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a [u8] {
+    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
+    {
+        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_bytes(self);
+        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
+        is.check_eof()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+#[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
+impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a Bytes {
+    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
+    {
+        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_carllerche_bytes(self);
+        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
+        is.check_eof()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+#[cfg(test)]
+mod test {
+
+    use std::fmt::Debug;
+    use std::io;
+    use std::io::BufRead;
+    use std::io::Read;
+
+    use crate::error::ProtobufError;
+    use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
+    use crate::hex::decode_hex;
+
+    use super::CodedInputStream;
+    use super::READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC;
+
+    fn test_read_partial<F>(hex: &str, mut callback: F)
+    where
+        F: FnMut(&mut CodedInputStream),
+    {
+        let d = decode_hex(hex);
+        let mut reader = io::Cursor::new(d);
+        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_buffered_reader(&mut reader as &mut dyn BufRead);
+        assert_eq!(0, is.pos());
+        callback(&mut is);
+    }
+
+    fn test_read<F>(hex: &str, mut callback: F)
+    where
+        F: FnMut(&mut CodedInputStream),
+    {
+        let len = decode_hex(hex).len();
+        test_read_partial(hex, |reader| {
+            callback(reader);
+            assert!(reader.eof().expect("eof"));
+            assert_eq!(len as u64, reader.pos());
+        });
+    }
+
+    fn test_read_v<F, V>(hex: &str, v: V, mut callback: F)
+    where
+        F: FnMut(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<V>,
+        V: PartialEq + Debug,
+    {
+        test_read(hex, |reader| {
+            assert_eq!(v, callback(reader).unwrap());
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_byte() {
+        test_read("17", |is| {
+            assert_eq!(23, is.read_raw_byte().unwrap());
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_varint() {
+        test_read_v("07", 7, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint32());
+        test_read_v("07", 7, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint64());
+
+        test_read_v("96 01", 150, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint32());
+        test_read_v("96 01", 150, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint64());
+
+        test_read_v(
+            "ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01",
+            0xffffffffffffffff,
+            |reader| reader.read_raw_varint64(),
+        );
+
+        test_read_v("ff ff ff ff 0f", 0xffffffff, |reader| {
+            reader.read_raw_varint32()
+        });
+        test_read_v("ff ff ff ff 0f", 0xffffffff, |reader| {
+            reader.read_raw_varint64()
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_vaint_malformed() {
+        // varint cannot have length > 10
+        test_read_partial("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |reader| {
+            let result = reader.read_raw_varint64();
+            match result {
+                // TODO: make an enum variant
+                Err(ProtobufError::WireError(..)) => (),
+                _ => panic!(),
+            }
+        });
+        test_read_partial("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |reader| {
+            let result = reader.read_raw_varint32();
+            match result {
+                // TODO: make an enum variant
+                Err(ProtobufError::WireError(..)) => (),
+                _ => panic!(),
+            }
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_varint_unexpected_eof() {
+        test_read_partial("96 97", |reader| {
+            let result = reader.read_raw_varint32();
+            match result {
+                Err(ProtobufError::WireError(..)) => (),
+                _ => panic!(),
+            }
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_varint_pos() {
+        test_read_partial("95 01 98", |reader| {
+            assert_eq!(149, reader.read_raw_varint32().unwrap());
+            assert_eq!(2, reader.pos());
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_int32() {
+        test_read_v("02", 2, |reader| reader.read_int32());
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_float() {
+        test_read_v("95 73 13 61", 17e19, |is| is.read_float());
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_double() {
+        test_read_v("40 d5 ab 68 b3 07 3d 46", 23e29, |is| is.read_double());
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_skip_raw_bytes() {
+        test_read("", |reader| {
+            reader.skip_raw_bytes(0).unwrap();
+        });
+        test_read("aa bb", |reader| {
+            reader.skip_raw_bytes(2).unwrap();
+        });
+        test_read("aa bb cc dd ee ff", |reader| {
+            reader.skip_raw_bytes(6).unwrap();
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_bytes() {
+        test_read("", |reader| {
+            assert_eq!(
+                Vec::from(&b""[..]),
+                reader.read_raw_bytes(0).expect("read_raw_bytes")
+            );
+        })
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_limits() {
+        test_read("aa bb cc", |is| {
+            let old_limit = is.push_limit(1).unwrap();
+            assert_eq!(1, is.bytes_until_limit());
+            let r1 = is.read_raw_bytes(1).unwrap();
+            assert_eq!(&[0xaa as u8], &r1[..]);
+            is.pop_limit(old_limit);
+            let r2 = is.read_raw_bytes(2).unwrap();
+            assert_eq!(&[0xbb as u8, 0xcc], &r2[..]);
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_io_read() {
+        test_read("aa bb cc", |is| {
+            let mut buf = [0; 3];
+            assert_eq!(Read::read(is, &mut buf).expect("io::Read"), 3);
+            assert_eq!(buf, [0xaa, 0xbb, 0xcc]);
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_io_bufread() {
+        test_read("aa bb cc", |is| {
+            assert_eq!(
+                BufRead::fill_buf(is).expect("io::BufRead::fill_buf"),
+                &[0xaa, 0xbb, 0xcc]
+            );
+            BufRead::consume(is, 3);
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_bytes_into_huge() {
+        let mut v = Vec::new();
+        for i in 0..READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC + 1000 {
+            v.push((i % 10) as u8);
+        }
+
+        let mut slice: &[u8] = v.as_slice();
+
+        let mut is = CodedInputStream::new(&mut slice);
+
+        let mut buf = Vec::new();
+
+        is.read_raw_bytes_into(READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC as u32 + 10, &mut buf)
+            .expect("read");
+
+        assert_eq!(READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC + 10, buf.len());
+
+        buf.clear();
+
+        is.read_raw_bytes_into(1000 - 10, &mut buf).expect("read");
+
+        assert_eq!(1000 - 10, buf.len());
+
+        assert!(is.eof().expect("eof"));
+    }
+}
diff --git a/src/coded_output_stream.rs b/src/coded_output_stream.rs
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fb7e75c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/coded_output_stream.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,705 @@
+use crate::misc::remaining_capacity_as_slice_mut;
+use crate::misc::remove_lifetime_mut;
+use crate::varint;
+use crate::wire_format;
+use crate::zigzag::encode_zig_zag_32;
+use crate::zigzag::encode_zig_zag_64;
+use crate::Message;
+use crate::ProtobufEnum;
+use crate::ProtobufResult;
+use crate::UnknownFields;
+use crate::UnknownValueRef;
+use std::io;
+use std::io::Write;
+use std::mem;
+
+/// Equal to the default buffer size of `BufWriter`, so when
+/// `CodedOutputStream` wraps `BufWriter`, it often skips double buffering.
+const OUTPUT_STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE: usize = 8 * 1024;
+
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub trait WithCodedOutputStream {
+    fn with_coded_output_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>;
+}
+
+impl<'a> WithCodedOutputStream for &'a mut (dyn Write + 'a) {
+    fn with_coded_output_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
+    {
+        let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(self);
+        let r = cb(&mut os)?;
+        os.flush()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+impl<'a> WithCodedOutputStream for &'a mut Vec<u8> {
+    fn with_coded_output_stream<T, F>(mut self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
+    where
+        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
+    {
+        let mut os = CodedOutputStream::vec(&mut self);
+        let r = cb(&mut os)?;
+        os.flush()?;
+        Ok(r)
+    }
+}
+
+#[doc(hidden)]
+pub fn with_coded_output_stream_to_bytes<F>(cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<Vec<u8>>
+where
+    F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<()>,
+{
+    let mut v = Vec::new();
+    v.with_coded_output_stream(cb)?;
+    Ok(v)
+}
+
+enum OutputTarget<'a> {
+    Write(&'a mut dyn Write, Vec<u8>),
+    Vec(&'a mut Vec<u8>),
+    Bytes,
+}
+
+/// Buffered write with handy utilities
+pub struct CodedOutputStream<'a> {
+    target: OutputTarget<'a>,
+    // alias to buf from target
+    buffer: &'a mut [u8],
+    // within buffer
+    position: usize,
+}
+
+impl<'a> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
+    /// Construct from given `Write`.
+    ///
+    /// `CodedOutputStream` is buffered even if `Write` is not
+    pub fn new(writer: &'a mut dyn Write) -> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
+        let buffer_len = OUTPUT_STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE;
+
+        let mut buffer_storage = Vec::with_capacity(buffer_len);
+        unsafe {
+            buffer_storage.set_len(buffer_len);
+        }
+
+        let buffer = unsafe { remove_lifetime_mut(&mut buffer_storage as &mut [u8]) };
+
+        CodedOutputStream {
+            target: OutputTarget::Write(writer, buffer_storage),
+            buffer: buffer,
+            position: 0,
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// `CodedOutputStream` which writes directly to bytes.
+    ///
+    /// Attempt to write more than bytes capacity results in error.
+    pub fn bytes(bytes: &'a mut [u8]) -> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
+        CodedOutputStream {
+            target: OutputTarget::Bytes,
+            buffer: bytes,
+            position: 0,
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// `CodedOutputStream` which writes directly to `Vec<u8>`.
+    ///
+    /// Caller should call `flush` at the end to guarantee vec contains
+    /// all written data.
+    pub fn vec(vec: &'a mut Vec<u8>) -> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
+        CodedOutputStream {
+            target: OutputTarget::Vec(vec),
+            buffer: &mut [],
+            position: 0,
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Check if EOF is reached.
+    ///
+    /// # Panics
+    ///
+    /// If underlying write has no EOF
+    pub fn check_eof(&self) {
+        match self.target {
+            OutputTarget::Bytes => {
+                assert_eq!(self.buffer.len() as u64, self.position as u64);
+            }
+            OutputTarget::Write(..) | OutputTarget::Vec(..) => {
+                panic!("must not be called with Writer or Vec");
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    fn refresh_buffer(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        match self.target {
+            OutputTarget::Write(ref mut write, _) => {
+                write.write_all(&self.buffer[0..self.position as usize])?;
+                self.position = 0;
+            }
+            OutputTarget::Vec(ref mut vec) => unsafe {
+                let vec_len = vec.len();
+                assert!(vec_len + self.position <= vec.capacity());
+                vec.set_len(vec_len + self.position);
+                vec.reserve(1);
+                self.buffer = remove_lifetime_mut(remaining_capacity_as_slice_mut(vec));
+                self.position = 0;
+            },
+            OutputTarget::Bytes => {
+                panic!("refresh_buffer must not be called on CodedOutputStream create from slice");
+            }
+        }
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Flush the buffer to underlying write
+    pub fn flush(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        match self.target {
+            OutputTarget::Bytes => Ok(()),
+            OutputTarget::Write(..) | OutputTarget::Vec(..) => {
+                // TODO: must not reserve additional in Vec
+                self.refresh_buffer()
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Write a byte
+    pub fn write_raw_byte(&mut self, byte: u8) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        if self.position as usize == self.buffer.len() {
+            self.refresh_buffer()?;
+        }
+        self.buffer[self.position as usize] = byte;
+        self.position += 1;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write bytes
+    pub fn write_raw_bytes(&mut self, bytes: &[u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        if bytes.len() <= self.buffer.len() - self.position {
+            let bottom = self.position as usize;
+            let top = bottom + (bytes.len() as usize);
+            self.buffer[bottom..top].copy_from_slice(bytes);
+            self.position += bytes.len();
+            return Ok(());
+        }
+
+        self.refresh_buffer()?;
+
+        assert!(self.position == 0);
+
+        if self.position + bytes.len() < self.buffer.len() {
+            &mut self.buffer[self.position..self.position + bytes.len()].copy_from_slice(bytes);
+            self.position += bytes.len();
+            return Ok(());
+        }
+
+        match self.target {
+            OutputTarget::Bytes => {
+                unreachable!();
+            }
+            OutputTarget::Write(ref mut write, _) => {
+                write.write_all(bytes)?;
+            }
+            OutputTarget::Vec(ref mut vec) => {
+                vec.extend(bytes);
+                unsafe {
+                    self.buffer = remove_lifetime_mut(remaining_capacity_as_slice_mut(vec));
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write a tag
+    pub fn write_tag(
+        &mut self,
+        field_number: u32,
+        wire_type: wire_format::WireType,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint32(wire_format::Tag::make(field_number, wire_type).value())
+    }
+
+    /// Write varint
+    pub fn write_raw_varint32(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        if self.buffer.len() - self.position >= 5 {
+            // fast path
+            let len = varint::encode_varint32(value, &mut self.buffer[self.position..]);
+            self.position += len;
+            Ok(())
+        } else {
+            // slow path
+            let buf = &mut [0u8; 5];
+            let len = varint::encode_varint32(value, buf);
+            self.write_raw_bytes(&buf[..len])
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Write varint
+    pub fn write_raw_varint64(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        if self.buffer.len() - self.position >= 10 {
+            // fast path
+            let len = varint::encode_varint64(value, &mut self.buffer[self.position..]);
+            self.position += len;
+            Ok(())
+        } else {
+            // slow path
+            let buf = &mut [0u8; 10];
+            let len = varint::encode_varint64(value, buf);
+            self.write_raw_bytes(&buf[..len])
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Write 32-bit integer little endian
+    pub fn write_raw_little_endian32(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let bytes = unsafe { mem::transmute::<_, [u8; 4]>(value.to_le()) };
+        self.write_raw_bytes(&bytes)
+    }
+
+    /// Write 64-bit integer little endian
+    pub fn write_raw_little_endian64(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let bytes = unsafe { mem::transmute::<_, [u8; 8]>(value.to_le()) };
+        self.write_raw_bytes(&bytes)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `float`
+    pub fn write_float_no_tag(&mut self, value: f32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let bits = unsafe { mem::transmute::<f32, u32>(value) };
+        self.write_raw_little_endian32(bits)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `double`
+    pub fn write_double_no_tag(&mut self, value: f64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        let bits = unsafe { mem::transmute::<f64, u64>(value) };
+        self.write_raw_little_endian64(bits)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `float` field
+    pub fn write_float(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: f32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed32)?;
+        self.write_float_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `double` field
+    pub fn write_double(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: f64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed64)?;
+        self.write_double_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write varint
+    pub fn write_uint64_no_tag(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint64(value)
+    }
+
+    /// Write varint
+    pub fn write_uint32_no_tag(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint32(value)
+    }
+
+    /// Write varint
+    pub fn write_int64_no_tag(&mut self, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint64(value as u64)
+    }
+
+    /// Write varint
+    pub fn write_int32_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint64(value as u64)
+    }
+
+    /// Write zigzag varint
+    pub fn write_sint64_no_tag(&mut self, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_uint64_no_tag(encode_zig_zag_64(value))
+    }
+
+    /// Write zigzag varint
+    pub fn write_sint32_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_uint32_no_tag(encode_zig_zag_32(value))
+    }
+
+    /// Write `fixed64`
+    pub fn write_fixed64_no_tag(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_little_endian64(value)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `fixed32`
+    pub fn write_fixed32_no_tag(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_little_endian32(value)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `sfixed64`
+    pub fn write_sfixed64_no_tag(&mut self, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_little_endian64(value as u64)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `sfixed32`
+    pub fn write_sfixed32_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_little_endian32(value as u32)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `bool`
+    pub fn write_bool_no_tag(&mut self, value: bool) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint32(if value { 1 } else { 0 })
+    }
+
+    /// Write `enum`
+    pub fn write_enum_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_int32_no_tag(value)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `enum`
+    pub fn write_enum_obj_no_tag<E>(&mut self, value: E) -> ProtobufResult<()>
+    where
+        E: ProtobufEnum,
+    {
+        self.write_enum_no_tag(value.value())
+    }
+
+    /// Write unknown value
+    pub fn write_unknown_no_tag(&mut self, unknown: UnknownValueRef) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        match unknown {
+            UnknownValueRef::Fixed64(fixed64) => self.write_raw_little_endian64(fixed64),
+            UnknownValueRef::Fixed32(fixed32) => self.write_raw_little_endian32(fixed32),
+            UnknownValueRef::Varint(varint) => self.write_raw_varint64(varint),
+            UnknownValueRef::LengthDelimited(bytes) => self.write_bytes_no_tag(bytes),
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Write `uint64` field
+    pub fn write_uint64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_uint64_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `uint32` field
+    pub fn write_uint32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_uint32_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `int64` field
+    pub fn write_int64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_int64_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `int32` field
+    pub fn write_int32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_int32_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `sint64` field
+    pub fn write_sint64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_sint64_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `sint32` field
+    pub fn write_sint32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_sint32_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `fixed64` field
+    pub fn write_fixed64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed64)?;
+        self.write_fixed64_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `fixed32` field
+    pub fn write_fixed32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed32)?;
+        self.write_fixed32_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `sfixed64` field
+    pub fn write_sfixed64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed64)?;
+        self.write_sfixed64_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `sfixed32` field
+    pub fn write_sfixed32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed32)?;
+        self.write_sfixed32_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `bool` field
+    pub fn write_bool(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: bool) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_bool_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `enum` field
+    pub fn write_enum(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
+        self.write_enum_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `enum` field
+    pub fn write_enum_obj<E>(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: E) -> ProtobufResult<()>
+    where
+        E: ProtobufEnum,
+    {
+        self.write_enum(field_number, value.value())
+    }
+
+    /// Write unknown field
+    pub fn write_unknown(
+        &mut self,
+        field_number: u32,
+        value: UnknownValueRef,
+    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, value.wire_type())?;
+        self.write_unknown_no_tag(value)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write unknown fields
+    pub fn write_unknown_fields(&mut self, fields: &UnknownFields) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        for (number, values) in fields {
+            for value in values {
+                self.write_unknown(number, value)?;
+            }
+        }
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write bytes
+    pub fn write_bytes_no_tag(&mut self, bytes: &[u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_raw_varint32(bytes.len() as u32)?;
+        self.write_raw_bytes(bytes)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write string
+    pub fn write_string_no_tag(&mut self, s: &str) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_bytes_no_tag(s.as_bytes())
+    }
+
+    /// Write message
+    pub fn write_message_no_tag<M: Message>(&mut self, msg: &M) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        msg.write_length_delimited_to(self)
+    }
+
+    /// Write `bytes` field
+    pub fn write_bytes(&mut self, field_number: u32, bytes: &[u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited)?;
+        self.write_bytes_no_tag(bytes)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `string` field
+    pub fn write_string(&mut self, field_number: u32, s: &str) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited)?;
+        self.write_string_no_tag(s)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+
+    /// Write `message` field
+    pub fn write_message<M: Message>(&mut self, field_number: u32, msg: &M) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
+        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited)?;
+        self.write_message_no_tag(msg)?;
+        Ok(())
+    }
+}
+
+impl<'a> Write for CodedOutputStream<'a> {
+    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
+        self.write_raw_bytes(buf)?;
+        Ok(buf.len())
+    }
+
+    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
+        CodedOutputStream::flush(self).map_err(Into::into)
+    }
+}
+
+#[cfg(test)]
+mod test {
+    use crate::coded_output_stream::CodedOutputStream;
+    use crate::hex::decode_hex;
+    use crate::hex::encode_hex;
+    use crate::wire_format;
+    use crate::ProtobufResult;
+    use std::io::Write;
+    use std::iter;
+
+    fn test_write<F>(expected: &str, mut gen: F)
+    where
+        F: FnMut(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<()>,
+    {
+        let expected_bytes = decode_hex(expected);
+
+        // write to Write
+        {
+            let mut v = Vec::new();
+            {
+                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v as &mut dyn Write);
+                gen(&mut os).unwrap();
+                os.flush().unwrap();
+            }
+            assert_eq!(encode_hex(&expected_bytes), encode_hex(&v));
+        }
+
+        // write to &[u8]
+        {
+            let mut r = Vec::with_capacity(expected_bytes.len());
+            r.resize(expected_bytes.len(), 0);
+            {
+                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::bytes(&mut r);
+                gen(&mut os).unwrap();
+                os.check_eof();
+            }
+            assert_eq!(encode_hex(&expected_bytes), encode_hex(&r));
+        }
+
+        // write to Vec<u8>
+        {
+            let mut r = Vec::new();
+            r.extend(&[11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77]);
+            {
+                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::vec(&mut r);
+                gen(&mut os).unwrap();
+                os.flush().unwrap();
+            }
+
+            r.drain(..7);
+            assert_eq!(encode_hex(&expected_bytes), encode_hex(&r));
+        }
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_byte() {
+        test_write("a1", |os| os.write_raw_byte(0xa1));
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_tag() {
+        test_write("08", |os| os.write_tag(1, wire_format::WireTypeVarint));
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_bytes() {
+        test_write("00 ab", |os| os.write_raw_bytes(&[0x00, 0xab]));
+
+        let expected = iter::repeat("01 02 03 04")
+            .take(2048)
+            .collect::<Vec<_>>()
+            .join(" ");
+        test_write(&expected, |os| {
+            for _ in 0..2048 {
+                os.write_raw_bytes(&[0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04])?;
+            }
+
+            Ok(())
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_varint32() {
+        test_write("96 01", |os| os.write_raw_varint32(150));
+        test_write("ff ff ff ff 0f", |os| os.write_raw_varint32(0xffffffff));
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_varint64() {
+        test_write("96 01", |os| os.write_raw_varint64(150));
+        test_write("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |os| {
+            os.write_raw_varint64(0xffffffffffffffff)
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_int32_no_tag() {
+        test_write("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |os| {
+            os.write_int32_no_tag(-1)
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_int64_no_tag() {
+        test_write("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |os| {
+            os.write_int64_no_tag(-1)
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_little_endian32() {
+        test_write("f1 e2 d3 c4", |os| os.write_raw_little_endian32(0xc4d3e2f1));
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_float_no_tag() {
+        test_write("95 73 13 61", |os| os.write_float_no_tag(17e19));
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_double_no_tag() {
+        test_write("40 d5 ab 68 b3 07 3d 46", |os| {
+            os.write_double_no_tag(23e29)
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_little_endian64() {
+        test_write("f1 e2 d3 c4 b5 a6 07 f8", |os| {
+            os.write_raw_little_endian64(0xf807a6b5c4d3e2f1)
+        });
+    }
+
+    #[test]
+    fn test_output_stream_io_write() {
+        let expected = [0x11, 0x22, 0x33, 0x44, 0x55, 0x66, 0x77];
+
+        // write to Write
+        {
+            let mut v = Vec::new();
+            {
+                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v as &mut dyn Write);
+                Write::write(&mut os, &expected).expect("io::Write::write");
+                Write::flush(&mut os).expect("io::Write::flush");
+            }
+            assert_eq!(expected, *v);
+        }
+
+        // write to &[u8]
+        {
+            let mut v = Vec::with_capacity(expected.len());
+            v.resize(expected.len(), 0);
+            {
+                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::bytes(&mut v);
+                Write::write(&mut os, &expected).expect("io::Write::write");
+                Write::flush(&mut os).expect("io::Write::flush");
+                os.check_eof();
+            }
+            assert_eq!(expected, *v);
+        }
+
+        // write to Vec<u8>
+        {
+            let mut v = Vec::new();
+            {
+                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::vec(&mut v);
+                Write::write(&mut os, &expected).expect("io::Write::write");
+                Write::flush(&mut os).expect("io::Write::flush");
+            }
+            assert_eq!(expected, *v);
+        }
+    }
+}
diff --git a/src/descriptor.rs b/src/descriptor.rs
index 3e76bee..8f3dd2f 100644
--- a/src/descriptor.rs
+++ b/src/descriptor.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/lib.rs b/src/lib.rs
index da5a756..8eee9d3 100644
--- a/src/lib.rs
+++ b/src/lib.rs
@@ -14,6 +14,8 @@
 #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
 pub use crate::chars::Chars;
 pub use crate::clear::Clear;
+pub use crate::coded_input_stream::CodedInputStream;
+pub use crate::coded_output_stream::CodedOutputStream;
 pub use crate::enums::ProtobufEnum;
 pub use crate::error::ProtobufError;
 pub use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
@@ -34,9 +36,6 @@
 pub use crate::repeated::RepeatedField;
 pub use crate::singular::SingularField;
 pub use crate::singular::SingularPtrField;
-pub use crate::stream::wire_format;
-pub use crate::stream::CodedInputStream;
-pub use crate::stream::CodedOutputStream;
 pub use crate::unknown::UnknownFields;
 pub use crate::unknown::UnknownFieldsIter;
 pub use crate::unknown::UnknownValue;
@@ -49,7 +48,11 @@
 pub mod plugin;
 pub mod rustproto;
 
+pub mod wire_format;
+
 mod clear;
+mod coded_input_stream;
+mod coded_output_stream;
 pub mod compiler_plugin;
 mod enums;
 pub mod error;
@@ -62,7 +65,6 @@
 mod repeated;
 pub mod rt;
 mod singular;
-pub mod stream;
 pub mod text_format;
 pub mod types;
 pub mod well_known_types;
diff --git a/src/message.rs b/src/message.rs
index b22ace2..e9d6b30 100644
--- a/src/message.rs
+++ b/src/message.rs
@@ -8,14 +8,14 @@
 use bytes::Bytes;
 
 use crate::clear::Clear;
+use crate::coded_input_stream::CodedInputStream;
+use crate::coded_input_stream::WithCodedInputStream;
+use crate::coded_output_stream::with_coded_output_stream_to_bytes;
+use crate::coded_output_stream::CodedOutputStream;
+use crate::coded_output_stream::WithCodedOutputStream;
 use crate::error::ProtobufError;
 use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
 use crate::reflect::MessageDescriptor;
-use crate::stream::with_coded_output_stream_to_bytes;
-use crate::stream::CodedInputStream;
-use crate::stream::CodedOutputStream;
-use crate::stream::WithCodedInputStream;
-use crate::stream::WithCodedOutputStream;
 use crate::unknown::UnknownFields;
 
 /// Trait implemented for all generated structs for protobuf messages.
diff --git a/src/plugin.rs b/src/plugin.rs
index 007378f..77e1666 100644
--- a/src/plugin.rs
+++ b/src/plugin.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/rt.rs b/src/rt.rs
index 7af7c2c..3bb0280 100644
--- a/src/rt.rs
+++ b/src/rt.rs
@@ -10,6 +10,8 @@
 #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
 use bytes::Bytes;
 
+use crate::coded_input_stream::CodedInputStream;
+use crate::coded_output_stream::CodedOutputStream;
 use crate::enums::ProtobufEnum;
 use crate::error::ProtobufError;
 use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
@@ -18,19 +20,13 @@
 use crate::repeated::RepeatedField;
 use crate::singular::SingularField;
 use crate::singular::SingularPtrField;
-use crate::stream::wire_format;
-use crate::stream::wire_format::WireType;
-use crate::stream::wire_format::WireTypeFixed32;
-use crate::stream::wire_format::WireTypeFixed64;
-use crate::stream::wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited;
-use crate::stream::wire_format::WireTypeVarint;
-use crate::stream::CodedInputStream;
-use crate::stream::CodedOutputStream;
 use crate::types::*;
 use crate::zigzag::*;
 
 pub use crate::lazy_v2::LazyV2;
 use crate::unknown::UnknownFields;
+use crate::wire_format;
+use crate::wire_format::WireType;
 
 /// Given `u64` value compute varint encoded length.
 pub fn compute_raw_varint64_size(value: u64) -> u32 {
@@ -184,16 +180,16 @@
 
 /// Compute tag size. Size of tag does not depend on wire type.
 pub fn tag_size(field_number: u32) -> u32 {
-    wire_format::Tag::make(field_number, WireTypeFixed64)
+    wire_format::Tag::make(field_number, WireType::WireTypeFixed64)
         .value()
         .len_varint()
 }
 
 fn value_size_no_tag<T: ProtobufVarint>(value: T, wt: WireType) -> u32 {
     match wt {
-        WireTypeFixed64 => 8,
-        WireTypeFixed32 => 4,
-        WireTypeVarint => value.len_varint(),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed64 => 8,
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed32 => 4,
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => value.len_varint(),
         _ => panic!(),
     }
 }
@@ -267,8 +263,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<i32>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_int32_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_int32_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_int32()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -283,8 +279,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<i64>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_int64_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_int64_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_int64()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -299,8 +295,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<u32>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_uint32_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_uint32_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_uint32()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -315,8 +311,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<u64>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_uint64_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_uint64_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_uint64()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -331,8 +327,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<i32>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sint32_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sint32_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_sint32()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -347,8 +343,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<i64>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sint64_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sint64_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_sint64()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -363,8 +359,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<u32>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_fixed32_into(target),
-        WireTypeFixed32 => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_fixed32_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed32 => {
             target.push(is.read_fixed32()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -379,8 +375,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<u64>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_fixed64_into(target),
-        WireTypeFixed64 => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_fixed64_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed64 => {
             target.push(is.read_fixed64()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -395,8 +391,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<i32>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sfixed32_into(target),
-        WireTypeFixed32 => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sfixed32_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed32 => {
             target.push(is.read_sfixed32()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -411,8 +407,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<i64>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sfixed64_into(target),
-        WireTypeFixed64 => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_sfixed64_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed64 => {
             target.push(is.read_sfixed64()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -427,8 +423,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<f64>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_double_into(target),
-        WireTypeFixed64 => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_double_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed64 => {
             target.push(is.read_double()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -443,8 +439,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<f32>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_float_into(target),
-        WireTypeFixed32 => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_float_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeFixed32 => {
             target.push(is.read_float()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -459,8 +455,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<bool>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_bool_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_bool_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_bool()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -476,8 +472,8 @@
     target: &mut Vec<E>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_enum_into(target),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_repeated_packed_enum_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             target.push(is.read_enum()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -533,13 +529,13 @@
     unknown_fields: &mut UnknownFields,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => read_repeated_packed_enum_with_unknown_fields_into(
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => read_repeated_packed_enum_with_unknown_fields_into(
             is,
             target,
             field_number,
             unknown_fields,
         ),
-        WireTypeVarint => {
+        WireType::WireTypeVarint => {
             read_enum_with_unknown_fields_into(is, |e| target.push(e), field_number, unknown_fields)
         }
         _ => Err(unexpected_wire_type(wire_type)),
@@ -593,7 +589,7 @@
     target: &mut RepeatedField<String>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             let tmp = target.push_default();
             is.read_string_into(tmp)
         }
@@ -609,7 +605,7 @@
     target: &mut Vec<Chars>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             target.push(is.read_carllerche_chars()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -624,7 +620,7 @@
     target: &mut SingularField<String>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             let tmp = target.set_default();
             is.read_string_into(tmp)
         }
@@ -640,7 +636,7 @@
     target: &mut Option<Chars>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             *target = Some(is.read_carllerche_chars()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -655,7 +651,7 @@
     target: &mut String,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_string_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_string_into(target),
         _ => Err(unexpected_wire_type(wire_type)),
     }
 }
@@ -668,7 +664,7 @@
     target: &mut Chars,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             *target = is.read_carllerche_chars()?;
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -683,7 +679,7 @@
     target: &mut RepeatedField<Vec<u8>>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             let tmp = target.push_default();
             is.read_bytes_into(tmp)
         }
@@ -699,7 +695,7 @@
     target: &mut Vec<Bytes>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             target.push(is.read_carllerche_bytes()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -714,7 +710,7 @@
     target: &mut SingularField<Vec<u8>>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             let tmp = target.set_default();
             is.read_bytes_into(tmp)
         }
@@ -730,7 +726,7 @@
     target: &mut Option<Bytes>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             *target = Some(is.read_carllerche_bytes()?);
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -745,7 +741,7 @@
     target: &mut Vec<u8>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_bytes_into(target),
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => is.read_bytes_into(target),
         _ => Err(unexpected_wire_type(wire_type)),
     }
 }
@@ -758,7 +754,7 @@
     target: &mut Bytes,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             *target = is.read_carllerche_bytes()?;
             Ok(())
         }
@@ -773,7 +769,7 @@
     target: &mut RepeatedField<M>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             is.incr_recursion()?;
             let tmp = target.push_default();
             let res = is.merge_message(tmp);
@@ -791,7 +787,7 @@
     target: &mut SingularPtrField<M>,
 ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
     match wire_type {
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
+        WireType::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
             is.incr_recursion()?;
             let tmp = target.set_default();
             let res = is.merge_message(tmp);
diff --git a/src/rustproto.rs b/src/rustproto.rs
index d4284e7..83854e4 100644
--- a/src/rustproto.rs
+++ b/src/rustproto.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/stream.rs b/src/stream.rs
deleted file mode 100644
index 5ec7df2..0000000
--- a/src/stream.rs
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1803 +0,0 @@
-#![doc(hidden)]
-
-//! `CodedInputStream` and `CodedOutputStream` implementations
-
-use std::io;
-use std::io::BufRead;
-use std::io::Read;
-use std::io::Write;
-use std::mem;
-use std::slice;
-
-#[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-use crate::chars::Chars;
-#[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-use bytes::Bytes;
-
-use crate::buf_read_iter::BufReadIter;
-use crate::enums::ProtobufEnum;
-use crate::error::ProtobufError;
-use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
-use crate::error::WireError;
-use crate::message::Message;
-use crate::misc::remaining_capacity_as_slice_mut;
-use crate::misc::remove_lifetime_mut;
-use crate::unknown::UnknownFields;
-use crate::unknown::UnknownValue;
-use crate::unknown::UnknownValueRef;
-use crate::varint;
-use crate::zigzag::decode_zig_zag_32;
-use crate::zigzag::decode_zig_zag_64;
-use crate::zigzag::encode_zig_zag_32;
-use crate::zigzag::encode_zig_zag_64;
-
-/// Equal to the default buffer size of `BufWriter`, so when
-/// `CodedOutputStream` wraps `BufWriter`, it often skips double buffering.
-const OUTPUT_STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE: usize = 8 * 1024;
-
-/// Default recursion level limit. 100 is the default value of C++'s implementation.
-const DEFAULT_RECURSION_LIMIT: u32 = 100;
-
-/// Max allocated vec when reading length-delimited from unknown input stream
-pub(crate) const READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC: usize = 10_000_000;
-
-/// Serialization constants.
-pub mod wire_format {
-    // TODO: temporary
-    pub use self::WireType::*;
-
-    /// Tag occupies 3 bits
-    pub const TAG_TYPE_BITS: u32 = 3;
-    /// Tag mask
-    pub const TAG_TYPE_MASK: u32 = (1u32 << TAG_TYPE_BITS) - 1;
-    /// Max possible field number
-    pub const FIELD_NUMBER_MAX: u32 = 0x1fffffff;
-
-    /// One of six defined protobuf wire types
-    #[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Clone, Debug)]
-    pub enum WireType {
-        /// Varint (e. g. `int32` or `sint64`)
-        WireTypeVarint = 0,
-        /// Fixed size 64 bit (e. g. `fixed64` or `double`)
-        WireTypeFixed64 = 1,
-        /// Length-delimited (e. g. `message` or `string`)
-        WireTypeLengthDelimited = 2,
-        /// Groups are not supported by rust-protobuf
-        WireTypeStartGroup = 3,
-        /// Groups are not supported by rust-protobuf
-        WireTypeEndGroup = 4,
-        /// Fixed size 64 bit (e. g. `fixed32` or `float`)
-        WireTypeFixed32 = 5,
-    }
-
-    impl Copy for WireType {}
-
-    impl WireType {
-        /// Parse wire type
-        pub fn new(n: u32) -> Option<WireType> {
-            match n {
-                0 => Some(WireTypeVarint),
-                1 => Some(WireTypeFixed64),
-                2 => Some(WireTypeLengthDelimited),
-                3 => Some(WireTypeStartGroup),
-                4 => Some(WireTypeEndGroup),
-                5 => Some(WireTypeFixed32),
-                _ => None,
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Parsed protobuf tag, which is a pair of field number and wire type
-    #[derive(Clone)]
-    pub struct Tag {
-        field_number: u32,
-        wire_type: WireType,
-    }
-
-    impl Copy for Tag {}
-
-    impl Tag {
-        /// Pack a tag to integer
-        pub fn value(self) -> u32 {
-            (self.field_number << TAG_TYPE_BITS) | (self.wire_type as u32)
-        }
-
-        /// Parse integer into `Tag` object
-        // TODO: should return Result instead of Option
-        pub fn new(value: u32) -> Option<Tag> {
-            let wire_type = WireType::new(value & TAG_TYPE_MASK);
-            if wire_type.is_none() {
-                return None;
-            }
-            let field_number = value >> TAG_TYPE_BITS;
-            if field_number == 0 {
-                return None;
-            }
-            Some(Tag {
-                field_number: field_number,
-                wire_type: wire_type.unwrap(),
-            })
-        }
-
-        /// Create a tag from a field number and wire type.
-        ///
-        /// # Panics
-        ///
-        /// If field number is outside of allowed range.
-        pub fn make(field_number: u32, wire_type: WireType) -> Tag {
-            assert!(field_number > 0 && field_number <= FIELD_NUMBER_MAX);
-            Tag {
-                field_number: field_number,
-                wire_type: wire_type,
-            }
-        }
-
-        /// Tag as pair of (field number, wire type)
-        pub fn unpack(self) -> (u32, WireType) {
-            (self.field_number(), self.wire_type())
-        }
-
-        fn wire_type(self) -> WireType {
-            self.wire_type
-        }
-
-        /// Protobuf field number
-        pub fn field_number(self) -> u32 {
-            self.field_number
-        }
-    }
-}
-
-/// Buffered read with handy utilities.
-pub struct CodedInputStream<'a> {
-    source: BufReadIter<'a>,
-    recursion_level: u32,
-    recursion_limit: u32,
-}
-
-impl<'a> CodedInputStream<'a> {
-    /// Wrap a `Read`.
-    ///
-    /// Note resulting `CodedInputStream` is buffered even if `Read` is not.
-    pub fn new(read: &'a mut dyn Read) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
-        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_read(read))
-    }
-
-    /// Create from `BufRead`.
-    ///
-    /// `CodedInputStream` will utilize `BufRead` buffer.
-    pub fn from_buffered_reader(buf_read: &'a mut dyn BufRead) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
-        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_buf_read(buf_read))
-    }
-
-    /// Read from byte slice
-    pub fn from_bytes(bytes: &'a [u8]) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
-        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_byte_slice(bytes))
-    }
-
-    /// Read from `Bytes`.
-    ///
-    /// `CodedInputStream` operations like
-    /// [`read_carllerche_bytes`](crate::CodedInputStream::read_carllerche_bytes)
-    /// will return a shared copy of this bytes object.
-    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-    pub fn from_carllerche_bytes(bytes: &'a Bytes) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
-        CodedInputStream::from_buf_read_iter(BufReadIter::from_bytes(bytes))
-    }
-
-    fn from_buf_read_iter(source: BufReadIter<'a>) -> CodedInputStream<'a> {
-        CodedInputStream {
-            source: source,
-            recursion_level: 0,
-            recursion_limit: DEFAULT_RECURSION_LIMIT,
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Set the recursion limit.
-    pub fn set_recursion_limit(&mut self, limit: u32) {
-        self.recursion_limit = limit;
-    }
-
-    #[inline]
-    pub(crate) fn incr_recursion(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        if self.recursion_level >= self.recursion_limit {
-            return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::OverRecursionLimit));
-        }
-        self.recursion_level += 1;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    #[inline]
-    pub(crate) fn decr_recursion(&mut self) {
-        self.recursion_level -= 1;
-    }
-
-    /// How many bytes processed
-    pub fn pos(&self) -> u64 {
-        self.source.pos()
-    }
-
-    /// How many bytes until current limit
-    pub fn bytes_until_limit(&self) -> u64 {
-        self.source.bytes_until_limit()
-    }
-
-    /// Read bytes into given `buf`.
-    ///
-    /// Return `0` on EOF.
-    // TODO: overload with `Read::read`
-    pub fn read(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.source.read_exact(buf)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read exact number of bytes as `Bytes` object.
-    ///
-    /// This operation returns a shared view if `CodedInputStream` is
-    /// constructed with `Bytes` parameter.
-    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-    fn read_raw_callerche_bytes(&mut self, count: usize) -> ProtobufResult<Bytes> {
-        self.source.read_exact_bytes(count)
-    }
-
-    /// Read one byte
-    #[inline(always)]
-    pub fn read_raw_byte(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u8> {
-        self.source.read_byte()
-    }
-
-    /// Push new limit, return previous limit.
-    pub fn push_limit(&mut self, limit: u64) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
-        self.source.push_limit(limit)
-    }
-
-    /// Restore previous limit.
-    pub fn pop_limit(&mut self, old_limit: u64) {
-        self.source.pop_limit(old_limit);
-    }
-
-    /// Are we at EOF?
-    #[inline(always)]
-    pub fn eof(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<bool> {
-        self.source.eof()
-    }
-
-    /// Check we are at EOF.
-    ///
-    /// Return error if we are not at EOF.
-    pub fn check_eof(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let eof = self.eof()?;
-        if !eof {
-            return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::UnexpectedEof));
-        }
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    fn read_raw_varint64_slow(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
-        let mut r: u64 = 0;
-        let mut i = 0;
-        loop {
-            if i == 10 {
-                return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::IncorrectVarint));
-            }
-            let b = self.read_raw_byte()?;
-            // TODO: may overflow if i == 9
-            r = r | (((b & 0x7f) as u64) << (i * 7));
-            i += 1;
-            if b < 0x80 {
-                return Ok(r);
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Read varint
-    #[inline(always)]
-    pub fn read_raw_varint64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
-        'slow: loop {
-            let ret;
-            let consume;
-
-            loop {
-                let rem = self.source.remaining_in_buf();
-
-                if rem.len() >= 1 {
-                    // most varints are in practice fit in 1 byte
-                    if rem[0] < 0x80 {
-                        ret = rem[0] as u64;
-                        consume = 1;
-                    } else {
-                        // handle case of two bytes too
-                        if rem.len() >= 2 && rem[1] < 0x80 {
-                            ret = (rem[0] & 0x7f) as u64 | (rem[1] as u64) << 7;
-                            consume = 2;
-                        } else if rem.len() >= 10 {
-                            // Read from array when buf at at least 10 bytes,
-                            // max len for varint.
-                            let mut r: u64 = 0;
-                            let mut i: usize = 0;
-                            {
-                                let rem = rem;
-                                loop {
-                                    if i == 10 {
-                                        return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(
-                                            WireError::IncorrectVarint,
-                                        ));
-                                    }
-
-                                    let b = if true {
-                                        // skip range check
-                                        unsafe { *rem.get_unchecked(i) }
-                                    } else {
-                                        rem[i]
-                                    };
-
-                                    // TODO: may overflow if i == 9
-                                    r = r | (((b & 0x7f) as u64) << (i * 7));
-                                    i += 1;
-                                    if b < 0x80 {
-                                        break;
-                                    }
-                                }
-                            }
-                            consume = i;
-                            ret = r;
-                        } else {
-                            break 'slow;
-                        }
-                    }
-                } else {
-                    break 'slow;
-                }
-                break;
-            }
-
-            self.source.consume(consume);
-            return Ok(ret);
-        }
-
-        self.read_raw_varint64_slow()
-    }
-
-    /// Read varint
-    #[inline(always)]
-    pub fn read_raw_varint32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
-        self.read_raw_varint64().map(|v| v as u32)
-    }
-
-    /// Read little-endian 32-bit integer
-    pub fn read_raw_little_endian32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
-        let mut r = 0u32;
-        let bytes: &mut [u8] = unsafe {
-            let p: *mut u8 = mem::transmute(&mut r);
-            slice::from_raw_parts_mut(p, mem::size_of::<u32>())
-        };
-        self.read(bytes)?;
-        Ok(r.to_le())
-    }
-
-    /// Read little-endian 64-bit integer
-    pub fn read_raw_little_endian64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
-        let mut r = 0u64;
-        let bytes: &mut [u8] = unsafe {
-            let p: *mut u8 = mem::transmute(&mut r);
-            slice::from_raw_parts_mut(p, mem::size_of::<u64>())
-        };
-        self.read(bytes)?;
-        Ok(r.to_le())
-    }
-
-    /// Read tag
-    #[inline]
-    pub fn read_tag(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<wire_format::Tag> {
-        let v = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
-        match wire_format::Tag::new(v) {
-            Some(tag) => Ok(tag),
-            None => Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::IncorrectTag(v))),
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Read tag, return it is pair (field number, wire type)
-    #[inline]
-    pub fn read_tag_unpack(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<(u32, wire_format::WireType)> {
-        self.read_tag().map(|t| t.unpack())
-    }
-
-    /// Read `double`
-    pub fn read_double(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<f64> {
-        let bits = self.read_raw_little_endian64()?;
-        unsafe { Ok(mem::transmute::<u64, f64>(bits)) }
-    }
-
-    /// Read `float`
-    pub fn read_float(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<f32> {
-        let bits = self.read_raw_little_endian32()?;
-        unsafe { Ok(mem::transmute::<u32, f32>(bits)) }
-    }
-
-    /// Read `int64`
-    pub fn read_int64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i64> {
-        self.read_raw_varint64().map(|v| v as i64)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `int32`
-    pub fn read_int32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i32> {
-        self.read_raw_varint32().map(|v| v as i32)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `uint64`
-    pub fn read_uint64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
-        self.read_raw_varint64()
-    }
-
-    /// Read `uint32`
-    pub fn read_uint32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
-        self.read_raw_varint32()
-    }
-
-    /// Read `sint64`
-    pub fn read_sint64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i64> {
-        self.read_uint64().map(decode_zig_zag_64)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `sint32`
-    pub fn read_sint32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i32> {
-        self.read_uint32().map(decode_zig_zag_32)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `fixed64`
-    pub fn read_fixed64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u64> {
-        self.read_raw_little_endian64()
-    }
-
-    /// Read `fixed32`
-    pub fn read_fixed32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<u32> {
-        self.read_raw_little_endian32()
-    }
-
-    /// Read `sfixed64`
-    pub fn read_sfixed64(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i64> {
-        self.read_raw_little_endian64().map(|v| v as i64)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `sfixed32`
-    pub fn read_sfixed32(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<i32> {
-        self.read_raw_little_endian32().map(|v| v as i32)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `bool`
-    pub fn read_bool(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<bool> {
-        self.read_raw_varint32().map(|v| v != 0)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `enum` as `ProtobufEnum`
-    pub fn read_enum<E: ProtobufEnum>(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<E> {
-        let i = self.read_int32()?;
-        match ProtobufEnum::from_i32(i) {
-            Some(e) => Ok(e),
-            None => Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::InvalidEnumValue(i))),
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Read `repeated` packed `double`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_double_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<f64>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_double()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read `repeated` packed `float`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_float_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<f32>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_float()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read `repeated` packed `int64`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_int64_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<i64>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len as u64)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_int64()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `int32`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_int32_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<i32>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_int32()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `uint64`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_uint64_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<u64>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_uint64()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `uint32`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_uint32_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<u32>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_uint32()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `sint64`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sint64_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<i64>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_sint64()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `sint32`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sint32_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<i32>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_sint32()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `fixed64`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_fixed64_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<u64>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        target.reserve((len / 8) as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_fixed64()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `fixed32`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_fixed32_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<u32>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_fixed32()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `sfixed64`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sfixed64_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<i64>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        target.reserve((len / 8) as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_sfixed64()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `sfixed32`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_sfixed32_into(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<i32>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        target.reserve((len / 4) as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_sfixed32()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `bool`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_bool_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<bool>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-
-        // regular bool value is 1-byte size
-        target.reserve(len as usize);
-
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_bool()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read repeated packed `enum` into `ProtobufEnum`
-    pub fn read_repeated_packed_enum_into<E: ProtobufEnum>(
-        &mut self,
-        target: &mut Vec<E>,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        while !self.eof()? {
-            target.push(self.read_enum()?);
-        }
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read `UnknownValue`
-    pub fn read_unknown(
-        &mut self,
-        wire_type: wire_format::WireType,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<UnknownValue> {
-        match wire_type {
-            wire_format::WireTypeVarint => {
-                self.read_raw_varint64().map(|v| UnknownValue::Varint(v))
-            }
-            wire_format::WireTypeFixed64 => self.read_fixed64().map(|v| UnknownValue::Fixed64(v)),
-            wire_format::WireTypeFixed32 => self.read_fixed32().map(|v| UnknownValue::Fixed32(v)),
-            wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited => {
-                let len = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
-                self.read_raw_bytes(len)
-                    .map(|v| UnknownValue::LengthDelimited(v))
-            }
-            _ => Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::UnexpectedWireType(
-                wire_type,
-            ))),
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Skip field
-    pub fn skip_field(&mut self, wire_type: wire_format::WireType) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.read_unknown(wire_type).map(|_| ())
-    }
-
-    /// Read raw bytes into the supplied vector.  The vector will be resized as needed and
-    /// overwritten.
-    pub fn read_raw_bytes_into(&mut self, count: u32, target: &mut Vec<u8>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        if false {
-            // Master uses this version, but keep existing version for a while
-            // to avoid possible breakages.
-            return self.source.read_exact_to_vec(count as usize, target);
-        }
-
-        let count = count as usize;
-
-        // TODO: also do some limits when reading from unlimited source
-        if count as u64 > self.source.bytes_until_limit() {
-            return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::TruncatedMessage));
-        }
-
-        unsafe {
-            target.set_len(0);
-        }
-
-        if count >= READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC {
-            // avoid calling `reserve` on buf with very large buffer: could be a malformed message
-
-            let mut take = self.by_ref().take(count as u64);
-            take.read_to_end(target)?;
-
-            if target.len() != count {
-                return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::TruncatedMessage));
-            }
-        } else {
-            target.reserve(count);
-            unsafe {
-                target.set_len(count);
-            }
-
-            self.source.read_exact(target)?;
-        }
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read exact number of bytes
-    pub fn read_raw_bytes(&mut self, count: u32) -> ProtobufResult<Vec<u8>> {
-        let mut r = Vec::new();
-        self.read_raw_bytes_into(count, &mut r)?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-
-    /// Skip exact number of bytes
-    pub fn skip_raw_bytes(&mut self, count: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        // TODO: make it more efficient
-        self.read_raw_bytes(count).map(|_| ())
-    }
-
-    /// Read `bytes` field, length delimited
-    pub fn read_bytes(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<Vec<u8>> {
-        let mut r = Vec::new();
-        self.read_bytes_into(&mut r)?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `bytes` field, length delimited
-    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-    pub fn read_carllerche_bytes(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<Bytes> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
-        self.read_raw_callerche_bytes(len as usize)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `string` field, length delimited
-    #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-    pub fn read_carllerche_chars(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<Chars> {
-        let bytes = self.read_carllerche_bytes()?;
-        Ok(Chars::from_bytes(bytes)?)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `bytes` field, length delimited
-    pub fn read_bytes_into(&mut self, target: &mut Vec<u8>) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint32()?;
-        self.read_raw_bytes_into(len, target)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read `string` field, length delimited
-    pub fn read_string(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<String> {
-        let mut r = String::new();
-        self.read_string_into(&mut r)?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-
-    /// Read `string` field, length delimited
-    pub fn read_string_into(&mut self, target: &mut String) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        target.clear();
-        // take target's buffer
-        let mut vec = mem::replace(target, String::new()).into_bytes();
-        self.read_bytes_into(&mut vec)?;
-
-        let s = match String::from_utf8(vec) {
-            Ok(t) => t,
-            Err(_) => return Err(ProtobufError::WireError(WireError::Utf8Error)),
-        };
-        *target = s;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read message, do not check if message is initialized
-    pub fn merge_message<M: Message>(&mut self, message: &mut M) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let len = self.read_raw_varint64()?;
-        let old_limit = self.push_limit(len)?;
-        message.merge_from(self)?;
-        self.pop_limit(old_limit);
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Read message
-    pub fn read_message<M: Message>(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<M> {
-        let mut r: M = Message::new();
-        self.merge_message(&mut r)?;
-        r.check_initialized()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-impl<'a> Read for CodedInputStream<'a> {
-    fn read(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
-        self.source.read(buf).map_err(Into::into)
-    }
-}
-
-impl<'a> BufRead for CodedInputStream<'a> {
-    fn fill_buf(&mut self) -> io::Result<&[u8]> {
-        self.source.fill_buf().map_err(Into::into)
-    }
-
-    fn consume(&mut self, amt: usize) {
-        self.source.consume(amt)
-    }
-}
-
-#[doc(hidden)]
-pub trait WithCodedOutputStream {
-    fn with_coded_output_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>;
-}
-
-impl<'a> WithCodedOutputStream for &'a mut (dyn Write + 'a) {
-    fn with_coded_output_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
-    {
-        let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(self);
-        let r = cb(&mut os)?;
-        os.flush()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-impl<'a> WithCodedOutputStream for &'a mut Vec<u8> {
-    fn with_coded_output_stream<T, F>(mut self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
-    {
-        let mut os = CodedOutputStream::vec(&mut self);
-        let r = cb(&mut os)?;
-        os.flush()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-#[doc(hidden)]
-pub fn with_coded_output_stream_to_bytes<F>(cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<Vec<u8>>
-where
-    F: FnOnce(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<()>,
-{
-    let mut v = Vec::new();
-    v.with_coded_output_stream(cb)?;
-    Ok(v)
-}
-
-/// Helper internal utility, should not be used directly
-#[doc(hidden)]
-pub trait WithCodedInputStream {
-    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>;
-}
-
-impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a mut (dyn Read + 'a) {
-    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
-    {
-        let mut is = CodedInputStream::new(self);
-        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
-        is.check_eof()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a mut (dyn BufRead + 'a) {
-    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
-    {
-        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_buffered_reader(self);
-        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
-        is.check_eof()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a [u8] {
-    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
-    {
-        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_bytes(self);
-        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
-        is.check_eof()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-#[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
-impl<'a> WithCodedInputStream for &'a Bytes {
-    fn with_coded_input_stream<T, F>(self, cb: F) -> ProtobufResult<T>
-    where
-        F: FnOnce(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<T>,
-    {
-        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_carllerche_bytes(self);
-        let r = cb(&mut is)?;
-        is.check_eof()?;
-        Ok(r)
-    }
-}
-
-enum OutputTarget<'a> {
-    Write(&'a mut dyn Write, Vec<u8>),
-    Vec(&'a mut Vec<u8>),
-    Bytes,
-}
-
-/// Buffered write with handy utilities
-pub struct CodedOutputStream<'a> {
-    target: OutputTarget<'a>,
-    // alias to buf from target
-    buffer: &'a mut [u8],
-    // within buffer
-    position: usize,
-}
-
-impl<'a> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
-    /// Construct from given `Write`.
-    ///
-    /// `CodedOutputStream` is buffered even if `Write` is not
-    pub fn new(writer: &'a mut dyn Write) -> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
-        let buffer_len = OUTPUT_STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE;
-
-        let mut buffer_storage = Vec::with_capacity(buffer_len);
-        unsafe {
-            buffer_storage.set_len(buffer_len);
-        }
-
-        let buffer = unsafe { remove_lifetime_mut(&mut buffer_storage as &mut [u8]) };
-
-        CodedOutputStream {
-            target: OutputTarget::Write(writer, buffer_storage),
-            buffer: buffer,
-            position: 0,
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// `CodedOutputStream` which writes directly to bytes.
-    ///
-    /// Attempt to write more than bytes capacity results in error.
-    pub fn bytes(bytes: &'a mut [u8]) -> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
-        CodedOutputStream {
-            target: OutputTarget::Bytes,
-            buffer: bytes,
-            position: 0,
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// `CodedOutputStream` which writes directly to `Vec<u8>`.
-    ///
-    /// Caller should call `flush` at the end to guarantee vec contains
-    /// all written data.
-    pub fn vec(vec: &'a mut Vec<u8>) -> CodedOutputStream<'a> {
-        CodedOutputStream {
-            target: OutputTarget::Vec(vec),
-            buffer: &mut [],
-            position: 0,
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Check if EOF is reached.
-    ///
-    /// # Panics
-    ///
-    /// If underlying write has no EOF
-    pub fn check_eof(&self) {
-        match self.target {
-            OutputTarget::Bytes => {
-                assert_eq!(self.buffer.len() as u64, self.position as u64);
-            }
-            OutputTarget::Write(..) | OutputTarget::Vec(..) => {
-                panic!("must not be called with Writer or Vec");
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    fn refresh_buffer(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        match self.target {
-            OutputTarget::Write(ref mut write, _) => {
-                write.write_all(&self.buffer[0..self.position as usize])?;
-                self.position = 0;
-            }
-            OutputTarget::Vec(ref mut vec) => unsafe {
-                let vec_len = vec.len();
-                assert!(vec_len + self.position <= vec.capacity());
-                vec.set_len(vec_len + self.position);
-                vec.reserve(1);
-                self.buffer = remove_lifetime_mut(remaining_capacity_as_slice_mut(vec));
-                self.position = 0;
-            },
-            OutputTarget::Bytes => {
-                panic!("refresh_buffer must not be called on CodedOutputStream create from slice");
-            }
-        }
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Flush the buffer to underlying write
-    pub fn flush(&mut self) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        match self.target {
-            OutputTarget::Bytes => Ok(()),
-            OutputTarget::Write(..) | OutputTarget::Vec(..) => {
-                // TODO: must not reserve additional in Vec
-                self.refresh_buffer()
-            }
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Write a byte
-    pub fn write_raw_byte(&mut self, byte: u8) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        if self.position as usize == self.buffer.len() {
-            self.refresh_buffer()?;
-        }
-        self.buffer[self.position as usize] = byte;
-        self.position += 1;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write bytes
-    pub fn write_raw_bytes(&mut self, bytes: &[u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        if bytes.len() <= self.buffer.len() - self.position {
-            let bottom = self.position as usize;
-            let top = bottom + (bytes.len() as usize);
-            self.buffer[bottom..top].copy_from_slice(bytes);
-            self.position += bytes.len();
-            return Ok(());
-        }
-
-        self.refresh_buffer()?;
-
-        assert!(self.position == 0);
-
-        if self.position + bytes.len() < self.buffer.len() {
-            &mut self.buffer[self.position..self.position + bytes.len()].copy_from_slice(bytes);
-            self.position += bytes.len();
-            return Ok(());
-        }
-
-        match self.target {
-            OutputTarget::Bytes => {
-                unreachable!();
-            }
-            OutputTarget::Write(ref mut write, _) => {
-                write.write_all(bytes)?;
-            }
-            OutputTarget::Vec(ref mut vec) => {
-                vec.extend(bytes);
-                unsafe {
-                    self.buffer = remove_lifetime_mut(remaining_capacity_as_slice_mut(vec));
-                }
-            }
-        }
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write a tag
-    pub fn write_tag(
-        &mut self,
-        field_number: u32,
-        wire_type: wire_format::WireType,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint32(wire_format::Tag::make(field_number, wire_type).value())
-    }
-
-    /// Write varint
-    pub fn write_raw_varint32(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        if self.buffer.len() - self.position >= 5 {
-            // fast path
-            let len = varint::encode_varint32(value, &mut self.buffer[self.position..]);
-            self.position += len;
-            Ok(())
-        } else {
-            // slow path
-            let buf = &mut [0u8; 5];
-            let len = varint::encode_varint32(value, buf);
-            self.write_raw_bytes(&buf[..len])
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Write varint
-    pub fn write_raw_varint64(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        if self.buffer.len() - self.position >= 10 {
-            // fast path
-            let len = varint::encode_varint64(value, &mut self.buffer[self.position..]);
-            self.position += len;
-            Ok(())
-        } else {
-            // slow path
-            let buf = &mut [0u8; 10];
-            let len = varint::encode_varint64(value, buf);
-            self.write_raw_bytes(&buf[..len])
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Write 32-bit integer little endian
-    pub fn write_raw_little_endian32(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let bytes = unsafe { mem::transmute::<_, [u8; 4]>(value.to_le()) };
-        self.write_raw_bytes(&bytes)
-    }
-
-    /// Write 64-bit integer little endian
-    pub fn write_raw_little_endian64(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let bytes = unsafe { mem::transmute::<_, [u8; 8]>(value.to_le()) };
-        self.write_raw_bytes(&bytes)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `float`
-    pub fn write_float_no_tag(&mut self, value: f32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let bits = unsafe { mem::transmute::<f32, u32>(value) };
-        self.write_raw_little_endian32(bits)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `double`
-    pub fn write_double_no_tag(&mut self, value: f64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        let bits = unsafe { mem::transmute::<f64, u64>(value) };
-        self.write_raw_little_endian64(bits)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `float` field
-    pub fn write_float(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: f32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed32)?;
-        self.write_float_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `double` field
-    pub fn write_double(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: f64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed64)?;
-        self.write_double_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write varint
-    pub fn write_uint64_no_tag(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint64(value)
-    }
-
-    /// Write varint
-    pub fn write_uint32_no_tag(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint32(value)
-    }
-
-    /// Write varint
-    pub fn write_int64_no_tag(&mut self, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint64(value as u64)
-    }
-
-    /// Write varint
-    pub fn write_int32_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint64(value as u64)
-    }
-
-    /// Write zigzag varint
-    pub fn write_sint64_no_tag(&mut self, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_uint64_no_tag(encode_zig_zag_64(value))
-    }
-
-    /// Write zigzag varint
-    pub fn write_sint32_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_uint32_no_tag(encode_zig_zag_32(value))
-    }
-
-    /// Write `fixed64`
-    pub fn write_fixed64_no_tag(&mut self, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_little_endian64(value)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `fixed32`
-    pub fn write_fixed32_no_tag(&mut self, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_little_endian32(value)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `sfixed64`
-    pub fn write_sfixed64_no_tag(&mut self, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_little_endian64(value as u64)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `sfixed32`
-    pub fn write_sfixed32_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_little_endian32(value as u32)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `bool`
-    pub fn write_bool_no_tag(&mut self, value: bool) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint32(if value { 1 } else { 0 })
-    }
-
-    /// Write `enum`
-    pub fn write_enum_no_tag(&mut self, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_int32_no_tag(value)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `enum`
-    pub fn write_enum_obj_no_tag<E>(&mut self, value: E) -> ProtobufResult<()>
-    where
-        E: ProtobufEnum,
-    {
-        self.write_enum_no_tag(value.value())
-    }
-
-    /// Write unknown value
-    pub fn write_unknown_no_tag(&mut self, unknown: UnknownValueRef) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        match unknown {
-            UnknownValueRef::Fixed64(fixed64) => self.write_raw_little_endian64(fixed64),
-            UnknownValueRef::Fixed32(fixed32) => self.write_raw_little_endian32(fixed32),
-            UnknownValueRef::Varint(varint) => self.write_raw_varint64(varint),
-            UnknownValueRef::LengthDelimited(bytes) => self.write_bytes_no_tag(bytes),
-        }
-    }
-
-    /// Write `uint64` field
-    pub fn write_uint64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_uint64_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `uint32` field
-    pub fn write_uint32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_uint32_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `int64` field
-    pub fn write_int64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_int64_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `int32` field
-    pub fn write_int32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_int32_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `sint64` field
-    pub fn write_sint64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_sint64_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `sint32` field
-    pub fn write_sint32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_sint32_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `fixed64` field
-    pub fn write_fixed64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed64)?;
-        self.write_fixed64_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `fixed32` field
-    pub fn write_fixed32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: u32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed32)?;
-        self.write_fixed32_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `sfixed64` field
-    pub fn write_sfixed64(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i64) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed64)?;
-        self.write_sfixed64_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `sfixed32` field
-    pub fn write_sfixed32(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeFixed32)?;
-        self.write_sfixed32_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `bool` field
-    pub fn write_bool(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: bool) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_bool_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `enum` field
-    pub fn write_enum(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: i32) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeVarint)?;
-        self.write_enum_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `enum` field
-    pub fn write_enum_obj<E>(&mut self, field_number: u32, value: E) -> ProtobufResult<()>
-    where
-        E: ProtobufEnum,
-    {
-        self.write_enum(field_number, value.value())
-    }
-
-    /// Write unknown field
-    pub fn write_unknown(
-        &mut self,
-        field_number: u32,
-        value: UnknownValueRef,
-    ) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, value.wire_type())?;
-        self.write_unknown_no_tag(value)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write unknown fields
-    pub fn write_unknown_fields(&mut self, fields: &UnknownFields) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        for (number, values) in fields {
-            for value in values {
-                self.write_unknown(number, value)?;
-            }
-        }
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write bytes
-    pub fn write_bytes_no_tag(&mut self, bytes: &[u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_raw_varint32(bytes.len() as u32)?;
-        self.write_raw_bytes(bytes)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write string
-    pub fn write_string_no_tag(&mut self, s: &str) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_bytes_no_tag(s.as_bytes())
-    }
-
-    /// Write message
-    pub fn write_message_no_tag<M: Message>(&mut self, msg: &M) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        msg.write_length_delimited_to(self)
-    }
-
-    /// Write `bytes` field
-    pub fn write_bytes(&mut self, field_number: u32, bytes: &[u8]) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited)?;
-        self.write_bytes_no_tag(bytes)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `string` field
-    pub fn write_string(&mut self, field_number: u32, s: &str) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited)?;
-        self.write_string_no_tag(s)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-
-    /// Write `message` field
-    pub fn write_message<M: Message>(&mut self, field_number: u32, msg: &M) -> ProtobufResult<()> {
-        self.write_tag(field_number, wire_format::WireTypeLengthDelimited)?;
-        self.write_message_no_tag(msg)?;
-        Ok(())
-    }
-}
-
-impl<'a> Write for CodedOutputStream<'a> {
-    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
-        self.write_raw_bytes(buf)?;
-        Ok(buf.len())
-    }
-
-    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
-        CodedOutputStream::flush(self).map_err(Into::into)
-    }
-}
-
-#[cfg(test)]
-mod test {
-
-    use std::fmt::Debug;
-    use std::io;
-    use std::io::BufRead;
-    use std::io::Read;
-    use std::io::Write;
-    use std::iter::repeat;
-
-    use crate::error::ProtobufError;
-    use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
-    use crate::hex::decode_hex;
-    use crate::hex::encode_hex;
-
-    use super::wire_format;
-    use super::CodedInputStream;
-    use super::CodedOutputStream;
-    use super::READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC;
-
-    fn test_read_partial<F>(hex: &str, mut callback: F)
-    where
-        F: FnMut(&mut CodedInputStream),
-    {
-        let d = decode_hex(hex);
-        let mut reader = io::Cursor::new(d);
-        let mut is = CodedInputStream::from_buffered_reader(&mut reader as &mut dyn BufRead);
-        assert_eq!(0, is.pos());
-        callback(&mut is);
-    }
-
-    fn test_read<F>(hex: &str, mut callback: F)
-    where
-        F: FnMut(&mut CodedInputStream),
-    {
-        let len = decode_hex(hex).len();
-        test_read_partial(hex, |reader| {
-            callback(reader);
-            assert!(reader.eof().expect("eof"));
-            assert_eq!(len as u64, reader.pos());
-        });
-    }
-
-    fn test_read_v<F, V>(hex: &str, v: V, mut callback: F)
-    where
-        F: FnMut(&mut CodedInputStream) -> ProtobufResult<V>,
-        V: PartialEq + Debug,
-    {
-        test_read(hex, |reader| {
-            assert_eq!(v, callback(reader).unwrap());
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_byte() {
-        test_read("17", |is| {
-            assert_eq!(23, is.read_raw_byte().unwrap());
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_varint() {
-        test_read_v("07", 7, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint32());
-        test_read_v("07", 7, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint64());
-
-        test_read_v("96 01", 150, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint32());
-        test_read_v("96 01", 150, |reader| reader.read_raw_varint64());
-
-        test_read_v(
-            "ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01",
-            0xffffffffffffffff,
-            |reader| reader.read_raw_varint64(),
-        );
-
-        test_read_v("ff ff ff ff 0f", 0xffffffff, |reader| {
-            reader.read_raw_varint32()
-        });
-        test_read_v("ff ff ff ff 0f", 0xffffffff, |reader| {
-            reader.read_raw_varint64()
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_vaint_malformed() {
-        // varint cannot have length > 10
-        test_read_partial("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |reader| {
-            let result = reader.read_raw_varint64();
-            match result {
-                // TODO: make an enum variant
-                Err(ProtobufError::WireError(..)) => (),
-                _ => panic!(),
-            }
-        });
-        test_read_partial("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |reader| {
-            let result = reader.read_raw_varint32();
-            match result {
-                // TODO: make an enum variant
-                Err(ProtobufError::WireError(..)) => (),
-                _ => panic!(),
-            }
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_varint_unexpected_eof() {
-        test_read_partial("96 97", |reader| {
-            let result = reader.read_raw_varint32();
-            match result {
-                Err(ProtobufError::WireError(..)) => (),
-                _ => panic!(),
-            }
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_varint_pos() {
-        test_read_partial("95 01 98", |reader| {
-            assert_eq!(149, reader.read_raw_varint32().unwrap());
-            assert_eq!(2, reader.pos());
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_int32() {
-        test_read_v("02", 2, |reader| reader.read_int32());
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_float() {
-        test_read_v("95 73 13 61", 17e19, |is| is.read_float());
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_double() {
-        test_read_v("40 d5 ab 68 b3 07 3d 46", 23e29, |is| is.read_double());
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_skip_raw_bytes() {
-        test_read("", |reader| {
-            reader.skip_raw_bytes(0).unwrap();
-        });
-        test_read("aa bb", |reader| {
-            reader.skip_raw_bytes(2).unwrap();
-        });
-        test_read("aa bb cc dd ee ff", |reader| {
-            reader.skip_raw_bytes(6).unwrap();
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_bytes() {
-        test_read("", |reader| {
-            assert_eq!(
-                Vec::from(&b""[..]),
-                reader.read_raw_bytes(0).expect("read_raw_bytes")
-            );
-        })
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_limits() {
-        test_read("aa bb cc", |is| {
-            let old_limit = is.push_limit(1).unwrap();
-            assert_eq!(1, is.bytes_until_limit());
-            let r1 = is.read_raw_bytes(1).unwrap();
-            assert_eq!(&[0xaa as u8], &r1[..]);
-            is.pop_limit(old_limit);
-            let r2 = is.read_raw_bytes(2).unwrap();
-            assert_eq!(&[0xbb as u8, 0xcc], &r2[..]);
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_io_read() {
-        test_read("aa bb cc", |is| {
-            let mut buf = [0; 3];
-            assert_eq!(Read::read(is, &mut buf).expect("io::Read"), 3);
-            assert_eq!(buf, [0xaa, 0xbb, 0xcc]);
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_io_bufread() {
-        test_read("aa bb cc", |is| {
-            assert_eq!(
-                BufRead::fill_buf(is).expect("io::BufRead::fill_buf"),
-                &[0xaa, 0xbb, 0xcc]
-            );
-            BufRead::consume(is, 3);
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_input_stream_read_raw_bytes_into_huge() {
-        let mut v = Vec::new();
-        for i in 0..READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC + 1000 {
-            v.push((i % 10) as u8);
-        }
-
-        let mut slice: &[u8] = v.as_slice();
-
-        let mut is = CodedInputStream::new(&mut slice);
-
-        let mut buf = Vec::new();
-
-        is.read_raw_bytes_into(READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC as u32 + 10, &mut buf)
-            .expect("read");
-
-        assert_eq!(READ_RAW_BYTES_MAX_ALLOC + 10, buf.len());
-
-        buf.clear();
-
-        is.read_raw_bytes_into(1000 - 10, &mut buf).expect("read");
-
-        assert_eq!(1000 - 10, buf.len());
-
-        assert!(is.eof().expect("eof"));
-    }
-
-    fn test_write<F>(expected: &str, mut gen: F)
-    where
-        F: FnMut(&mut CodedOutputStream) -> ProtobufResult<()>,
-    {
-        let expected_bytes = decode_hex(expected);
-
-        // write to Write
-        {
-            let mut v = Vec::new();
-            {
-                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v as &mut dyn Write);
-                gen(&mut os).unwrap();
-                os.flush().unwrap();
-            }
-            assert_eq!(encode_hex(&expected_bytes), encode_hex(&v));
-        }
-
-        // write to &[u8]
-        {
-            let mut r = Vec::with_capacity(expected_bytes.len());
-            r.resize(expected_bytes.len(), 0);
-            {
-                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::bytes(&mut r);
-                gen(&mut os).unwrap();
-                os.check_eof();
-            }
-            assert_eq!(encode_hex(&expected_bytes), encode_hex(&r));
-        }
-
-        // write to Vec<u8>
-        {
-            let mut r = Vec::new();
-            r.extend(&[11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77]);
-            {
-                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::vec(&mut r);
-                gen(&mut os).unwrap();
-                os.flush().unwrap();
-            }
-
-            r.drain(..7);
-            assert_eq!(encode_hex(&expected_bytes), encode_hex(&r));
-        }
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_byte() {
-        test_write("a1", |os| os.write_raw_byte(0xa1));
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_tag() {
-        test_write("08", |os| os.write_tag(1, wire_format::WireTypeVarint));
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_bytes() {
-        test_write("00 ab", |os| os.write_raw_bytes(&[0x00, 0xab]));
-
-        let expected = repeat("01 02 03 04")
-            .take(2048)
-            .collect::<Vec<_>>()
-            .join(" ");
-        test_write(&expected, |os| {
-            for _ in 0..2048 {
-                os.write_raw_bytes(&[0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x04])?;
-            }
-
-            Ok(())
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_varint32() {
-        test_write("96 01", |os| os.write_raw_varint32(150));
-        test_write("ff ff ff ff 0f", |os| os.write_raw_varint32(0xffffffff));
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_varint64() {
-        test_write("96 01", |os| os.write_raw_varint64(150));
-        test_write("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |os| {
-            os.write_raw_varint64(0xffffffffffffffff)
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_int32_no_tag() {
-        test_write("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |os| {
-            os.write_int32_no_tag(-1)
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_int64_no_tag() {
-        test_write("ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff 01", |os| {
-            os.write_int64_no_tag(-1)
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_little_endian32() {
-        test_write("f1 e2 d3 c4", |os| os.write_raw_little_endian32(0xc4d3e2f1));
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_float_no_tag() {
-        test_write("95 73 13 61", |os| os.write_float_no_tag(17e19));
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_double_no_tag() {
-        test_write("40 d5 ab 68 b3 07 3d 46", |os| {
-            os.write_double_no_tag(23e29)
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_write_raw_little_endian64() {
-        test_write("f1 e2 d3 c4 b5 a6 07 f8", |os| {
-            os.write_raw_little_endian64(0xf807a6b5c4d3e2f1)
-        });
-    }
-
-    #[test]
-    fn test_output_stream_io_write() {
-        let expected = [0x11, 0x22, 0x33, 0x44, 0x55, 0x66, 0x77];
-
-        // write to Write
-        {
-            let mut v = Vec::new();
-            {
-                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::new(&mut v as &mut dyn Write);
-                Write::write(&mut os, &expected).expect("io::Write::write");
-                Write::flush(&mut os).expect("io::Write::flush");
-            }
-            assert_eq!(expected, *v);
-        }
-
-        // write to &[u8]
-        {
-            let mut v = Vec::with_capacity(expected.len());
-            v.resize(expected.len(), 0);
-            {
-                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::bytes(&mut v);
-                Write::write(&mut os, &expected).expect("io::Write::write");
-                Write::flush(&mut os).expect("io::Write::flush");
-                os.check_eof();
-            }
-            assert_eq!(expected, *v);
-        }
-
-        // write to Vec<u8>
-        {
-            let mut v = Vec::new();
-            {
-                let mut os = CodedOutputStream::vec(&mut v);
-                Write::write(&mut os, &expected).expect("io::Write::write");
-                Write::flush(&mut os).expect("io::Write::flush");
-            }
-            assert_eq!(expected, *v);
-        }
-    }
-}
diff --git a/src/types.rs b/src/types.rs
index bcfdd8f..d9bbb10 100644
--- a/src/types.rs
+++ b/src/types.rs
@@ -8,13 +8,13 @@
 #[cfg(feature = "bytes")]
 use bytes::Bytes;
 
+use crate::coded_input_stream::CodedInputStream;
+use crate::coded_output_stream::CodedOutputStream;
 use crate::enums::ProtobufEnum;
 use crate::error::ProtobufResult;
 use crate::message::Message;
 use crate::reflect::ProtobufValue;
 use crate::rt;
-use crate::stream::CodedInputStream;
-use crate::stream::CodedOutputStream;
 use crate::unknown::UnknownValues;
 use crate::wire_format::WireType;
 use crate::zigzag::decode_zig_zag_32;
diff --git a/src/unknown.rs b/src/unknown.rs
index 241fb3c..fb0cf45 100644
--- a/src/unknown.rs
+++ b/src/unknown.rs
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 use crate::clear::Clear;
-use crate::stream::wire_format;
+use crate::wire_format;
 use crate::zigzag::encode_zig_zag_32;
 use crate::zigzag::encode_zig_zag_64;
 use std::collections::hash_map;
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/any.rs b/src/well_known_types/any.rs
index 397f9db..f306202 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/any.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/any.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/api.rs b/src/well_known_types/api.rs
index cb71f3b..34798b4 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/api.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/api.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/duration.rs b/src/well_known_types/duration.rs
index d810b14..ec82f78 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/duration.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/duration.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/empty.rs b/src/well_known_types/empty.rs
index 2464f43..5c69487 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/empty.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/empty.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/field_mask.rs b/src/well_known_types/field_mask.rs
index dc0ed10..9d1f8f6 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/field_mask.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/field_mask.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/source_context.rs b/src/well_known_types/source_context.rs
index 2086b35..55c1ab4 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/source_context.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/source_context.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/struct_pb.rs b/src/well_known_types/struct_pb.rs
index 613fef3..222d712 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/struct_pb.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/struct_pb.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/timestamp.rs b/src/well_known_types/timestamp.rs
index 0d48c7e..d0f7903 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/timestamp.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/timestamp.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/type_pb.rs b/src/well_known_types/type_pb.rs
index 88744ae..d6c06cc 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/type_pb.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/type_pb.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/well_known_types/wrappers.rs b/src/well_known_types/wrappers.rs
index 76392a2..11edf4c 100644
--- a/src/well_known_types/wrappers.rs
+++ b/src/well_known_types/wrappers.rs
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0-pre. Do not edit
+// This file is generated by rust-protobuf 2.22.0. Do not edit
 // @generated
 
 // https://github.com/rust-lang/rust-clippy/issues/702
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
 #![allow(clippy::all)]
 
 #![allow(unused_attributes)]
-#![rustfmt::skip]
+#![cfg_attr(rustfmt, rustfmt::skip)]
 
 #![allow(box_pointers)]
 #![allow(dead_code)]
diff --git a/src/wire_format.rs b/src/wire_format.rs
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9f54af3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/wire_format.rs
@@ -0,0 +1,105 @@
+//! Serialization constants.
+
+// TODO: temporary
+pub use self::WireType::*;
+
+/// Tag occupies 3 bits
+pub const TAG_TYPE_BITS: u32 = 3;
+/// Tag mask
+pub const TAG_TYPE_MASK: u32 = (1u32 << TAG_TYPE_BITS) - 1;
+/// Max possible field number
+pub const FIELD_NUMBER_MAX: u32 = 0x1fffffff;
+
+/// One of six defined protobuf wire types
+#[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Clone, Debug)]
+pub enum WireType {
+    /// Varint (e. g. `int32` or `sint64`)
+    WireTypeVarint = 0,
+    /// Fixed size 64 bit (e. g. `fixed64` or `double`)
+    WireTypeFixed64 = 1,
+    /// Length-delimited (e. g. `message` or `string`)
+    WireTypeLengthDelimited = 2,
+    /// Groups are not supported by rust-protobuf
+    WireTypeStartGroup = 3,
+    /// Groups are not supported by rust-protobuf
+    WireTypeEndGroup = 4,
+    /// Fixed size 64 bit (e. g. `fixed32` or `float`)
+    WireTypeFixed32 = 5,
+}
+
+impl Copy for WireType {}
+
+impl WireType {
+    /// Parse wire type
+    pub fn new(n: u32) -> Option<WireType> {
+        match n {
+            0 => Some(WireTypeVarint),
+            1 => Some(WireTypeFixed64),
+            2 => Some(WireTypeLengthDelimited),
+            3 => Some(WireTypeStartGroup),
+            4 => Some(WireTypeEndGroup),
+            5 => Some(WireTypeFixed32),
+            _ => None,
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/// Parsed protobuf tag, which is a pair of field number and wire type
+#[derive(Clone)]
+pub struct Tag {
+    field_number: u32,
+    wire_type: WireType,
+}
+
+impl Copy for Tag {}
+
+impl Tag {
+    /// Pack a tag to integer
+    pub fn value(self) -> u32 {
+        (self.field_number << TAG_TYPE_BITS) | (self.wire_type as u32)
+    }
+
+    /// Parse integer into `Tag` object
+    // TODO: should return Result instead of Option
+    pub fn new(value: u32) -> Option<Tag> {
+        let wire_type = WireType::new(value & TAG_TYPE_MASK);
+        if wire_type.is_none() {
+            return None;
+        }
+        let field_number = value >> TAG_TYPE_BITS;
+        if field_number == 0 {
+            return None;
+        }
+        Some(Tag {
+            field_number: field_number,
+            wire_type: wire_type.unwrap(),
+        })
+    }
+
+    /// Create a tag from a field number and wire type.
+    ///
+    /// # Panics
+    ///
+    /// If field number is outside of allowed range.
+    pub fn make(field_number: u32, wire_type: WireType) -> Tag {
+        assert!(field_number > 0 && field_number <= FIELD_NUMBER_MAX);
+        Tag {
+            field_number: field_number,
+            wire_type: wire_type,
+        }
+    }
+
+    /// Tag as pair of (field number, wire type)
+    pub fn unpack(self) -> (u32, WireType) {
+        (self.field_number(), self.wire_type())
+    }
+
+    fn wire_type(self) -> WireType {
+        self.wire_type
+    }
+
+    /// Protobuf field number
+    pub fn field_number(self) -> u32 {
+        self.field_number
+    }
+}