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// Copyright 2020 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
#include <stdint.h>
#include <chrono>
#include <memory>
#include <vector>
#include "absl/types/span.h"
#include "cast/streaming/bandwidth_estimator.h"
#include "cast/streaming/environment.h"
#include "cast/streaming/ssrc.h"
#include "platform/api/time.h"
#include "util/alarm.h"
namespace openscreen {
namespace cast {
// Manages network packet transmission for one or more Senders, directing each
// inbound packet to a specific Sender instance, pacing the transmission of
// outbound packets, and employing network bandwidth/availability monitoring and
// congestion control.
// Instead of just sending packets whenever they want, Senders must request
// transmission from the SenderPacketRouter. The router then calls-back to each
// Sender, in the near future, when it has allocated an available time slice for
// transmission. The Sender is allowed to decide, at that exact moment, which
// packet most needs to be sent.
// Pacing strategy: Packets are sent in bursts. This allows the platform
// (operating system) to collect many small packets into a short-term buffer,
// which allows for optimizations at the link layer. For example, multiple
// packets can be sent together as one larger transmission unit, and this can be
// critical for good performance over shared-medium networks (such as 802.11
// WiFi).
class SenderPacketRouter : public BandwidthEstimator,
public Environment::PacketConsumer {
class Sender {
// Called to provide the Sender with what looks like a RTCP packet meant for
// it specifically (among other Senders) to process. |arrival_time|
// indicates when the packet arrived (i.e., when it was received from the
// platform).
virtual void OnReceivedRtcpPacket(Clock::time_point arrival_time,
absl::Span<const uint8_t> packet) = 0;
// Populates the given |buffer| with a RTCP/RTP packet that will be sent
// immediately. Returns the portion of |buffer| contaning the packet, or an
// empty Span if nothing is ready to send.
virtual absl::Span<uint8_t> GetRtcpPacketForImmediateSend(
Clock::time_point send_time,
absl::Span<uint8_t> buffer) = 0;
virtual absl::Span<uint8_t> GetRtpPacketForImmediateSend(
Clock::time_point send_time,
absl::Span<uint8_t> buffer) = 0;
// Returns the point-in-time at which RTP sending should resume, or kNever
// if it should be suspended until an explicit call to RequestRtpSend(). The
// implementation may return a value on or before "now" to indicate an
// immediate resume is desired.
virtual Clock::time_point GetRtpResumeTime() = 0;
virtual ~Sender();
// Constructs an instance with default burst parameters appropriate for the
// given |max_burst_bitrate|.
explicit SenderPacketRouter(Environment* environment,
int max_burst_bitrate = kDefaultMaxBurstBitrate);
// Constructs an instance with specific burst parameters. The maximum bitrate
// will be computed based on these (and Environment::GetMaxPacketSize()).
SenderPacketRouter(Environment* environment,
int max_packets_per_burst,
std::chrono::milliseconds burst_interval);
int max_packet_size() const { return packet_buffer_size_; }
int max_burst_bitrate() const { return max_burst_bitrate_; }
// Called from a Sender constructor/destructor to register/deregister a Sender
// instance that processes RTP/RTCP packets from a Receiver having the given
// SSRC.
void OnSenderCreated(Ssrc receiver_ssrc, Sender* client);
void OnSenderDestroyed(Ssrc receiver_ssrc);
// Requests an immediate send of a RTCP packet, and then RTCP sending will
// repeat at regular intervals (see kRtcpSendInterval) until the Sender is
// de-registered.
void RequestRtcpSend(Ssrc receiver_ssrc);
// Requests an immediate send of a RTP packet. RTP sending will continue until
// the Sender stops providing packet data.
// See also: Sender::GetRtpResumeTime().
void RequestRtpSend(Ssrc receiver_ssrc);
// A reasonable default maximum bitrate for bursting. Congestion control
// should always be employed to limit the Senders' sustained/average outbound
// data volume for "fair" use of the network.
static constexpr int kDefaultMaxBurstBitrate = 24 << 20; // 24 megabits/sec
// The minimum amount of time between burst-sends. The methodology by which
// this value was determined is lost knowledge, but is likely the result of
// experimentation with various network and operating system configurations.
// This value came from the original Chrome Cast Streaming implementation.
static constexpr std::chrono::milliseconds kDefaultBurstInterval{10};
// A special time_point value representing "never."
static constexpr Clock::time_point kNever = Clock::time_point::max();
struct SenderEntry {
Ssrc receiver_ssrc;
Sender* sender;
Clock::time_point next_rtcp_send_time;
Clock::time_point next_rtp_send_time;
// Entries are ordered by the transmission priority (high→low), as implied
// by their SSRC. See ssrc.h for details.
bool operator<(const SenderEntry& other) const {
return ComparePriority(receiver_ssrc, other.receiver_ssrc) < 0;
using SenderEntries = std::vector<SenderEntry>;
// Environment::PacketConsumer implementation.
void OnReceivedPacket(const IPEndpoint& source,
Clock::time_point arrival_time,
std::vector<uint8_t> packet) final;
// Helper to return an iterator pointing to the entry corresponding to the
// given |receiver_ssrc|, or "end" if not found.
SenderEntries::iterator FindEntry(Ssrc receiver_ssrc);
// Examine the next send time for all Senders, and decide whether to schedule
// a burst-send.
void ScheduleNextBurst();
// Performs a burst-send of packets. This is called whenever the Alarm fires.
void SendBurstOfPackets();
// Send an RTCP packet from each Sender that has one ready, and return the
// number of packets sent.
int SendJustTheRtcpPackets(Clock::time_point send_time);
// Send zero or more RTP packets from each Sender, up to a maximum of
// |num_packets_to_send|, and return the number of packets sent.
int SendJustTheRtpPackets(Clock::time_point send_time,
int num_packets_to_send);
// Returns the maximum number of packets to send in one burst, based on the
// given parameters.
static int ComputeMaxPacketsPerBurst(
int max_burst_bitrate,
int packet_size,
std::chrono::milliseconds burst_interval);
// Returns the maximum bitrate inferred by the given parameters.
static int ComputeMaxBurstBitrate(int packet_size,
int max_packets_per_burst,
std::chrono::milliseconds burst_interval);
Environment* const environment_;
const int packet_buffer_size_;
const std::unique_ptr<uint8_t[]> packet_buffer_;
const int max_packets_per_burst_;
const std::chrono::milliseconds burst_interval_;
const int max_burst_bitrate_;
// Schedules the task that calls back into this SenderPacketRouter at a later
// time to send the next burst of packets.
Alarm alarm_;
// The current list of Senders and their timing information. This is
// maintained in order of the priority implied by the Sender SSRC's.
SenderEntries senders_;
// The last time a burst of packets was sent. This is used to determine the
// next burst time.
Clock::time_point last_burst_time_ = Clock::time_point::min();
} // namespace cast
} // namespace openscreen