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//=-- ExprEngineCallAndReturn.cpp - Support for call/return -----*- C++ -*-===//
// The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure
// This file is distributed under the University of Illinois Open Source
// License. See LICENSE.TXT for details.
// This file defines ExprEngine's support for calls and returns.
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/CheckerManager.h"
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/PathSensitive/ExprEngine.h"
#include "clang/StaticAnalyzer/Core/PathSensitive/ObjCMessage.h"
#include "clang/AST/DeclCXX.h"
using namespace clang;
using namespace ento;
namespace {
// Trait class for recording returned expression in the state.
struct ReturnExpr {
static int TagInt;
typedef const Stmt *data_type;
int ReturnExpr::TagInt;
void ExprEngine::processCallEnter(CallEnterNodeBuilder &B) {
const ProgramState *state =
void ExprEngine::processCallExit(CallExitNodeBuilder &B) {
const ProgramState *state = B.getState();
const ExplodedNode *Pred = B.getPredecessor();
const StackFrameContext *calleeCtx =
const Stmt *CE = calleeCtx->getCallSite();
// If the callee returns an expression, bind its value to CallExpr.
const Stmt *ReturnedExpr = state->get<ReturnExpr>();
if (ReturnedExpr) {
SVal RetVal = state->getSVal(ReturnedExpr);
state = state->BindExpr(CE, RetVal);
// Clear the return expr GDM.
state = state->remove<ReturnExpr>();
// Bind the constructed object value to CXXConstructExpr.
if (const CXXConstructExpr *CCE = dyn_cast<CXXConstructExpr>(CE)) {
const CXXThisRegion *ThisR =
getCXXThisRegion(CCE->getConstructor()->getParent(), calleeCtx);
SVal ThisV = state->getSVal(ThisR);
// Always bind the region to the CXXConstructExpr.
state = state->BindExpr(CCE, ThisV);
static bool isPointerToConst(const ParmVarDecl *ParamDecl) {
QualType PointeeTy = ParamDecl->getOriginalType()->getPointeeType();
if (PointeeTy != QualType() && PointeeTy.isConstQualified() &&
!PointeeTy->isAnyPointerType() && !PointeeTy->isReferenceType()) {
return true;
return false;
// Try to retrieve the function declaration and find the function parameter
// types which are pointers/references to a non-pointer const.
// We do not invalidate the corresponding argument regions.
static void findPtrToConstParams(llvm::SmallSet<unsigned, 1> &PreserveArgs,
const CallOrObjCMessage &Call) {
const Decl *CallDecl = Call.getDecl();
if (!CallDecl)
if (const FunctionDecl *FDecl = dyn_cast<FunctionDecl>(CallDecl)) {
for (unsigned Idx = 0, E = Call.getNumArgs(); Idx != E; ++Idx) {
if (FDecl && Idx < FDecl->getNumParams()) {
if (isPointerToConst(FDecl->getParamDecl(Idx)))
if (const ObjCMethodDecl *MDecl = dyn_cast<ObjCMethodDecl>(CallDecl)) {
assert(MDecl->param_size() <= Call.getNumArgs());
unsigned Idx = 0;
for (clang::ObjCMethodDecl::param_const_iterator
I = MDecl->param_begin(), E = MDecl->param_end(); I != E; ++I, ++Idx) {
if (isPointerToConst(*I))
const ProgramState *
ExprEngine::invalidateArguments(const ProgramState *State,
const CallOrObjCMessage &Call,
const LocationContext *LC) {
SmallVector<const MemRegion *, 8> RegionsToInvalidate;
if (Call.isObjCMessage()) {
// Invalidate all instance variables of the receiver of an ObjC message.
// FIXME: We should be able to do better with inter-procedural analysis.
if (const MemRegion *MR = Call.getInstanceMessageReceiver(LC).getAsRegion())
} else if (Call.isCXXCall()) {
// Invalidate all instance variables for the callee of a C++ method call.
// FIXME: We should be able to do better with inter-procedural analysis.
// FIXME: We can probably do better for const versus non-const methods.
if (const MemRegion *Callee = Call.getCXXCallee().getAsRegion())
} else if (Call.isFunctionCall()) {
// Block calls invalidate all captured-by-reference values.
SVal CalleeVal = Call.getFunctionCallee();
if (const MemRegion *Callee = CalleeVal.getAsRegion()) {
if (isa<BlockDataRegion>(Callee))
// Indexes of arguments whose values will be preserved by the call.
llvm::SmallSet<unsigned, 1> PreserveArgs;
findPtrToConstParams(PreserveArgs, Call);
for (unsigned idx = 0, e = Call.getNumArgs(); idx != e; ++idx) {
if (PreserveArgs.count(idx))
SVal V = Call.getArgSVal(idx);
// If we are passing a location wrapped as an integer, unwrap it and
// invalidate the values referred by the location.
if (nonloc::LocAsInteger *Wrapped = dyn_cast<nonloc::LocAsInteger>(&V))
V = Wrapped->getLoc();
else if (!isa<Loc>(V))
if (const MemRegion *R = V.getAsRegion()) {
// Invalidate the value of the variable passed by reference.
// Are we dealing with an ElementRegion? If the element type is
// a basic integer type (e.g., char, int) and the underlying region
// is a variable region then strip off the ElementRegion.
// FIXME: We really need to think about this for the general case
// as sometimes we are reasoning about arrays and other times
// about (char*), etc., is just a form of passing raw bytes.
// e.g., void *p = alloca(); foo((char*)p);
if (const ElementRegion *ER = dyn_cast<ElementRegion>(R)) {
// Checking for 'integral type' is probably too promiscuous, but
// we'll leave it in for now until we have a systematic way of
// handling all of these cases. Eventually we need to come up
// with an interface to StoreManager so that this logic can be
// appropriately delegated to the respective StoreManagers while
// still allowing us to do checker-specific logic (e.g.,
// invalidating reference counts), probably via callbacks.
if (ER->getElementType()->isIntegralOrEnumerationType()) {
const MemRegion *superReg = ER->getSuperRegion();
if (isa<VarRegion>(superReg) || isa<FieldRegion>(superReg) ||
R = cast<TypedRegion>(superReg);
// FIXME: What about layers of ElementRegions?
// Mark this region for invalidation. We batch invalidate regions
// below for efficiency.
} else {
// Nuke all other arguments passed by reference.
// FIXME: is this necessary or correct? This handles the non-Region
// cases. Is it ever valid to store to these?
State = State->unbindLoc(cast<Loc>(V));
// Invalidate designated regions using the batch invalidation API.
// FIXME: We can have collisions on the conjured symbol if the
// expression *I also creates conjured symbols. We probably want
// to identify conjured symbols by an expression pair: the enclosing
// expression (the context) and the expression itself. This should
// disambiguate conjured symbols.
unsigned Count = currentBuilderContext->getCurrentBlockCount();
StoreManager::InvalidatedSymbols IS;
// NOTE: Even if RegionsToInvalidate is empty, we may still invalidate
// global variables.
return State->invalidateRegions(RegionsToInvalidate,
Call.getOriginExpr(), Count,
&IS, &Call);
void ExprEngine::VisitCallExpr(const CallExpr *CE, ExplodedNode *Pred,
ExplodedNodeSet &dst) {
// Perform the previsit of the CallExpr.
ExplodedNodeSet dstPreVisit;
getCheckerManager().runCheckersForPreStmt(dstPreVisit, Pred, CE, *this);
// Now evaluate the call itself.
class DefaultEval : public GraphExpander {
ExprEngine &Eng;
const CallExpr *CE;
DefaultEval(ExprEngine &eng, const CallExpr *ce)
: Eng(eng), CE(ce) {}
virtual void expandGraph(ExplodedNodeSet &Dst, ExplodedNode *Pred) {
// Should we inline the call?
if (Eng.getAnalysisManager().shouldInlineCall() &&
Eng.InlineCall(Dst, CE, Pred)) {
// First handle the return value.
StmtNodeBuilder Bldr(Pred, Dst, *Eng.currentBuilderContext);
// Get the callee.
const Expr *Callee = CE->getCallee()->IgnoreParens();
const ProgramState *state = Pred->getState();
SVal L = state->getSVal(Callee);
// Figure out the result type. We do this dance to handle references.
QualType ResultTy;
if (const FunctionDecl *FD = L.getAsFunctionDecl())
ResultTy = FD->getResultType();
ResultTy = CE->getType();
if (CE->isLValue())
ResultTy = Eng.getContext().getPointerType(ResultTy);
// Conjure a symbol value to use as the result.
SValBuilder &SVB = Eng.getSValBuilder();
unsigned Count = Eng.currentBuilderContext->getCurrentBlockCount();
SVal RetVal = SVB.getConjuredSymbolVal(0, CE, ResultTy, Count);
// Generate a new state with the return value set.
state = state->BindExpr(CE, RetVal);
// Invalidate the arguments.
const LocationContext *LC = Pred->getLocationContext();
state = Eng.invalidateArguments(state, CallOrObjCMessage(CE, state), LC);
// And make the result node.
Bldr.generateNode(CE, Pred, state);
// Finally, evaluate the function call. We try each of the checkers
// to see if the can evaluate the function call.
ExplodedNodeSet dstCallEvaluated;
DefaultEval defEval(*this, CE);
CE, *this, &defEval);
// Finally, perform the post-condition check of the CallExpr and store
// the created nodes in 'Dst'.
getCheckerManager().runCheckersForPostStmt(dst, dstCallEvaluated, CE,
void ExprEngine::VisitReturnStmt(const ReturnStmt *RS, ExplodedNode *Pred,
ExplodedNodeSet &Dst) {
ExplodedNodeSet Src;
StmtNodeBuilder Bldr(Pred, Src, *currentBuilderContext);
if (const Expr *RetE = RS->getRetValue()) {
// Record the returned expression in the state. It will be used in
// processCallExit to bind the return value to the call expr.
static SimpleProgramPointTag tag("ExprEngine: ReturnStmt");
const ProgramState *state = Pred->getState();
state = state->set<ReturnExpr>(RetE);
Pred = Bldr.generateNode(RetE, Pred, state, false, &tag);
// We may get a NULL Pred because we generated a cached node.
if (Pred) {
ExplodedNodeSet Tmp;
Visit(RetE, Pred, Tmp);
getCheckerManager().runCheckersForPreStmt(Dst, Src, RS, *this);