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// Copyright 2013 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
// This file contains functions for launching subprocesses.
#include <set>
#include <string>
#include <utility>
#include <vector>
#include "base/base_export.h"
#include "base/basictypes.h"
#include "base/environment.h"
#include "base/process/process_handle.h"
#include "base/strings/string_piece.h"
#if defined(OS_POSIX)
#include "base/posix/file_descriptor_shuffle.h"
#elif defined(OS_WIN)
#include <windows.h>
#include "base/win/scoped_handle.h"
class CommandLine;
namespace base {
#if defined(OS_WIN)
typedef std::vector<HANDLE> HandlesToInheritVector;
// TODO(viettrungluu): Only define this on POSIX?
typedef std::vector<std::pair<int, int> > FileHandleMappingVector;
// Options for launching a subprocess that are passed to LaunchProcess().
// The default constructor constructs the object with default options.
struct BASE_EXPORT LaunchOptions {
// If true, wait for the process to complete.
bool wait;
#if defined(OS_WIN)
bool start_hidden;
// If non-null, inherit exactly the list of handles in this vector (these
// handles must be inheritable). This is only supported on Vista and higher.
HandlesToInheritVector* handles_to_inherit;
// If true, the new process inherits handles from the parent. In production
// code this flag should be used only when running short-lived, trusted
// binaries, because open handles from other libraries and subsystems will
// leak to the child process, causing errors such as open socket hangs.
// Note: If |handles_to_inherit| is non-null, this flag is ignored and only
// those handles will be inherited (on Vista and higher).
bool inherit_handles;
// If non-null, runs as if the user represented by the token had launched it.
// Whether the application is visible on the interactive desktop depends on
// the token belonging to an interactive logon session.
// To avoid hard to diagnose problems, when specified this loads the
// environment variables associated with the user and if this operation fails
// the entire call fails as well.
UserTokenHandle as_user;
// If true, use an empty string for the desktop name.
bool empty_desktop_name;
// If non-null, launches the application in that job object. The process will
// be terminated immediately and LaunchProcess() will fail if assignment to
// the job object fails.
HANDLE job_handle;
// Handles for the redirection of stdin, stdout and stderr. The handles must
// be inheritable. Caller should either set all three of them or none (i.e.
// there is no way to redirect stderr without redirecting stdin). The
// |inherit_handles| flag must be set to true when redirecting stdio stream.
HANDLE stdin_handle;
HANDLE stdout_handle;
HANDLE stderr_handle;
// If set to true, ensures that the child process is launched with the
// CREATE_BREAKAWAY_FROM_JOB flag which allows it to breakout of the parent
// job if any.
bool force_breakaway_from_job_;
// Set/unset environment variables. Empty (the default) means to inherit
// the same environment. See AlterEnvironment().
EnvironmentMap environ;
// If non-null, remap file descriptors according to the mapping of
// src fd->dest fd to propagate FDs into the child process.
// This pointer is owned by the caller and must live through the
// call to LaunchProcess().
const FileHandleMappingVector* fds_to_remap;
// Each element is an RLIMIT_* constant that should be raised to its
// rlim_max. This pointer is owned by the caller and must live through
// the call to LaunchProcess().
const std::set<int>* maximize_rlimits;
// If true, start the process in a new process group, instead of
// inheriting the parent's process group. The pgid of the child process
// will be the same as its pid.
bool new_process_group;
#if defined(OS_LINUX)
// If non-zero, start the process using clone(), using flags as provided.
int clone_flags;
#endif // defined(OS_LINUX)
#if defined(OS_CHROMEOS)
// If non-negative, the specified file descriptor will be set as the launched
// process' controlling terminal.
int ctrl_terminal_fd;
#endif // defined(OS_CHROMEOS)
#endif // !defined(OS_WIN)
// Launch a process via the command line |cmdline|.
// See the documentation of LaunchOptions for details on |options|.
// Returns true upon success.
// Upon success, if |process_handle| is non-null, it will be filled in with the
// handle of the launched process. NOTE: In this case, the caller is
// responsible for closing the handle so that it doesn't leak!
// Otherwise, the process handle will be implicitly closed.
// Unix-specific notes:
// - All file descriptors open in the parent process will be closed in the
// child process except for any preserved by options::fds_to_remap, and
// stdin, stdout, and stderr. If not remapped by options::fds_to_remap,
// stdin is reopened as /dev/null, and the child is allowed to inherit its
// parent's stdout and stderr.
// - If the first argument on the command line does not contain a slash,
// PATH will be searched. (See man execvp.)
BASE_EXPORT bool LaunchProcess(const CommandLine& cmdline,
const LaunchOptions& options,
ProcessHandle* process_handle);
#if defined(OS_WIN)
// Windows-specific LaunchProcess that takes the command line as a
// string. Useful for situations where you need to control the
// command line arguments directly, but prefer the CommandLine version
// if launching Chrome itself.
// The first command line argument should be the path to the process,
// and don't forget to quote it.
// Example (including literal quotes)
// cmdline = "c:\windows\explorer.exe" -foo "c:\bar\"
BASE_EXPORT bool LaunchProcess(const string16& cmdline,
const LaunchOptions& options,
win::ScopedHandle* process_handle);
#elif defined(OS_POSIX)
// A POSIX-specific version of LaunchProcess that takes an argv array
// instead of a CommandLine. Useful for situations where you need to
// control the command line arguments directly, but prefer the
// CommandLine version if launching Chrome itself.
BASE_EXPORT bool LaunchProcess(const std::vector<std::string>& argv,
const LaunchOptions& options,
ProcessHandle* process_handle);
// Close all file descriptors, except those which are a destination in the
// given multimap. Only call this function in a child process where you know
// that there aren't any other threads.
BASE_EXPORT void CloseSuperfluousFds(const InjectiveMultimap& saved_map);
#endif // defined(OS_POSIX)
#if defined(OS_WIN)
// BasicLimitInformation.LimitFlags to |limit_flags|.
BASE_EXPORT bool SetJobObjectLimitFlags(HANDLE job_object, DWORD limit_flags);
// Output multi-process printf, cout, cerr, etc to the cmd.exe console that ran
// chrome. This is not thread-safe: only call from main thread.
BASE_EXPORT void RouteStdioToConsole();
#endif // defined(OS_WIN)
// Executes the application specified by |cl| and wait for it to exit. Stores
// the output (stdout) in |output|. Redirects stderr to /dev/null. Returns true
// on success (application launched and exited cleanly, with exit code
// indicating success).
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutput(const CommandLine& cl, std::string* output);
#if defined(OS_WIN)
// A Windows-specific version of GetAppOutput that takes a command line string
// instead of a CommandLine object. Useful for situations where you need to
// control the command line arguments directly.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutput(const StringPiece16& cl, std::string* output);
#if defined(OS_POSIX)
// A POSIX-specific version of GetAppOutput that takes an argv array
// instead of a CommandLine. Useful for situations where you need to
// control the command line arguments directly.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutput(const std::vector<std::string>& argv,
std::string* output);
// A restricted version of |GetAppOutput()| which (a) clears the environment,
// and (b) stores at most |max_output| bytes; also, it doesn't search the path
// for the command.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutputRestricted(const CommandLine& cl,
std::string* output, size_t max_output);
// A version of |GetAppOutput()| which also returns the exit code of the
// executed command. Returns true if the application runs and exits cleanly. If
// this is the case the exit code of the application is available in
// |*exit_code|.
BASE_EXPORT bool GetAppOutputWithExitCode(const CommandLine& cl,
std::string* output, int* exit_code);
#endif // defined(OS_POSIX)
// If supported on the platform, and the user has sufficent rights, increase
// the current process's scheduling priority to a high priority.
BASE_EXPORT void RaiseProcessToHighPriority();
#if defined(OS_MACOSX)
// Restore the default exception handler, setting it to Apple Crash Reporter
// (ReportCrash). When forking and execing a new process, the child will
// inherit the parent's exception ports, which may be set to the Breakpad
// instance running inside the parent. The parent's Breakpad instance should
// not handle the child's exceptions. Calling RestoreDefaultExceptionHandler
// in the child after forking will restore the standard exception handler.
// See for more details.
void RestoreDefaultExceptionHandler();
#endif // defined(OS_MACOSX)
} // namespace base