[DO NOT MERGE] Don't loop forever in BN_mod_sqrt on invalid inputs.

Cherry-picked from
to fix CVE-2022-0778.  Should not be merged downstream as
it already exists in a rollup BoringSSL CL there.

Upstream commit message follows:-
BN_mod_sqrt implements the Tonelli–Shanks algorithm, which requires a
prime modulus. It was written such that, given a composite modulus, it
would sometimes loop forever. This change fixes the algorithm to always
terminate. However, callers must still pass a prime modulus for the
function to have a defined output.

In OpenSSL, this loop resulted in a DoS vulnerability, CVE-2022-0778.
BoringSSL is mostly unaffected by this. In particular, this case is not
reachable in BoringSSL from certificate and other ASN.1 elliptic curve
parsing code. Any impact in BoringSSL is limited to:

- Callers of EC_GROUP_new_curve_GFp that take untrusted curve parameters
- Callers of BN_mod_sqrt that take untrusted moduli

This CL updates documentation of those functions to clarify that callers
should not pass attacker-controlled values. Even with the infinite loop
fixed, doing so breaks preconditions and will give undefined output.

Bug: 224813912
Test: TH
Change-Id: I64dc1220aaaaafedba02d2ac0e4232a3a0648160
Reviewed-on: https://boringssl-review.googlesource.com/c/boringssl/+/51925
Reviewed-by: Adam Langley <agl@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Martin Kreichgauer <martinkr@google.com>
Commit-Queue: Adam Langley <agl@google.com>
4 files changed