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<title>Android ANDROID_VERSION Compatibility Definition</title>
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<h6>Table of Contents</h6>
<div id="toc">
<div id="toc_left">
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#1_introduction">1. Introduction</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#2_device_types">2. Device Types</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#2_1_device_configurations">2.1 Device Configurations</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#3_software">3. Software</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_1_managed_api_compatibility">3.1. Managed API Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_2_soft_api_compatibility">3.2. Soft API Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_2_1_permissions">3.2.1. Permissions</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_2_2_build_parameters">3.2.2. Build Parameters</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_2_3_intent_compatibility">3.2.3. Intent Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_2_3_1_core_application_intents">3.2.3.1. Core Application Intents</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_2_3_2_intent_overrides">3.2.3.2. Intent Overrides</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_2_3_3_intent_namespaces">3.2.3.3. Intent Namespaces</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_2_3_4_broadcast_intents">3.2.3.4. Broadcast Intents</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_2_3_5_default_app_settings">3.2.3.5. Default App Settings</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_3_native_api_compatibility">3.3. Native API Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_3_1_application_binary_interfaces">3.3.1. Application Binary Interfaces</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_3_2_32-bit_arm_native_code_compatibility">3.3.2. 32-bit ARM Native Code Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_4_web_compatibility">3.4. Web Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_4_1_webview_compatibility">3.4.1. WebView Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_4_2_browser_compatibility">3.4.2. Browser Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_5_api_behavioral_compatibility">3.5. API Behavioral Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_6_api_namespaces">3.6. API Namespaces</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_7_runtime_compatibility">3.7. Runtime Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_8_user_interface_compatibility">3.8. User Interface Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_1_launcher_home_screen">3.8.1. Launcher (Home Screen)</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_2_widgets">3.8.2. Widgets</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_3_notifications">3.8.3. Notifications</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_4_search">3.8.4. Search</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_5_toasts">3.8.5. Toasts</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_6_themes">3.8.6. Themes</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_7_live_wallpapers">3.8.7. Live Wallpapers</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_8_activity_switching">3.8.8. Activity Switching</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_9_input_management">3.8.9. Input Management</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_10_lock_screen_media_control">3.8.10. Lock Screen Media Control</a></p>
</div>
<div id="toc_right">
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_11_dreams">3.8.11. Dreams</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_12_location">3.8.12. Location</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_8_13_unicode_and_font">3.8.13. Unicode and Font</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_9_device_administration">3.9. Device Administration</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_9_1_device_provisioning">3.9.1 Device Provisioning</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_9_1_2_device_owner_provisioning">3.9.1.1 Device Owner provisioning</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#3_9_1_2_managed_profile_provisioning">3.9.1.2 Managed profile provisioning</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#3_9_2_managed_profile_support">3.9.2. Managed Profile Support</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_10_accessibility">3.10. Accessibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_11_text-to-speech">3.11. Text-to-Speech</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#3_12_tv_input_framework">3.12. TV Input Framework</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#4_application_packaging_compatibility">4. Application Packaging Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#5_multimedia_compatibility">5. Multimedia Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_1_media_codecs">5.1. Media Codecs</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_1_1_audio_codecs">5.1.1. Audio Codecs</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_1_2_image_codecs">5.1.2. Image Codecs</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_1_3_video_codecs">5.1.3. Video Codecs</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_2_video_encoding">5.2. Video Encoding</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_3_video_decoding">5.3. Video Decoding</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_4_audio_recording">5.4. Audio Recording</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_4_1_raw_audio_capture">5.4.1. Raw Audio Capture</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_4_2_capture_for_voice_recognition">5.4.2. Capture for Voice Recognition</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_4_3_capture_for_rerouting_of_playback">5.4.3. Capture for Rerouting of Playback</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_5_audio_playback">5.5. Audio Playback</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_5_1_raw_audio_playback">5.5.1. Raw Audio Playback</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_5_2_audio_effects">5.5.2. Audio Effects</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#5_5_3_audio_output_volume">5.5.3. Audio Output Volume</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_6_audio_latency">5.6. Audio Latency</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_7_network_protocols">5.7. Network Protocols</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_8_secure_media">5.8. Secure Media</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_9_midi">5.9. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#5_10_pro_audio">5.10. Professional Audio</a></p>
</div>
<div style="clear: both; page-break-after:always; height:1px"></div>
<div id="toc_left">
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#6_developer_tools_and_options_compatibility">6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#6_1_developer_tools">6.1. Developer Tools</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#6_2_developer_options">6.2. Developer Options</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#7_hardware_compatibility">7. Hardware Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_1_display_and_graphics">7.1. Display and Graphics</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_1_screen_configuration">7.1.1. Screen Configuration</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_1_1_1_screen_size">7.1.1.1. Screen Size</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_1_1_2_screen_aspect_ratio">7.1.1.2. Screen Aspect Ratio</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_1_1_3_screen_density">7.1.1.3. Screen Density</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_2_display_metrics">7.1.2. Display Metrics</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_3_screen_orientation">7.1.3. Screen Orientation</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_4_2d_and_3d_graphics_acceleration">7.1.4. 2D and 3D Graphics Acceleration</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_5_legacy_application_compatibility_mode">7.1.5. Legacy Application Compatibility Mode</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_6_screen_technology">7.1.6. Screen Technology</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_1_7_external_displays">7.1.7. Secondary Displays</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_2_input_devices">7.2. Input Devices</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_1_keyboard">7.2.1. Keyboard</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_2_non-touch_navigation">7.2.2. Non-touch Navigation</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_3_navigation_keys">7.2.3. Navigation Keys</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_4_touchscreen_input">7.2.4. Touchscreen Input</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_5_fake_touch_input">7.2.5. Fake Touch Input</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_6_game_controller_support">7.2.6. Game Controller Support</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_2_6_1_button_mapping">7.2.6.1. Button Mappings</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_2_7_remote_control">7.2.7. Remote Control</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_3_sensors">7.3. Sensors</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_1_accelerometer">7.3.1. Accelerometer</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_2_magnetometer">7.3.2. Magnetometer</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_3_gps">7.3.3. GPS</a></p>
</div>
<div id="toc_right">
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_4_gyroscope">7.3.4. Gyroscope</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_5_barometer">7.3.5. Barometer</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_6_thermometer">7.3.6. Thermometer</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_7_photometer">7.3.7. Photometer</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_8_proximity_sensor">7.3.8. Proximity Sensor</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_9_hifi_sensors">7.3.9. High Fidelity Sensors</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_3_10_fingerprint">7.3.10. Fingerprint Sensor</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_4_data_connectivity">7.4. Data Connectivity</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_4_1_telephony">7.4.1. Telephony</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_4_2_ieee_80211_wi-fi">7.4.2. IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_4_2_1_wi-fi_direct">7.4.2.1. Wi-Fi Direct</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_4_2_2_wi-fi-tunneled-direct-link-setup">7.4.2.2. Wi-Fi Tunneled Direct Link Setup</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_4_3_bluetooth">7.4.3. Bluetooth</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_4_4_near-field_communications">7.4.4. Near-Field Communications</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_4_5_minimum_network_capability">7.4.5. Minimum Network Capability</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_4_6_sync_settings">7.4.6. Sync Settings</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_5_cameras">7.5. Cameras</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_5_1_rear-facing_camera">7.5.1. Rear-Facing Camera</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_5_2_front-facing_camera">7.5.2. Front-Facing Camera</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_5_3_external_camera">7.5.3. External Camera</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_5_4_camera_api_behavior">7.5.4. Camera API Behavior</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_5_5_camera_orientation">7.5.5. Camera Orientation</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_6_memory_and_storage">7.6. Memory and Storage</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_6_1_minimum_memory_and_storage">7.6.1. Minimum Memory and Storage</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_6_2_application_shared_storage">7.6.2. Application Shared Storage</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_7_usb">7.7. USB</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#7_8_audio">7.8. Audio</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_8_1_microphone">7.8.1. Microphone</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_8_2_audio_output">7.8.2. Audio Output</a></p>
<p class="toc_h4"><a href="#7_8_2_1_analog_audio_ports">7.8.2.1. Analog Audio Ports</a></p>
<p class="toc_h3"><a href="#7_8_3_near_ultrasound">7.8.3. Near-Ultrasound</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#8_performance_compatibility">8. Performance Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#8_1_user_experience_consistency">8.1. User Experience Consistency</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#8_2_memory_performance">8.2. Memory Performance</a></p>
</div>
<div style="clear: both; page-break-after:always; height:1px"></div>
<div id="toc_left">
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#9_security_model_compatibility">9. Security Model Compatibility</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_1_permissions">9.1. Permissions</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_2_uid_and_process_isolation">9.2. UID and Process Isolation</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_3_filesystem_permissions">9.3. Filesystem Permissions</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_4_alternate_execution_environments">9.4. Alternate Execution Environments</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_5_multi-user_support">9.5. Multi-User Support</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_6_premium_sms_warning">9.6. Premium SMS Warning</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_7_kernel_security_features">9.7. Kernel Security Features</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_8_privacy">9.8. Privacy</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_9_full-disk-encryption">9.9. Full-Disk Encryption</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_10_verified_boot">9.10. Verified Boot</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#9_11_keys_and_credentials">9.11. Keys and Credentials</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#10_software_compatibility_testing">10. Software Compatibility Testing</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#10_1_compatibility_test_suite">10.1. Compatibility Test Suite</a></p>
<p class="toc_h2"><a href="#10_2_cts_verifier">10.2. CTS Verifier</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#11_updatable_software">11. Updatable Software</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#12_document_changelog">12. Document Changelog</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#13_contact_us">13. Contact Us</a></p>
<p class="toc_h1"><a href="#14_resources">14. Resources</a></p>
</div>
</div>
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<div id="main">
<h1 id="1_introduction">1. Introduction</h1>
<p>This document enumerates the requirements that must be met in order for devices
to be compatible with Android ANDROID_VERSION.</p>
<p>The use of &ldquo;MUST&rdquo;, &ldquo;MUST NOT&rdquo;, &ldquo;REQUIRED&rdquo;, &ldquo;SHALL&rdquo;, &ldquo;SHALL NOT&rdquo;, &ldquo;SHOULD&rdquo;,&ldquo;SHOULD NOT&rdquo;, &ldquo;RECOMMENDED&rdquo;, &ldquo;MAY&rdquo;, and &ldquo;OPTIONAL&rdquo; is per the IETF standard
defined in RFC2119 [<a href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt">Resources, 1</a>].</p>
<p>As used in this document, a &ldquo;device implementer&rdquo; or &ldquo;implementer&rdquo; is a person
or organization developing a hardware/software solution running Android ANDROID_VERSION. A
&ldquo;device implementation&rdquo; or &ldquo;implementation is the hardware/software solution
so developed.</p>
<p>To be considered compatible with Android ANDROID_VERSION, device implementations MUST meet
the requirements presented in this Compatibility Definition, including any
documents incorporated via reference.</p>
<p>Where this definition or the software tests described in <a href="#10_software_compatibility_testing">section 10</a> is silent, ambiguous, or incomplete, it is the responsibility of the device
implementer to ensure compatibility with existing implementations.</p>
<p>For this reason, the Android Open Source Project [<a href="http://source.android.com/">Resources, 2</a>] is both the reference and preferred implementation of Android. Device
implementers are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to base their implementations to the
greatest extent possible on the &ldquo;upstream&rdquo; source code available from the
Android Open Source Project. While some components can hypothetically be
replaced with alternate implementations this practice is strongly discouraged,
as passing the software tests will become substantially more difficult. It is
the implementer&rsquo;s responsibility to ensure full behavioral compatibility with
the standard Android implementation, including and beyond the Compatibility
Test Suite. Finally, note that certain component substitutions and
modifications are explicitly forbidden by this document.</p>
<p>Many of the resources listed in <a href="#14_resources">section 14</a> are derived directly or indirectly from the Android SDK, and will be
functionally identical to the information in that SDK&rsquo;s documentation. For any
case where this Compatibility Definition or the Compatibility Test Suite
disagrees with the SDK documentation, the SDK documentation is considered
authoritative. Any technical details provided in the references included in <a href="#14_resources">section 14</a> are considered by inclusion to be part of this Compatibility Definition. </p>
<h1 id="2_device_types">2. Device Types</h1>
<p>While the Android Open Source Project has been used in the implementation of a
variety of device types and form factors, many aspects of the architecture and
compatibility requirements were optimized for handheld devices. Starting from
Android 5.0, the Android Open Source Project aims to embrace a wider variety of
device types as described in this section.</p>
<p><strong>Android Handheld device</strong> refers to an Android device implementation that is typically used by holding
it in the hand, such as mp3 players, phones, and tablets. Android Handheld
device implementations:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST have a touchscreen embedded in the device.</li>
<li>MUST have a power source that provides mobility, such as a battery.</li>
</ul>
<p><strong>Android Television device</strong> refers to an Android device implementation that is an entertainment interface
for consuming digital media, movies, games, apps, and/or live TV for users
sitting about ten feet away (a &ldquo;lean back&rdquo; or &ldquo;10-foot user interface&rdquo;).
Android Television devices:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST have an embedded screen OR include a video output port, such as VGA, HDMI,
or a wireless port for display.</li>
<li>MUST declare the features android.software.leanback and
android.hardware.type.television [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html#FEATURE_LEANBACK">Resources, 3</a>].</li>
</ul>
<p><strong>Android Watch device</strong> refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body,
perhaps on the wrist, and:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST have a screen with the physical diagonal length in the range from 1.1 to
2.5 inches.</li>
<li>MUST declare the feature android.hardware.type.watch.</li>
<li>MUST support uiMode = UI_MODE_TYPE_WATCH [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/res/Configuration.html#UI_MODE_TYPE_WATCH">Resources, 4</a>].</li>
</ul>
<p><strong>Android Automotive implementation</strong> refers to a vehicle head
unit running Android as an operating system for part or all of the system and/or
infotainment functionality. Android Automotive implementations MUST support
uiMode = UI_MODE_TYPE_CAR [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/res/Configuration.html#UI_MODE_TYPE_CAR">Resources, 111</a>].</p>
<p>All Android device implementations that do not fit into any of the above device
types still MUST meet all requirements in this document to be Android ANDROID_VERSION
compatible, unless the requirement is explicitly described to be only
applicable to a specific Android device type from above.</p>
<h2 id="2_1_device_configurations">2.1 Device Configurations</h2>
<p>This is a summary of major differences in hardware configuration by device
type. (Empty cells denote a &ldquo;MAY&rdquo;). Not all configurations are covered in this
table; see relevant hardware sections for more detail.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th>Category</th>
<th>Feature</th>
<th>Section</th>
<th>Handheld</th>
<th>Television</th>
<th>Watch</th>
<th>Automotive</th>
<th>Other</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="3">Input</td>
<td>D-pad</td>
<td><a href="#7_2_2_non-touch-navigation">7.2.2. Non-touch Navigation</a></td>
<td></td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Touchscreen </td>
<td><a href="#7_2_4_touchscreen_input">7.2.4. Touchscreen input</a></td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td></td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Microphone </td>
<td><a href="#7_8_1_microphone">7.8.1. Microphone</a></td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>SHOULD </td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2">Sensors</td>
<td>Accelerometer </td>
<td><a href="#7_3_1_accelerometer">7.3.1 Accelerometer</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>GPS</td>
<td><a href="#7_3_3_gps">7.3.3. GPS</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="5">Connectivity</td>
<td>Wi-Fi</td>
<td><a href="#7_4_2_ieee_802.11">7.4.2. IEEE 802.11</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td> MUST</td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Wi-Fi Direct</td>
<td><a href="#7_4_2_1_wi-fi-direct">7.4.2.1. Wi-Fi Direct</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Bluetooth</td>
<td><a href="#7_4_3_bluetooth">7.4.3. Bluetooth</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Bluetooth Low Energy</td>
<td><a href="#7_4_3_bluetooth">7.4.3. Bluetooth</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>USB peripheral/host mode</td>
<td><a href="#7_7_usb">7.7. USB</a></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td></td>
<td></td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
<td>SHOULD</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Output</td>
<td>Speaker and/or Audio output ports</td>
<td><a href="#7_8_2_audio_output">7.8.2. Audio Output</a></td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td></td>
<td>MUST</td>
<td>MUST</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h1 id="3_software">3. Software</h1>
<h2 id="3_1_managed_api_compatibility">3.1. Managed API Compatibility</h2>
<p>The managed Dalvik bytecode execution environment is the primary vehicle for
Android applications. The Android application programming interface (API) is
the set of Android platform interfaces exposed to applications running in the
managed runtime environment. Device implementations MUST provide complete
implementations, including all documented behaviors, of any documented API
exposed by the Android SDK [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/packages.html">Resources, 5</a>] or any API decorated with the &ldquo;@SystemApi&rdquo; marker in the upstream Android
source code. </p>
<p>Device implementations MUST NOT omit any managed APIs, alter API interfaces or
signatures, deviate from the documented behavior, or include no-ops, except
where specifically allowed by this Compatibility Definition.</p>
<p>This Compatibility Definition permits some types of hardware for which Android
includes APIs to be omitted by device implementations. In such cases, the APIs
MUST still be present and behave in a reasonable way. See <a href="#7_hardware_compatibility">section 7</a> for specific requirements for this scenario.</p>
<h2 id="3_2_soft_api_compatibility">3.2. Soft API Compatibility</h2>
<p>In addition to the managed APIs from <a href="#3_1_managed_api_compatibility">section 3.1</a>, Android also includes a significant runtime-only &ldquo;soft&rdquo; API, in the form of
such things as intents, permissions, and similar aspects of Android
applications that cannot be enforced at application compile time.</p>
<h3 id="3_2_1_permissions">3.2.1. Permissions</h3>
<p>Device implementers MUST support and enforce all permission constants as
documented by the Permission reference page [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/Manifest.permission.html">Resources, 6]</a>. Note that <a href="#9_security_model_compatibility">section 9</a> lists additional requirements related to the Android security model.</p>
<h3 id="3_2_2_build_parameters">3.2.2. Build Parameters</h3>
<p>The Android APIs include a number of constants on the android.os.Build class [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Build.html">Resources, 7</a>] that are intended to describe the current device. To provide consistent,
meaningful values across device implementations, the table below includes
additional restrictions on the formats of these values to which device
implementations MUST conform.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th>Parameter</th>
<th>Details</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>VERSION.RELEASE</td>
<td>The version of the currently-executing Android system, in human-readable
format. This field MUST have one of the string values defined in [<a href="http://source.android.com/compatibility/ANDROID_VERSION/versions.html">Resources, 8]</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>VERSION.SDK</td>
<td>The version of the currently-executing Android system, in a format accessible
to third-party application code. For Android ANDROID_VERSION, this field MUST have the
integer value ANDROID_VERSION_INT.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>VERSION.SDK_INT</td>
<td>The version of the currently-executing Android system, in a format accessible
to third-party application code. For Android ANDROID_VERSION, this field MUST have the
integer value ANDROID_VERSION_INT.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>VERSION.INCREMENTAL</td>
<td>A value chosen by the device implementer designating the specific build of the
currently-executing Android system, in human-readable format. This value MUST
NOT be reused for different builds made available to end users. A typical use
of this field is to indicate which build number or source-control change
identifier was used to generate the build. There are no requirements on the
specific format of this field, except that it MUST NOT be null or the empty
string ("").</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>BOARD</td>
<td>A value chosen by the device implementer identifying the specific internal
hardware used by the device, in human-readable format. A possible use of this
field is to indicate the specific revision of the board powering the device.
The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit ASCII and match the regular
expression &ldquo;^[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+$&rdquo;.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>BRAND</td>
<td>A value reflecting the brand name associated with the device as known to the
end users. MUST be in human-readable format and SHOULD represent the
manufacturer of the device or the company brand under which the device is
marketed. The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit ASCII and match
the regular expression &ldquo;^[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+$&rdquo;.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>SUPPORTED_ABIS</td>
<td>The name of the instruction set (CPU type + ABI convention) of native code. See <a href="#3_3_native_api_compatibility">section 3.3. Native API Compatibility</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>SUPPORTED_32_BIT_ABIS</td>
<td>The name of the instruction set (CPU type + ABI convention) of native code. See <a href="#3_3_native_api_compatibility">section 3.3. Native API Compatibility</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>SUPPORTED_64_BIT_ABIS</td>
<td>The name of the second instruction set (CPU type + ABI convention) of native
code. See <a href="#3_3_native_api_compatibility">section 3.3. Native API Compatibility</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>CPU_ABI</td>
<td>The name of the instruction set (CPU type + ABI convention) of native code. See <a href="#3_3_native_api_compatibility">section 3.3. Native API Compatibility</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>CPU_ABI2</td>
<td>The name of the second instruction set (CPU type + ABI convention) of native
code. See <a href="#3_3_native_api_compatibility">section 3.3. Native API Compatibility</a>.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>DEVICE</td>
<td>A value chosen by the device implementer containing the development name or
code name identifying the configuration of the hardware features and industrial
design of the device. The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit ASCII
and match the regular expression &ldquo;^[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+$&rdquo;.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>FINGERPRINT</td>
<td>A string that uniquely identifies this build. It SHOULD be reasonably
human-readable. It MUST follow this template:</p>
<p class="small">$(BRAND)/$(PRODUCT)/<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;$(DEVICE):$(VERSION.RELEASE)/$(ID)/$(VERSION.INCREMENTAL):$(TYPE)/$(TAGS)</p>
<p>For example:</p>
<p class="small">acme/myproduct/<br>
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;mydevice:ANDROID_VERSION/LMYXX/3359:userdebug/test-keys</p>
<p>The fingerprint MUST NOT include whitespace characters. If other fields
included in the template above have whitespace characters, they MUST be
replaced in the build fingerprint with another character, such as the
underscore ("_") character. The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit
ASCII.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>HARDWARE</td>
<td>The name of the hardware (from the kernel command line or /proc). It SHOULD be
reasonably human-readable. The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit
ASCII and match the regular expression &ldquo;^[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+$&rdquo;. </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>HOST</td>
<td>A string that uniquely identifies the host the build was built on, in
human-readable format. There are no requirements on the specific format of this
field, except that it MUST NOT be null or the empty string ("").</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>ID</td>
<td>An identifier chosen by the device implementer to refer to a specific release,
in human-readable format. This field can be the same as
android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL, but SHOULD be a value sufficiently
meaningful for end users to distinguish between software builds. The value of
this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit ASCII and match the regular expression &ldquo;^[a-zA-Z0-9._-]+$&rdquo;.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MANUFACTURER</td>
<td>The trade name of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) of the product.
There are no requirements on the specific format of this field, except that it
MUST NOT be null or the empty string ("").</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MODEL</td>
<td>A value chosen by the device implementer containing the name of the device as
known to the end user. This SHOULD be the same name under which the device is
marketed and sold to end users. There are no requirements on the specific
format of this field, except that it MUST NOT be null or the empty string ("").</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>PRODUCT</td>
<td>A value chosen by the device implementer containing the development name or
code name of the specific product (SKU) that MUST be unique within the same
brand. MUST be human-readable, but is not necessarily intended for view by end
users. The value of this field MUST be encodable as 7-bit ASCII and match the
regular expression &ldquo;^[a-zA-Z0-9_-]+$&rdquo;.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>SERIAL</td>
<td>A hardware serial number, which MUST be available and unique across
devices with the same MODEL and MANUFACTURER. The value of this field MUST
be encodable as 7-bit ASCII and match the regular expression &ldquo;^([a-zA-Z0-9]{6,20})$&rdquo;.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>TAGS</td>
<td>A comma-separated list of tags chosen by the device implementer that further
distinguishes the build. This field MUST have one of the values corresponding
to the three typical Android platform signing configurations: release-keys,
dev-keys, test-keys. </td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>TIME</td>
<td>A value representing the timestamp of when the build occurred.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>TYPE</td>
<td>A value chosen by the device implementer specifying the runtime configuration
of the build. This field MUST have one of the values corresponding to the three
typical Android runtime configurations: user, userdebug, or eng.</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>USER</td>
<td>A name or user ID of the user (or automated user) that generated the build.
There are no requirements on the specific format of this field, except that it
MUST NOT be null or the empty string ("").</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h3 id="3_2_3_intent_compatibility">3.2.3. Intent Compatibility</h3>
<p>Device implementations MUST honor Android&rsquo;s loose-coupling intent system, as
described in the sections below. By&ldquo;honored &rdquo; it is meant that the device
implementer MUST provide an Android Activity or Service that specifies a
matching intent filter that binds to and implements correct behavior for each
specified intent pattern.</p>
<h4 id="3_2_3_1_core_application_intents">3.2.3.1. Core Application Intents</h4>
<p>Android intents allow application components to request functionality from
other Android components. The Android upstream project includes a list of
applications considered core Android applications, which implements several
intent patterns to perform common actions. The core Android applications are:</p>
<ul>
<li>Desk Clock</li>
<li>Browser</li>
<li>Calendar</li>
<li>Contacts</li>
<li>Gallery</li>
<li>GlobalSearch</li>
<li>Launcher</li>
<li>Music</li>
<li>Settings</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations SHOULD include the core Android applications as
appropriate but MUST include a component implementing the same intent patterns
defined by all the &ldquo;public&rdquo; Activity or Service components of these core
Android applications. Note that Activity or Service components are considered
&ldquo;public&rdquo; when the attribute android:exported is absent or has the value true.</p>
<h4 id="3_2_3_2_intent_overrides">3.2.3.2. Intent Overrides</h4>
<p>As Android is an extensible platform, device implementations MUST allow each
intent pattern referenced in <a href="#3_2_3_1_core_application_intents">section 3.2.3.1</a> to be overridden by third-party applications. The upstream Android open source
implementation allows this by default; device implementers MUST NOT attach
special privileges to system applications' use of these intent patterns, or
prevent third-party applications from binding to and assuming control of these
patterns. This prohibition specifically includes but is not limited to
disabling the&ldquo;Chooser&rdquo; user interface that allows the user to select between
multiple applications that all handle the same intent pattern.</p>
<p>However, device implementations MAY provide default activities for specific URI
patterns (eg. http://play.google.com) if the default activity provides a more
specific filter for the data URI. For example, an intent filter specifying the
data URI &ldquo;http://www.android.com&rdquo; is more specific than the browser filter for&ldquo;http://&rdquo;. Device implementations MUST provide a user interface for users to
modify the default activity for intents.</p>
<h4 id="3_2_3_3_intent_namespaces">3.2.3.3. Intent Namespaces</h4>
<p>Device implementations MUST NOT include any Android component that honors any
new intent or broadcast intent patterns using an ACTION, CATEGORY, or other key
string in the android.* or com.android.* namespace. Device implementers MUST
NOT include any Android components that honor any new intent or broadcast
intent patterns using an ACTION, CATEGORY, or other key string in a package
space belonging to another organization. Device implementers MUST NOT alter or
extend any of the intent patterns used by the core apps listed in <a href="#3_2_3_1_core_application_intents">section 3.2.3.1</a>. Device implementations MAY include intent patterns using namespaces clearly
and obviously associated with their own organization. This prohibition is
analogous to that specified for Java language classes in <a href="#3_6_api_namespaces">section 3.6</a>.</p>
<h4 id="3_2_3_4_broadcast_intents">3.2.3.4. Broadcast Intents</h4>
<p>Third-party applications rely on the platform to broadcast certain intents to
notify them of changes in the hardware or software environment.
Android-compatible devices MUST broadcast the public broadcast intents in
response to appropriate system events. Broadcast intents are described in the
SDK documentation.</p>
<h4 id="3_2_3_5_default_app_settings">3.2.3.5. Default App Settings</h4>
<p>Android includes settings that provide users an easy way to select their
default applications, for example for Home screen or SMS. Where it makes sense,
device implementations MUST provide a similar settings menu and be compatible
with the intent filter pattern and API methods described in the SDK
documentation as below.</p>
<p>Device implementations:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST honor the android.settings.HOME_SETTINGS intent to show a default app
settings menu for Home Screen, if the device implementation reports
android.software.home_screen [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Settings.html">Resources, 10]</a></li>
<li>MUST provide a settings menu that will call the
android.provider.Telephony.ACTION_CHANGE_DEFAULT intent to show a dialog to
change the default SMS application, if the device implementation reports
android.hardware.telephony [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Telephony.Sms.Intents.html">Resources, 9</a>]</li>
<li>MUST honor the android.settings.NFC_PAYMENT_SETTINGS intent to show a default
app settings menu for Tap and Pay, if the device implementation reports
android.hardware.nfc.hce [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Settings.html">Resources, 10]</a></li>
</ul>
<h2 id="3_3_native_api_compatibility">3.3. Native API Compatibility</h2>
<h3 id="3_3_1_application_binary_interfaces">3.3.1. Application Binary Interfaces</h3>
<p>Managed Dalvik bytecode can call into native code provided in the application
.apk file as an ELF .so file compiled for the appropriate device hardware
architecture. As native code is highly dependent on the underlying processor
technology, Android defines a number of Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs) in
the Android NDK. Device implementations MUST be compatible with one or more
defined ABIs, and MUST implement compatibility with the Android NDK, as below.</p>
<p>If a device implementation includes support for an Android ABI, it:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST include support for code running in the managed environment to call into
native code, using the standard Java Native Interface (JNI) semantics</li>
<li>MUST be source-compatible (i.e. header compatible) and binary-compatible (for
the ABI) with each required library in the list below</li>
<li>MUST support the equivalent 32-bit ABI if any 64-bit ABI is supported</li>
<li>MUST accurately report the native Application Binary Interface (ABI) supported
by the device, via the android.os.Build.SUPPORTED_ABIS,
android.os.Build.SUPPORTED_32_BIT_ABIS, and
android.os.Build.SUPPORTED_64_BIT_ABIS parameters, each a comma separated list
of ABIs ordered from the most to the least preferred one</li>
<li>MUST report, via the above parameters, only those ABIs documented and
described in the latest version of the Android NDK ABI Management documentation
[<a href="https://developer.android.com/ndk/guides/abis.html">Resources, XX</a>],
and MUST include support for the Advanced SIMD (a.k.a. NEON)
[<a href="http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.ddi0388f/Beijfcja.html">Resources,XX</a>]
extension
</li>
<li>SHOULD be built using the source code and header files available in the
upstream Android Open Source Project</li>
</ul>
<p>The following native code APIs MUST be available to apps that include native
code:</p>
<ul>
<li>libc (C library)</li>
<li>libm (math library)</li>
<li>Minimal support for C++</li>
<li>JNI interface</li>
<li>liblog (Android logging)</li>
<li>libz (Zlib compression)</li>
<li>libdl (dynamic linker)</li>
<li>libGLESv1_CM.so (OpenGL ES 1.x)</li>
<li>libGLESv2.so (OpenGL ES 2.0)</li>
<li>libGLESv3.so (OpenGL ES 3.x)</li>
<li>libEGL.so (native OpenGL surface management)</li>
<li>libjnigraphics.so</li>
<li>libOpenSLES.so (OpenSL ES 1.0.1 audio support)</li>
<li>libOpenMAXAL.so (OpenMAX AL 1.0.1 support)</li>
<li>libandroid.so (native Android activity support)</li>
<li>libmediandk.so (native media APIs support)</li>
<li>Support for OpenGL, as described below</li>
</ul>
<p>Note that future releases of the Android NDK may introduce support for
additional ABIs. If a device implementation is not compatible with an existing
predefined ABI, it MUST NOT report support for any ABIs at all.</p>
<p>Note that device implementations MUST include libGLESv3.so and it MUST symlink
(symbolic link) to libGLESv2.so. in turn, MUST export all the OpenGL ES 3.1 and
Android Extension Pack [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/opengl.html#aep">Resources, 11</a>] function symbols as defined in the NDK release android-21. Although all the
symbols must be present, only the corresponding functions for OpenGL ES
versions and extensions actually supported by the device must be fully
implemented.</p>
<p>Device implementations MUST NOT include a native library with the
name libvulkan.so.</p>
<p>Native code compatibility is challenging. For this reason, device implementers
are <strong>STRONGLY RECOMMENDED</strong> to use the implementations of the libraries listed above from the upstream
Android Open Source Project. </p>
<h3 id="3_3_2_32-bit_arm_native_code_compatibility">
3.3.2. 32-bit ARM Native Code Compatibility
</h3>
<p>The ARMv8 architecture deprecates several CPU operations, including some
operations used in existing native code. On 64-bit ARM devices, the following
deprecated operations MUST remain available to 32-bit native ARM code, either
through native CPU support or through software emulation:</p>
<ul>
<li>SWP and SWPB instructions</li>
<li>SETEND instruction</li>
<li>CP15ISB, CP15DSB, and CP15DMB barrier operations</li>
</ul>
<p>Legacy versions of the Android NDK used /proc/cpuinfo to discover CPU features
from 32-bit ARM native code. For compatibility with applications built using this
NDK, devices MUST include the following lines in /proc/cpuinfo when it is read
by 32-bit ARM applications:</p>
<ul>
<li>&quot;Features: &quot;, followed by a list of any optional ARMv7 CPU features
supported by the device</li>
<li>&quot;CPU architecture: &quot;, followed by an integer describing the device's
highest supported ARM architecture (e.g., &quot;8&quot; for ARMv8 devices)</li>
</ul>
<p>These requirements only apply when /proc/cpuinfo is read by 32-bit ARM
applications. Devices SHOULD not alter /proc/cpuinfo when read by 64-bit ARM or
non-ARM applications.</p>
<h2 id="3_4_web_compatibility">3.4. Web Compatibility</h2>
<h3 id="3_4_1_webview_compatibility">3.4.1. WebView Compatibility</h3>
<div class="note">
<p>Android Watch devices MAY, but all other device implementations MUST provide
a complete implementation of the android.webkit.Webview API.</p>
</div>
<p>The platform feature android.software.webview MUST be reported on any device
that provides a complete implementation of the android.webkit.WebView API, and
MUST NOT be reported on devices without a complete implementation of the API.
The Android Open Source implementation uses code from the Chromium Project to
implement the android.webkit.WebView [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/webkit/WebView.html">Resources, 12</a>]. Because it is not feasible to develop a comprehensive test suite for a web
rendering system, device implementers MUST use the specific upstream build of
Chromium in the WebView implementation. Specifically:</p>
<ul>
<li>Device android.webkit.WebView implementations MUST be based on the Chromium
build from the upstream Android Open Source Project for Android ANDROID_VERSION. This build
includes a specific set of functionality and security fixes for the WebView [<a href="http://www.chromium.org/">Resources, 13</a>].</li>
<li>The user agent string reported by the WebView MUST be in this format:
<p>Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android $(VERSION); $(MODEL) Build/$(BUILD); wv)
AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 $(CHROMIUM_VER) Mobile
Safari/537.36</p>
<ul>
<li>The value of the $(VERSION) string MUST be the same as the value for
android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE.</li>
<li>The value of the $(MODEL) string MUST be the same as the value for
android.os.Build.MODEL.</li>
<li>The value of the $(BUILD) string MUST be the same as the value for
android.os.Build.ID.</li>
<li>The value of the $(CHROMIUM_VER) string MUST be the version of Chromium in the
upstream Android Open Source Project.</li>
<li>Device implementations MAY omit Mobile in the user agent string.</li>
</ul></li></ul>
<p>The WebView component SHOULD include support for as many HTML5 features as
possible and if it supports the feature SHOULD conform to the HTML5
specification [<a href="http://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/">Resources, 14</a>].</p>
<h3 id="3_4_2_browser_compatibility">3.4.2. Browser Compatibility</h3>
<div class="note">
<p>Android Television, Watch, and Android Automotive implementations MAY omit a
browser application, but MUST support the public intent patterns as described in
<a href="#3_2_3_1_core_application_intents">section 3.2.3.1</a>. All other types
of device implementations MUST include a standalone Browser application for
general user web browsing.</p>
</div>
<p>The standalone Browser MAY be based on a browser technology other than WebKit.
However, even if an alternate Browser application is used, the
android.webkit.WebView component provided to third-party applications MUST be
based on WebKit, as described in <a href="#3_4_1_webview_compatibility">section 3.4.1</a>.</p>
<p>Implementations MAY ship a custom user agent string in the standalone Browser
application.</p>
<p>The standalone Browser application (whether based on the upstream WebKit
Browser application or a third-party replacement) SHOULD include support for as
much of HTML5 [<a href="http://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/">Resources, 14</a>] as possible. Minimally, device implementations MUST support each of these
APIs associated with HTML5:</p>
<ul>
<li>application cache/offline operation [<a href="http://www.w3.org/html/wg/drafts/html/master/browsers.html#offline">Resources, 15</a>]</li>
<li>the &#60;video&#62; tag [<a href="http://www.w3.org/html/wg/drafts/html/master/semantics.html#video">Resources, 16</a>]</li>
<li>geolocation [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation-API/">Resources, 17</a>]</li>
</ul>
<p>Additionally, device implementations MUST support the HTML5/W3C webstorage API
[<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/webstorage/">Resources, 18</a>], and SHOULD support the HTML5/W3C IndexedDB API [<a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/">Resources, 19</a>]. Note that as the web development standards bodies are transitioning to favor
IndexedDB over webstorage, IndexedDB is expected to become a required component
in a future version of Android.</p>
<h2 id="3_5_api_behavioral_compatibility">3.5. API Behavioral Compatibility</h2>
<p>The behaviors of each of the API types (managed, soft, native, and web) must be
consistent with the preferred implementation of the upstream Android Open
Source Project [<a href="http://source.android.com/">Resources, 2</a>]. Some specific areas of compatibility are:</p>
<ul>
<li>Devices MUST NOT change the behavior or semantics of a standard intent.</li>
<li>Devices MUST NOT alter the lifecycle or lifecycle semantics of a particular
type of system component (such as Service, Activity, ContentProvider, etc.).</li>
<li>Devices MUST NOT change the semantics of a standard permission.</li>
</ul>
<p>The above list is not comprehensive. The Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) tests
significant portions of the platform for behavioral compatibility, but not all.
It is the responsibility of the implementer to ensure behavioral compatibility
with the Android Open Source Project. For this reason, device implementers
SHOULD use the source code available via the Android Open Source Project where
possible, rather than re-implement significant parts of the system.</p>
<h2 id="3_6_api_namespaces">3.6. API Namespaces</h2>
<p>Android follows the package and class namespace conventions defined by the Java
programming language. To ensure compatibility with third-party applications,
device implementers MUST NOT make any prohibited modifications (see below) to
these package namespaces:</p>
<ul>
<li>java.*</li>
<li>javax.*</li>
<li>sun.*</li>
<li>android.*</li>
<li>com.android.*</li>
</ul>
<p><strong>Prohibited modifications include</strong>:</p>
<ul>
<li>Device implementations MUST NOT modify the publicly exposed APIs on the Android
platform by changing any method or class signatures, or by removing classes or
class fields.</li>
<li>Device implementers MAY modify the underlying implementation of the APIs, but
such modifications MUST NOT impact the stated behavior and Java-language
signature of any publicly exposed APIs.</li>
<li>Device implementers MUST NOT add any publicly exposed elements (such as classes
or interfaces, or fields or methods to existing classes or interfaces) to the
APIs above.</li>
</ul>
<p>A &ldquo;publicly exposed element&rdquo; is any construct which is not decorated with the&ldquo;@hide&rdquo; marker as used in the upstream Android source code. In other words,
device implementers MUST NOT expose new APIs or alter existing APIs in the
namespaces noted above. Device implementers MAY make internal-only
modifications, but those modifications MUST NOT be advertised or otherwise
exposed to developers.</p>
<p>Device implementers MAY add custom APIs, but any such APIs MUST NOT be in a
namespace owned by or referring to another organization. For instance, device
implementers MUST NOT add APIs to the com.google.* or similar namespace: only
Google may do so. Similarly, Google MUST NOT add APIs to other companies'
namespaces. Additionally, if a device implementation includes custom APIs
outside the standard Android namespace, those APIs MUST be packaged in an
Android shared library so that only apps that explicitly use them (via the
lt;uses-librarygt; mechanism) are affected by the increased memory usage of such
APIs.</p>
<p>If a device implementer proposes to improve one of the package namespaces above
(such as by adding useful new functionality to an existing API, or adding a new
API), the implementer SHOULD visit <a href="http://source.android.com/">source.android.com</a> and begin the process for contributing changes and code, according to the
information on that site.</p>
<p>Note that the restrictions above correspond to standard conventions for naming
APIs in the Java programming language; this section simply aims to reinforce
those conventions and make them binding through inclusion in this Compatibility
Definition.</p>
<h2 id="3_7_runtime_compatibility">3.7. Runtime Compatibility</h2>
<p>Device implementations MUST support the full Dalvik Executable (DEX) format and
Dalvik bytecode specification and semantics [<a href="https://android.googlesource.com/platform/dalvik/+/lollipop-release/docs/">Resources, 20</a>]. Device implementers SHOULD use ART, the reference upstream implementation of
the Dalvik Executable Format, and the reference implementation&rsquo;s package
management system.</p>
<p>Device implementations MUST configure Dalvik runtimes to allocate memory in
accordance with the upstream Android platform, and as specified by the
following table. (See <a href="#7_1_1_screen_configuration">section 7.1.1</a> for screen size and screen density definitions.)</p>
<p>Note that memory values specified below are considered minimum values and
device implementations MAY allocate more memory per application.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th>Screen Layout</th>
<th>Screen Density</th>
<th>Minimum Application Memory</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="12">Android Watch</td>
<td>120 dpi (ldpi)</td>
<td rowspan="3">32MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>160 dpi (mdpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>213 dpi (tvdpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>240 dpi (hdpi)</td>
<td rowspan="2">36MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>280 dpi (280dpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>320 dpi (xhdpi)</td>
<td rowspan="2">48MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>360 dpi (360dpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>400 dpi (400dpi)</td>
<td>56MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>420 dpi (420dpi)</td>
<td>64MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>480 dpi (xxhdpi)</td>
<td>88MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>560 dpi (560dpi)</td>
<td>112MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>640 dpi (xxxhdpi)</td>
<td>154MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="12">small/normal</td>
<td>120 dpi (ldpi)</td>
<td rowspan="2">32MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>160 dpi (mdpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>213 dpi (tvdpi)</td>
<td rowspan="3">48MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>240 dpi (hdpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>280 dpi (280dpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>320 dpi (xhdpi)</td>
<td rowspan="2">80MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>360 dpi (360dpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>400 dpi (400dpi)</td>
<td>96MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>420 dpi (420dpi)</td>
<td>112MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>480 dpi (xxhdpi)</td>
<td>128MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>560 dpi (560dpi)</td>
<td>192MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>640 dpi (xxxhdpi)</td>
<td>256MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="12">large</td>
<td>120 dpi (ldpi)</td>
<td>32MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>160 dpi (mdpi)</td>
<td>48MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>213 dpi (tvdpi)</td>
<td rowspan="2">80MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>240 dpi (hdpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>280 dpi (280dpi)</td>
<td>96MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>320 dpi (xhdpi)</td>
<td>128MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>360 dpi (360dpi)</td>
<td>160MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>400 dpi (400dpi)</td>
<td>192MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>420 dpi (420dpi)</td>
<td>228MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>480 dpi (xxhdpi)</td>
<td>256MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>560 dpi (560dpi)</td>
<td>384MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>640 dpi (xxxhdpi)</td>
<td>512MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="12">xlarge</td>
<td>120 dpi (ldpi)</td>
<td>48MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>160 dpi (mdpi)</td>
<td>80MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>213 dpi (tvdpi)</td>
<td rowspan="2">96MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>240 dpi (hdpi)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>280 dpi (280dpi)</td>
<td>144MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>320 dpi (xhdpi)</td>
<td>192MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>360 dpi (360dpi)</td>
<td>240MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>400 dpi (400dpi)</td>
<td>288MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>420 dpi (420dpi)</td>
<td>336MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>480 dpi (xxhdpi)</td>
<td>384MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>560 dpi (560dpi)</td>
<td>576MB</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>640 dpi (xxxhdpi)</td>
<td>768MB</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h2 id="3_8_user_interface_compatibility">3.8. User Interface Compatibility</h2>
<h3 id="3_8_1_launcher_home_screen">3.8.1. Launcher (Home Screen)</h3>
<p>Android includes a launcher application (home screen) and support for
third-party applications to replace the device launcher (home screen). Device
implementations that allow third-party applications to replace the device home
screen MUST declare the platform feature android.software.home_screen.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_2_widgets">3.8.2. Widgets</h3>
<div class="note">
<p>Widgets are optional for all Android device implementations, but SHOULD be
supported on Android Handheld devices.</p>
</div>
<p>Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that
allows applications to expose an &ldquo;AppWidget&rdquo; to the end user [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guidelines/widget_design.html">Resources, 21</a>] a feature that is strongly RECOMMENDED to be supported on Handheld Device
implementations. Device implementations that support embedding widgets on the
home screen MUST meet the following requirements and declare support for
platform feature android.software.app_widgets.</p>
<ul>
<li>Device launchers MUST include built-in support for AppWidgets, and expose user
interface affordances to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets directly
within the Launcher.</li>
<li>Device implementations MUST be capable of rendering widgets that are 4 x 4 in
the standard grid size. See the App Widget Design Guidelines in the Android SDK
documentation [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guidelines/widget_design.html">Resources, 21</a>] for details.</li>
<li>Device implementations that include support for lock screen MAY support
application widgets on the lock screen.</li>
</ul>
<h3 id="3_8_3_notifications">3.8.3. Notifications</h3>
<p>Android includes APIs that allow developers to notify users of notable events [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/notifiers/notifications.html">Resources, 22</a>], using hardware and software features of the device.</p>
<p>Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention
using hardware&#8212;specifically sound, vibration, and light. Device implementations
MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK
documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation
hardware. For instance, if a device implementation includes a vibrator, it MUST
correctly implement the vibration APIs. If a device implementation lacks
hardware, the corresponding APIs MUST be implemented as no-ops. This behavior
is further detailed in <a href="#7_hardware_compatibility">section 7</a>.</p>
<p>Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all resources (icons, animation files
etc.) provided for in the APIs
[<a href="https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/resources/available-resources.html">Resources, 23</a>],
or in the Status/System Bar icon style guide
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/design/style/iconography.html">Resources, 24</a>],
which in the case of an Android Television device includes the possibility to not display the
notifications. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for
notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source
implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support
existing notification resources, as above. </p>
<p>Android includes support for various notifications, such as:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Rich notifications</strong>. Interactive Views for ongoing notifications.</li>
<li><strong>Heads-up notifications</strong>. Interactive Views users can act on or dismiss without leaving the current app.</li>
<li><strong>Lockscreen notifications</strong>. Notifications shown over a lock screen with granular control on visibility.</li>
</ul>
<p>Android device implementations, when such notifications are made visible, MUST properly execute
Rich and Heads-up notifications and include the title/name, icon, text as documented in the Android
APIs <a href="https://developer.android.com/design/patterns/notifications.html">[Resources, 25]</a>.
</p>
<p>Android includes Notification Listener Service APIs that allow apps (once
explicitly enabled by the user) to receive a copy of all notifications as they
are posted or updated. Device implementations MUST correctly and promptly send
notifications in their entirety to all such installed and user-enabled listener
services, including any and all metadata attached to the Notification object.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_4_search">3.8.4. Search</h3>
<p>Android includes APIs [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/SearchManager.html">Resources, 26</a>] that allow developers to incorporate search into their applications, and
expose their application&rsquo;s data into the global system search. Generally
speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface
that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and
displays results. The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to
provide search within their own apps, and allow developers to supply results to
the common global search user interface.</p>
<p>Android device implementations SHOULD include global search, a single, shared,
system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response
to user input. Device implementations SHOULD implement the APIs that allow
developers to reuse this user interface to provide search within their own
applications. Device implementations that implement the global search interface
MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions
to the search box when it is run in global search mode. If no third-party
applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default
behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_5_toasts">3.8.5. Toasts</h3>
<p>Applications can use the &ldquo;Toast&rdquo; API to display short non-modal strings to the
end user, that disappear after a brief period of time [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/Toast.html">Resources, 27</a>]. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in
some high-visibility manner.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_6_themes">3.8.6. Themes</h3>
<p>Android provides &ldquo;themes&rdquo; as a mechanism for applications to apply styles
across an entire Activity or application.</p>
<p>Android includes a &ldquo;Holo&rdquo; theme family as a set of defined styles for
application developers to use if they want to match the Holo theme look and
feel as defined by the Android SDK [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/themes.html">Resources, 28</a>]. Device implementations MUST NOT alter any of the Holo theme attributes
exposed to applications [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html">Resources, 29</a>].</p>
<p>Android includes a &ldquo;Material&rdquo; theme family as a set of defined styles for
application developers to use if they want to match the design theme&rsquo;s look and
feel across the wide variety of different Android device types. Device
implementations MUST support the &ldquo;Material&rdquo; theme family and MUST NOT alter any
of the Material theme attributes or their assets exposed to applications [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html#Theme_Material">Resources, 30</a>].</p>
<p>Android also includes a &ldquo;Device Default&rdquo; theme family as a set of defined
styles for application developers to use if they want to match the look and
feel of the device theme as defined by the device implementer. Device
implementations MAY modify the Device Default theme attributes exposed to
applications [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html">Resources, 29</a>].</p>
<p>Android supports a variant theme with translucent system bars, which allows
application developers to fill the area behind the status and navigation bar
with their app content. To enable a consistent developer experience in this
configuration, it is important the status bar icon style is maintained across
different device implementations. Therefore, Android device implementations
MUST use white for system status icons (such as signal strength and battery
level) and notifications issued by the system, unless the icon is indicating a
problematic status or an app requests a light status bar using the
SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_LIGHT_STATUS_BAR flag. When an app requests a light status bar,
Android device implementations MUST change the color of the system status icons
to black [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html">Resources, 29</a>].</p>
<h3 id="3_8_7_live_wallpapers">3.8.7. Live Wallpapers</h3>
<p>Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that
allows applications to expose one or more &ldquo;Live Wallpapers&rdquo; to the end user [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/service/wallpaper/WallpaperService.html">Resources, 31</a>]. Live wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited
input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.</p>
<p>Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can
run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable
frame rate with no adverse effects on other applications. If limitations in the
hardware cause wallpapers and/or applications to crash, malfunction, consume
excessive CPU or battery power, or run at unacceptably low frame rates, the
hardware is considered incapable of running live wallpaper. As an example, some
live wallpapers may use an OpenGL 2.0 or 3.x context to render their content.
Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple
OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may
conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.</p>
<p>Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described
above SHOULD implement live wallpapers, and when implemented MUST report the
platform feature flag android.software.live_wallpaper.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_8_activity_switching">3.8.8. Activity Switching</h3>
<div class="note">
<p>As the Recent function navigation key is OPTIONAL, the requirements to
implement the overview screen is OPTIONAL for Android Television devices and
Android Watch devices.</p>
</div>
<p>The upstream Android source code includes the overview screen [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/components/recents.html">Resources, 32</a>], a system-level user interface for task switching and displaying recently
accessed activities and tasks using a thumbnail image of the application&rsquo;s
graphical state at the moment the user last left the application. Device
implementations including the recents function navigation key as detailed in <a href="#7_2_3_navigation_keys">section 7.2.3</a>, MAY alter the interface but MUST meet the following requirements:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST display affiliated recents as a group that moves together.</li>
<li>MUST support at least up to 20 displayed activities.</li>
<li>MUST at least display the title of 4 activities at a time.</li>
<li>SHOULD display highlight color, icon, screen title in recents.</li>
<li>MUST implement the screen pinning behavior [<a href="http://developer.android.com/about/versions/android-5.0.html#ScreenPinning">Resources, 33</a>] and provide the user with a settings menu to toggle the feature.</li>
<li>SHOULD display a closing affordance ("x") but MAY delay this until user
interacts with screens.</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to use the upstream Android user
interface (or a similar thumbnail-based interface) for the overview screen.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_9_input_management">3.8.9. Input Management</h3>
<p>Android includes support for Input Management and support for third-party input
method editors [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/text/creating-input-method.html">Resources, 34</a>]. Device implementations that allow users to use third-party input methods on
the device MUST declare the platform feature android.software.input_methods and
support IME APIs as defined in the Android SDK documentation.</p>
<p>Device implementations that declare the android.software.input_methods feature
MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to add and configure third-party input
methods. Device implementations MUST display the settings interface in response
to the android.settings.INPUT_METHOD_SETTINGS intent.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_10_lock_screen_media_control">3.8.10. Lock Screen Media Control</h3>
<p>The Remote Control Client API is deprecated from Android 5.0 in favor of the
Media Notification Template that allows media applications to integrate with
playback controls that are displayed on the lock screen [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/Notification.MediaStyle.html">Resources, 35</a>].
Device implementations that support a lock screen, unless an Android Automotive or Watch
implementation, MUST display the Lockscreen Notifications including the Media Notification
Template.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_11_dreams">3.8.11. Dreams</h3>
<p>Android includes support for interactive screensavers called Dreams [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/service/dreams/DreamService.html">Resources, 36</a>]. Dreams allows users to interact with applications when a device connected to
a power source is idle or docked in a desk dock. Android Watch devices MAY
implement Dreams, but other types of device implementations SHOULD include
support for Dreams and provide a settings option for users to configure Dreams
in response to the android.settings.DREAM_SETTINGS intent.</p>
<h3 id="3_8_12_location">3.8.12. Location</h3>
<p>When a device has a hardware sensor (e.g. GPS) that is capable of providing the
location coordinates, location modes MUST be displayed in the Location menu
within Settings [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Settings.Secure.html#LOCATION_MODE">Resources, 37</a>].</p>
<h3 id="3_8_13_unicode_and_font">3.8.13. Unicode and Font</h3>
<p>Android includes support for color emoji characters. When Android device
implementations include an IME, devices SHOULD provide an input method to the
user for the Emoji characters defined in Unicode 6.1 [<a href="http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode6.1.0/">Resources, 38</a>]. All devices MUST be capable of rendering these emoji characters in color glyph.</p>
<p>Android includes support for Roboto 2 font with different
weights&mdash;sans-serif-thin, sans-serif-light, sans-serif-medium, sans-serif-black,
sans-serif-condensed, sans-serif-condensed-light&mdash;which MUST all be included for
the languages available on the device and full Unicode 7.0 coverage of Latin,
Greek, and Cyrillic, including the Latin Extended A, B, C, and D ranges, and
all glyphs in the currency symbols block of Unicode 7.0.</p>
<h2 id="3_9_device_administration">3.9. Device Administration</h2>
<p>Android includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform
device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password
policies or performing remote wipe, through the Android Device Administration
API [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/admin/device-admin.html">Resources, 39</a>].
Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the DevicePolicyManager class
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html">Resources, 40</a>].
Device implementations that include support for PIN (numeric) or PASSWORD
(alphanumeric) based lock screens MUST support the full range of device
administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/admin/device-admin.html">Resources, 39</a>]
and report the platform feature android.software.device_admin.</p>
<h3 id="3_9_1_device_provisioning">3.9.1 Device Provisioning</h3>
<h4 id="3_9_1_1_device_owner_provisioning">3.9.1.1 Device owner provisioning</h4>
<p>If a device implementation declares the android.software.device_admin feature,
the out of box setup flow MUST make it possible to enroll a Device Policy
Controller (DPC) application as the Device Owner app
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html#isDeviceOwnerApp(java.lang.String)">
Resources, XX</a>]. Device implementations MAY have a preinstalled application
performing device administration functions but this application MUST NOT be set
as the Device Owner app without explicit consent or action from the user or the
administrator of the device.</p>
<p>The device owner provisioning process (the flow initiated by
android.app.action.PROVISION_MANAGED_DEVICE
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html#ACTION_PROVISION_MANAGED_DEVICE">
Resources, XX</a>]) user experience MUST align with the AOSP implementation</p>
<p>If the device implementation reports android.hardware.nfc, it MUST have NFC
enabled, even during the out-of-box setup flow, in order to allow for NFC
provisioning of Device owners
<a href="https://source.android.com/devices/tech/admin/provision.html#device_owner_provisioning_via_nfc">[Resources, XX]</a>.
</p>
<h4 id="3_9_1_2_managed_profile_provisioning">3.9.1.2 Managed profile provisioning</h4>
<p>If a device implementation declares the android.software.managed_users,
it MUST be possible to enroll a Device Policy Controller (DPC) application
as the owner of a new Managed Profile
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html#isProfileOwnerApp(java.lang.String)">
Resources, XX</a>]</p>
<p>The managed profile provisioning process (the flow initiated by
android.app.action.PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html#ACTION_PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE">
Resources, XX</a>]) user experience MUST align with the AOSP implementation
</p>
<h2 id="3_9_2_managed_profile_support">3.9.2 Managed Profile Support</h2>
<p>Managed profile capable devices are those devices that:</p>
<ul>
<li>Declare android.software.device_admin (see <a href="#3_9_device_administration">section 3.9 Device Administration)</a></li>
<li>Are not low RAM devices (see <a href="#7_6_1_minimum_memory_and_storage">section 7.6.1</a></li>
<li>Allocate internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage (see
<a href="#7_6_2_application_shared_storage">section 7.6.2</a>)</li>
</ul>
<p>Managed profile capable devices MUST:</p>
<ul>
<li>Declare the platform feature flag android.software.managed_users.</li>
<li>Support managed profiles via the android.app.admin.DevicePolicyManager APIs</li>
<li>Allow a managed profile to be created [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html#ACTION_PROVISION_MANAGED_PROFILE"> Resources, XX</a>]</li>
<li>Use an icon badge (similar to the AOSP upstream work badge) to represent
the managed applications and widgets and other badged UI elements like Recents
&amp; Notifications</li>
<li>Display a notification icon (similar to the AOSP upstream work badge) to
indicate when user is within a managed profile application</li>
<li>Display a toast indicating that the user is in the managed profile if and when the
device wakes up (ACTION_USER_PRESENT) and the foreground application is within
the managed profile</li>
<li>Where a managed profile exists, show a visual affordance in the Intent
'Chooser' to allow the user to forward the intent from the managed to the personal
profiles or vice versa, if enabled by the Device Policy Controller</li>
<li>Expose the following user affordances for both primary and managed profiles
(when they exist):
<ul>
<li>Separate accounting for battery, location, mobile data and storage usage
for the primary and managed profiles</li>
<li>Independent management of VPN Applications installed within the primary
or managed profiles</li>
<li>Independent management of applications installed within the primary or
managed profiles</li>
<li>Independent management of user accounts within the primary or managed
profiles</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Ensure the default dialer can look up caller information from the managed
profile (if one exists) alongside those from the primary profile</li>
<li>Ensure that all the security requirements for multi user (see
<a href="#9_5_multi-user_support">section 9.5<a/>) apply to
managed profiles.</li>
</ul>
<h2 id="3_10_accessibility">3.10. Accessibility</h2>
<p>Android provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to
navigate their devices more easily. In addition, Android provides platform APIs
that enable accessibility service implementations to receive callbacks for user
and system events and generate alternate feedback mechanisms, such as
text-to-speech, haptic feedback, and trackball/d-pad navigation [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/accessibilityservice/AccessibilityService.html">Resources, 42</a>].</p>
<p>Device implementations include the following requirements:</p>
<ul>
<li>Android Automotive implementations SHOULD provide an implementation of the
Android accessibility framework consistent with the default Android
implementation.</li>
<li>Device implementations (Android Automotive excluded) MUST provide an
implementation of the Android accessibility framework consistent with the
default Android implementation.</li>
<li>Device implementations (Android Automotive excluded) MUST support
third-party accessibility service implementations through the
android.accessibilityservice APIs
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/view/accessibility/package-summary.html">Resources, 43</a>]</li>
<li>Device implementations (Android Automotive excluded) MUST generate
AccessibilityEvents and deliver these events to all registered
AccessibilityService implementations in a manner consistent with the default
Android implementation</li>
<li> Device implementations (Android Automotive and Android Watch devices with
no audio output excluded), MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable
and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response
to the android.provider.Settings.ACTION_ACCESSIBILITY_SETTINGS intent.</li>
</ul>
<p>Additionally, device implementations SHOULD provide an implementation of an
accessibility service on the device, and SHOULD provide a mechanism for users
to enable the accessibility service during device setup. An open source
implementation of an accessibility service is available from the Eyes Free
project [<a href="http://code.google.com/p/eyes-free/">Resources, 44</a>].</p>
<h2 id="3_11_text-to-speech">3.11. Text-to-Speech</h2>
<p>Android includes APIs that allow applications to make use of text-to-speech
(TTS) services and allows service providers to provide implementations of TTS
services [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/speech/tts/package-summary.html">Resources, 45</a>]. Device implementations reporting the feature android.hardware.audio.output
MUST meet these requirements related to the Android TTS framework. </p>
<p>Android Automotive implementations:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST support the Android TTS framework APIs.</li>
<li>MAY support installation of third-party TTS engines. If supported, partners
MUST provide a user-accessible interface that allows the user to select a TTS
engine for use at system level.</li>
</ul>
<p>All other device implementations:</p>
<ul>
<li> MUST support the Android TTS framework APIs and SHOULD include a TTS engine
supporting the languages available on the device. Note that the upstream
Android open source software includes a full-featured TTS engine
implementation.
<li> MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines
<li> MUST provide a user-accessible interface that allows users to select a TTS
engine for use at the system level
</ul>
<h2 id="3_12_tv_input_framework">3.12. TV Input Framework</h2>
<p>The Android Television Input Framework (TIF) simplifies the delivery of live
content to Android Television devices. TIF provides a standard API to create
input modules that control Android Television devices. Android Television
device implementations MUST support Television Input Framework [<a href="http://source.android.com/devices/tv/index.html">Resources, 46</a>].</p>
<p>Device implementations that support TIF MUST declare the platform feature
android.software.live_tv.</p>
<h1 id="4_application_packaging_compatibility">4. Application Packaging Compatibility</h1>
<p>Device implementations MUST install and run Android &ldquo;.apk&rdquo; files as generated
by the &ldquo;aapt&rdquo; tool included in the official Android SDK [<a href="http://developer.android.com/tools/help/index.html">Resources, 47</a>].</p>
<p>Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the .apk [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/components/fundamentals.html">Resources, 48</a>], Android Manifest [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/manifest-intro.html">Resources, 49</a>], Dalvik bytecode [<a href="https://android.googlesource.com/platform/dalvik/+/lollipop-release/docs/">Resources, 20</a>], or RenderScript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those
files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices.</p>
<h1 id="5_multimedia_compatibility">5. Multimedia Compatibility</h1>
<h2 id="5_1_media_codecs">5.1. Media Codecs</h2>
<p>Device implementations MUST support the core media formats specified in the
Android SDK documentation [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/appendix/media-formats.html">Resources, 50</a>] except where explicitly permitted in this document. Specifically, device
implementations MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types,
and container formats defined in the tables below and reported via MediaCodecList
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/media/MediaCodecList.html">Resources,112</a>].
Device implementations MUST also be able to decode all profiles reported in its CamcorderProfile
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/media/CamcorderProfile.html">Resources,
113</a>].
All of these codecs are
provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation
from the Android Open Source Project.</p>
<p>Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any
representation that these codecs are free from third-party patents. Those
intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised
that implementations of this code, including in open source software or
shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.</p>
<h3 id="5_1_1_audio_codecs">5.1.1. Audio Codecs</h3>
<table>
<tr>
<th>Format/Codec</th>
<th>Encoder</th>
<th>Decoder</th>
<th>Details</th>
<th>Supported File Types/Container Formats</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MPEG-4 AAC Profile</p>
<p>(AAC LC)</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>1</sup></td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>Support for mono/stereo/5.0/5.1<sup>2</sup> content with standard sampling rates from 8 to
48 kHz.</td>
<td>
<ul>
<li class="table_list">3GPP (.3gp)</li>
<li class="table_list">MPEG-4 (.mp4, .m4a)</li>
<li class="table_list">ADTS raw AAC (.aac, decode in Android 3.1+, encode in Android 4.0+, ADIF not
supported)</li>
<li class="table_list">MPEG-TS (.ts, not seekable, Android 3.0+)</li></ul></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MPEG-4 HE AAC Profile (AAC+)</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>1</sup><br>(Android 4.1+)</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>Support for mono/stereo/5.0/5.1<sup>2</sup> content with standard sampling rates from 16
to 48 kHz.</td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MPEG-4 HE AACv2</p>
<p>Profile (enhanced AAC+)</td>
<td> </td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>Support for mono/stereo/5.0/5.1<sup>2</sup> content with standard sampling rates from 16
to 48 kHz.</td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>AAC ELD (enhanced low delay AAC)</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>1</sup> </p>
<p>(Android 4.1+)</td>
<td>REQUIRED</p>
<p>(Android 4.1+)</td>
<td>Support for mono/stereo content with standard sampling rates from 16 to 48 kHz.</td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>AMR-NB</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>3</sup></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>3</sup></td>
<td>4.75 to 12.2 kbps sampled @ 8 kHz</td>
<td>3GPP (.3gp)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>AMR-WB</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>3</sup></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>3</sup></td>
<td>9 rates from 6.60 kbit/s to 23.85 kbit/s sampled @ 16 kHz</td>
<td></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>FLAC</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED <br>(Android 3.1+)</td>
<td>Mono/Stereo (no multichannel). Sample rates up to 48 kHz (but up to 44.1 kHz is
RECOMMENDED on devices with 44.1 kHz output, as the 48 to 44.1 kHz downsampler
does not include a low-pass filter). 16-bit RECOMMENDED; no dither applied for
24-bit.</td>
<td>FLAC (.flac) only</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MP3</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>Mono/Stereo 8-320Kbps constant (CBR) or variable bitrate (VBR)</td>
<td>MP3 (.mp3)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MIDI</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>MIDI Type 0 and 1. DLS Version 1 and 2. XMF and Mobile XMF. Support for
ringtone formats RTTTL/RTX, OTA, and iMelody</td>
<td><ul>
<li class="table_list">Type 0 and 1 (.mid, .xmf, .mxmf)</li>
<li class="table_list">RTTTL/RTX (.rtttl, .rtx)</li>
<li class="table_list">OTA (.ota)</li>
<li class="table_list">iMelody (.imy)</li></ul></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Vorbis</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td></td>
<td><ul>
<li class="table_list">Ogg (.ogg)</li>
<li class="table_list">Matroska (.mkv, Android 4.0+)</li></ul></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>PCM/WAVE</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>4</sup><br> (Android 4.1+)</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>16-bit linear PCM (rates up to limit of hardware). Devices MUST support
sampling rates for raw PCM recording at 8000, 11025, 16000, and 44100 Hz
frequencies.</td>
<td>WAVE (.wav)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Opus</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED<br> (Android 5.0+)</td>
<td></td>
<td>Matroska (.mkv)</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote"> 1 Required for device implementations that define android.hardware.microphone
but optional for Android Watch device implementations.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">2 Only downmix of 5.0/5.1 content is required; recording or rendering more than
2 channels is optional.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">3 Required for Android Handheld device implementations. </p>
<p class="table_footnote">4 Required for device implementations that define android.hardware.microphone,
including Android Watch device implementations.</p>
<h3 id="5_1_2_image_codecs">5.1.2. Image Codecs</h3>
<table>
<tr>
<th>Format/Codec</th>
<th>Encoder</th>
<th>Decoder</th>
<th>Details</th>
<th>Supported File Types/Container Formats</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>JPEG</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>Base+progressive</td>
<td>JPEG (.jpg)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>GIF</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td></td>
<td>GIF (.gif)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>PNG</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td></td>
<td>PNG (.png)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>BMP</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td></td>
<td>BMP (.bmp)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>WebP</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td>REQUIRED</td>
<td></td>
<td>WebP (.webp)</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h3 id="5_1_3_video_codecs">5.1.3. Video Codecs</h3>
<table>
<tr>
<th>Format/Codec</th>
<th>Encoder</th>
<th>Decoder</th>
<th>Details</th>
<th>Supported File Types/<br>Container Formats</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>H.263</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>1</sup></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup></td>
<td></td>
<td><ul>
<li class="table_list">3GPP (.3gp)</li>
<li class="table_list">MPEG-4 (.mp4)</li></ul></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>H.264 AVC</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup></td>
<td>See <a href="#5_2_video_encoding">section 5.2 </a>and <a href="#5_3_video_decoding">5.3</a> for details</td>
<td><ul>
<li class="table_list">3GPP (.3gp)</li>
<li class="table_list">MPEG-4 (.mp4)</li>
<li class="table_list">MPEG-2 TS (.ts, AAC audio only, not seekable, Android 3.0+)</li></ul></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>H.265 HEVC</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>5</sup></td>
<td>See <a href="#5_3_video_decoding">section 5.3</a> for details</td>
<td>MPEG-4 (.mp4)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MPEG-2</td>
<td></td>
<td>STRONGLY RECOMMENDED<sup>6</sup></td>
<td>Main Profile</td>
<td>MPEG2-TS</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>MPEG-4 SP</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup></td>
<td></td>
<td>3GPP (.3gp)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>VP8<sup>3</sup></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup></p>
<p>(Android 4.3+)</td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup></p>
<p>(Android 2.3.3+)</td>
<td>See <a href="#5_2_video_encoding">section 5.2</a> and <a href="#5_3_video_decoding">5.3</a> for details</td>
<td><ul>
<li class="table_list">WebM (.webm) [<a href="http://www.webmproject.org/">Resources, 110</a></li>
<li class="table_list">Matroska (.mkv, Android 4.0+)<sup>4</sup></li></ul></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>VP9</td>
<td></td>
<td>REQUIRED<sup>2</sup><br> (Android 4.4+)</td>
<td>See <a href="#5_3_video_decoding">section 5.3</a> for details</td>
<td><ul>
<li class="table_list">WebM (.webm) [<a href="http://www.webmproject.org/">Resources, 110</a>]</li>
<li class="table_list">Matroska (.mkv, Android 4.0+)<sup>4</sup></li></ul></td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 Required for device implementations that include camera hardware and define
android.hardware.camera or android.hardware.camera.front.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">2 Required for device implementations except Android Watch devices. </p>
<p class="table_footnote">3 For acceptable quality of web video streaming and video-conference services,
device implementations SHOULD use a hardware VP8 codec that meets the
requirements in [<a href="http://www.webmproject.org/hardware/rtc-coding-requirements/">Resources, 51</a>].</p>
<p class="table_footnote">4 Device implementations SHOULD support writing Matroska WebM files.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">5 STRONGLY RECOMMENDED for Android Automotive, optional for Android Watch, and required for all other device types.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">6 Applies only to Android Television device implementations.</p>
<h2 id="5_2_video_encoding">5.2. Video Encoding</h2>
<div class="note">
<p>Video codecs are optional for Android Watch device implementations.</p>
</div>
<p>Android device implementations with H.263 encoders, MUST support Baseline Profile Level 45.</p>
<p>Android device implementations with H.264 codec support, MUST support Baseline
Profile Level 3 and the following SD (Standard Definition) video encoding
profiles and SHOULD support Main Profile Level 4 and the following HD (High
Definition) video encoding profiles. Android Television devices are STRONGLY
RECOMMENDED to encode HD 1080p video at 30 fps.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th></th>
<th>SD (Low quality)</th>
<th>SD (High quality)</th>
<th>HD 720p<sup>1</sup></th>
<th>HD 1080p<sup>1</sup></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video resolution</th>
<td>320 x 240 px</td>
<td>720 x 480 px</td>
<td>1280 x 720 px</td>
<td>1920 x 1080 px</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video frame rate</th>
<td>20 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video bitrate</th>
<td>384 Kbps</td>
<td>2 Mbps</td>
<td>4 Mbps</td>
<td>10 Mbps</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 When supported by hardware, but STRONGLY RECOMMENDED for Android Television
devices.</p>
<p>Android device implementations with VP8 codec support MUST support the SD video
encoding profiles and SHOULD support the following HD (High Definition) video
encoding profiles.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th></th>
<th>SD (Low quality)</th>
<th>SD (High quality)</th>
<th>HD 720p<sup>1</sup></th>
<th>HD 1080p<sup>1</sup></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video resolution</th>
<td>320 x 180 px</td>
<td>640 x 360 px</td>
<td>1280 x 720 px</td>
<td>1920 x 1080 px</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video frame rate</th>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video bitrate</th>
<td>800 Kbps </td>
<td>2 Mbps</td>
<td>4 Mbps</td>
<td>10 Mbps</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 When supported by hardware.</p>
<h2 id="5_3_video_decoding">5.3. Video Decoding</h2>
<div class="note">
<p>Video codecs are optional for Android Watch device implementations.</p>
</div>
<p>Device implementations MUST support dynamic video resolution switching within
the same stream for all VP8, VP9, H.264, and H.265 codecs exposed through the
standard Android APIs.</p>
<p>Android device implementations with H.263 decoders, MUST support Baseline
Profile Level 30.</p>
<p>Android device implementations with MPEG-4 decoders, MUST support Simple
Profile Level 3.</p>
<p>Android device implementations with H.264 decoders, MUST support Main Profile
Level 3 and the following SD video decoding profiles and SHOULD support the
HD decoding profiles. Android Television devices MUST support High Profile
Level 4.2 and the HD 1080p decoding profile.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th></th>
<th>SD (Low quality)</th>
<th>SD (High quality)</th>
<th>HD 720p<sup>1</sup></th>
<th>HD 1080p<sup>1</sup></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video resolution</th>
<td>320 x 240 px</td>
<td>720 x 480 px</td>
<td>1280 x 720 px</td>
<td>1920 x 1080 px</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video frame rate</th>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>60 fps</td>
<td>30 fps / 60 fps<sup>2</sup></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video bitrate</th>
<td>800 Kbps </td>
<td>2 Mbps</td>
<td>8 Mbps</td>
<td>20 Mbps</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 Required for Android Television device implementations, but for other device
types only when supported by hardware.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">2 Required for Android Television device implementations.</p>
<p>Android device implementations when supporting VP8 codec as described in <a href="#5_1_3_video_codecs">section 5.1.3</a>, MUST support the following SD decoding profiles and SHOULD support the HD
decoding profiles. Android Television devices MUST support the HD 1080p
decoding profile. </p>
<table>
<tr>
<th></th>
<th>SD (Low quality)</th>
<th>SD (High quality)</th>
<th>HD 720p<sup>1</sup></th>
<th>HD 1080p<sup>1</sup></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video resolution</th>
<td>320 x 180 px</td>
<td>640 x 360 px</td>
<td>1280 x 720 px</td>
<td>1920 x 1080 px</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video frame rate</th>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps / 60 fps<sup>2</sup></td>
<td>30 / 60 fps<sup>2</sup></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video bitrate</th>
<td>800 Kbps </td>
<td>2 Mbps</td>
<td>8 Mbps</td>
<td>20 Mbps</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 Required for Android Television device implementations, but for other type of
devices only when supported by hardware.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">2 Required for Android Television device implementations.</p>
<p>Android device implementations, when supporting VP9 codec as described in <a href="#5_1_3_video_codecs">section 5.1.3</a>, MUST support the following SD video decoding profiles and SHOULD support the
HD decoding profiles. Android Television devices are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to
support the HD 1080p decoding profile and SHOULD support the UHD decoding
profile. When the UHD video decoding profile is supported, it MUST support 8-bit
color depth and SHOULD support VP9 Profile 2 (10-bit).</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th></th>
<th>SD (Low quality)</th>
<th>SD (High quality)</th>
<th>HD 720p<sup>1</sup></th>
<th>HD 1080p<sup>2</sup></th>
<th>UHD<sup>2</sup></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video resolution</th>
<td>320 x 180 px</td>
<td>640 x 360 px</td>
<td>1280 x 720 px</td>
<td>1920 x 1080 px</td>
<td>3840 x 2160 px</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video frame rate</th>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>60 fps</td>
<td>60 fps</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video bitrate</th>
<td>600 Kbps</td>
<td>1.6 Mbps</td>
<td>4 Mbps</td>
<td>10 Mbps</td>
<td>20 Mbps</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 Required for Android Television device implementations, but for other type of
devices only when supported by hardware.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">2 STRONGLY RECOMMENDED for existing Android Television device implementations when
supported by hardware.</p>
<p>Android device implementations, when supporting H.265 codec as described in <a href="#5_1_3_video_codecs">section 5.1.3</a>, MUST support the Main Profile Level 3 Main tier and the following SD video
decoding profiles and SHOULD support the HD decoding profiles. Android
Television devices MUST support the Main Profile Level 4.1 Main tier and the HD
1080p decoding profile and SHOULD support Main10 Level 5 Main Tier profile and
the UHD decoding profile.</p>
<table>
<tr>
<th></th>
<th>SD (Low quality)</th>
<th>SD (High quality)</th>
<th>HD 720p<sup>1</sup></td>
<th>HD 1080p<sup>1</sup></td>
<th>UHD<sup>2</sup></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video resolution</th>
<td>352 x 288 px</td>
<td>640 x 360 px</td>
<td>1280 x 720 px</td>
<td>1920 x 1080 px</td>
<td>3840 x 2160 px</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video frame rate</th>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>30 fps</td>
<td>60 fps<sup>2</sup></td>
<td>60 fps</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Video bitrate</th>
<td>600 Kbps </td>
<td>1.6 Mbps</td>
<td>4 Mbps</td>
<td>10 Mbps</td>
<td>20 Mbps</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p class="table_footnote">1 Required for Android Television device implementations, but for other type of
devices only when supported by hardware.</p>
<p class="table_footnote">2 STRONGLY RECOMMENDED
for existing Android Television device implementations when supported by hardware.</p>
<h2 id="5_4_audio_recording">5.4. Audio Recording</h2>
<p>While some of the requirements outlined in this section are stated as SHOULD
since Android 4.3, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned
to change these to MUST. Existing and new Android devices are <strong>STRONGLY ENCOURAGED</strong>
to meet these requirements, or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded
to the future version.</p>
<h3 id="5_4_1_raw_audio_capture">5.4.1. Raw Audio Capture</h3>
<p>Device implementations that declare android.hardware.microphone MUST allow
capture of raw audio content with the following characteristics:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Format</strong>: Linear PCM, 16-bit
<li><strong>Sampling rates</strong>: 8000, 11025, 16000, 44100
<li><strong>Channels</strong>: Mono
</ul>
<p>The capture for the above sample rates MUST be done without up-sampling, and
any down-sampling MUST include an appropriate anti-aliasing filter.</p>
<p>Device implementations that declare android.hardware.microphone SHOULD allow
capture of raw audio content with the following characteristics:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Format</strong>: Linear PCM, 16-bit
<li><strong>Sampling rates</strong>: 22050, 48000
<li><strong>Channels</strong>: Stereo
</ul>
<p>If capture for the above sample rates is supported,
then the capture MUST be done without up-sampling at any ratio higher than 16000:22050
or 44100:48000.
Any up-sampling or down-sampling MUST include an appropriate anti-aliasing filter.</p>
<h3 id="5_4_2_capture_for_voice_recognition">5.4.2. Capture for Voice Recognition</h3>
<p>In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has
started recording an audio stream using the
android.media.MediaRecorder.AudioSource.VOICE_RECOGNITION audio source:</p>
<ul>
<li>The device SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude versus frequency
characteristics: specifically, ±3 dB, from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.
<li>Audio input sensitivity SHOULD be set such that a 90 dB sound power level (SPL)
source at 1000 Hz yields RMS of 2500 for 16-bit samples.
<li>PCM amplitude levels SHOULD linearly track input SPL changes over at least a 30
dB range from -18 dB to +12 dB re 90 dB SPL at the microphone.
<li>Total harmonic distortion SHOULD be less than 1% for 1 kHz at 90 dB SPL input
level at the microphone.
<li>Noise reduction processing, if present, MUST be disabled.
<li>Automatic gain control, if present, MUST be disabled
</ul>
<p>If the platform supports noise suppression technologies tuned for speech
recognition, the effect MUST be controllable from the
android.media.audiofx.NoiseSuppressor API. Moreover, the UUID field for the
noise suppressor&rsquo;s effect descriptor MUST uniquely identify each implementation
of the noise suppression technology.</p>
<h3 id="5_4_3_capture_for_rerouting_of_playback">5.4.3. Capture for Rerouting of Playback</h3>
<p>The android.media.MediaRecorder.AudioSource class includes the REMOTE_SUBMIX
audio source. Devices that declare android.hardware.audio.output MUST properly
implement the REMOTE_SUBMIX audio source so that when an application uses the
android.media.AudioRecord API to record from this audio source, it can capture
a mix of all audio streams except for the following:</p>
<ul>
<li>STREAM_RING
<li>STREAM_ALARM
<li>STREAM_NOTIFICATION
</ul>
<h2 id="5_5_audio_playback">5.5. Audio Playback</h2>
<p>Device implementations that declare android.hardware.audio.output MUST conform
to the requirements in this section.</p>
<h3 id="5_5_1_raw_audio_playback">5.5.1. Raw Audio Playback</h3>
<p>The device MUST allow playback of raw audio content with the following
characteristics:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Format</strong>: Linear PCM, 16-bit</li>
<li><strong>Sampling rates</strong>: 8000, 11025, 16000, 22050, 32000, 44100</li>
<li><strong>Channels</strong>: Mono, Stereo</li>
</ul>
<p>The device SHOULD allow playback of raw audio content with the following
characteristics:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Sampling rates</strong>: 24000, 48000</li>
</ul>
<h3 id="5_5_2_audio_effects">5.5.2. Audio Effects</h3>
<p>Android provides an API for audio effects for device implementations [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/media/audiofx/AudioEffect.html">Resources, 52</a>]. Device implementations that declare the feature
android.hardware.audio.output:</p>
<ul>
<li>MUST support the EFFECT_TYPE_EQUALIZER and EFFECT_TYPE_LOUDNESS_ENHANCER
implementations controllable through the AudioEffect subclasses Equalizer,
LoudnessEnhancer.</li>
<li>MUST support the visualizer API implementation, controllable through the
Visualizer class.</li>
<li>SHOULD support the EFFECT_TYPE_BASS_BOOST, EFFECT_TYPE_ENV_REVERB,
EFFECT_TYPE_PRESET_REVERB, and EFFECT_TYPE_VIRTUALIZER implementations
controllable through the AudioEffect sub-classes BassBoost,
EnvironmentalReverb, PresetReverb, and Virtualizer.</li>
</ul>
<h3 id="5_5_3_audio_output_volume">5.5.3. Audio Output Volume</h3>
<p>Android Television device implementations MUST include support for system
Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs,
except for compressed audio passthrough output (where no audio decoding is done
on the device).</p>
<h2 id="5_6_audio_latency">5.6. Audio Latency</h2>
<p>Audio latency is the time delay as an audio signal passes through a system.
Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time
sound effects.</p>
<p>For the purposes of this section, use the following definitions:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>output latency</strong>. The interval between when an application writes a frame of PCM-coded data and
when the corresponding sound can be heard by an external listener or observed
by a transducer.</li>
<li><strong>cold output latency</strong>. The output latency for the first frame, when the audio output system has been
idle and powered down prior to the request.</li>
<li><strong>continuous output latency</strong>. The output latency for subsequent frames, after the device is playing audio.</li>
<li><strong>input latency</strong>. The interval between when an external sound is presented to the device and
when an application reads the corresponding frame of PCM-coded data.</li>
<li><strong>cold input latency</strong>. The sum of lost input time and the input latency for the first frame, when the
audio input system has been idle and powered down prior to the request.</li>
<li><strong>continuous input latency</strong>. The input latency for subsequent frames, while the device is capturing audio.</li>
<li><strong>cold output jitter</strong>. The variance among separate measurements of cold output latency values.</li>
<li><strong>cold input jitter</strong>. The variance among separate measurements of cold input latency values.</li>
<li><strong>continuous round-trip latency</strong>. The sum of continuous input latency plus continuous output latency plus
one buffer period.
The buffer period term allows processing time for the app and for the app to
mitigate phase difference between input and output streams.
</li>
<li><strong>OpenSL ES PCM buffer queue API</strong>. The set of PCM-related OpenSL ES APIs within Android NDK; see
NDK_root/docs/opensles/index.html.</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations that declare android.hardware.audio.output are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet
or exceed these audio output requirements:</p>
<ul>
<li>cold output latency of 100 milliseconds or less</li>
<li>continuous output latency of 45 milliseconds or less</li>
<li>minimize the cold output jitter</li>
</ul>
<p>If a device implementation meets the requirements of this section after any
initial calibration when using the OpenSL ES PCM buffer queue API, for
continuous output latency and cold output latency over at least one supported
audio output device, it MAY report support for low-latency audio, by reporting
the feature android.hardware.audio.low_latency via the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html">Resources, 53</a>]. Conversely, if the device implementation does not meet these requirements it
MUST NOT report support for low-latency audio.</p>
<p>Device implementations that include android.hardware.microphone are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to meet
these input audio requirements:</p>
<ul>
<li>cold input latency of 100 milliseconds or less</li>
<li>continuous input latency of 30 milliseconds or less</li>
<li>continuous round-trip latency of 50 milliseconds or less</li>
<li>minimize the cold input jitter</li>
</ul>
<h2 id="5_7_network_protocols">5.7. Network Protocols</h2>
<p>Devices MUST support the media network protocols for audio and video playback
as specified in the Android SDK documentation [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/appendix/media-formats.html">Resources, 50</a>]. Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:</p>
<ul>
<li>RTSP (RTP, SDP)</li>
<li>HTTP(S) progressive streaming</li>
<li>HTTP(S) Live Streaming draft protocol, Version 3 [<a href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-03">Resources, 54</a>]</li>
</ul>
<h2 id="5_8_secure_media">5.8. Secure Media</h2>
<p>Device implementations that support secure video output and are capable of
supporting secure surfaces MUST declare support for Display.FLAG_SECURE. Device
implementations that declare support for Display.FLAG_SECURE, if they support a
wireless display protocol, MUST secure the link with a cryptographically strong
mechanism such as HDCP 2.x or higher for Miracast wireless displays. Similarly
if they support a wired external display, the device implementations MUST
support HDCP 1.2 or higher. Android Television device implementations MUST
support HDCP 2.2 for devices supporting 4K resolution and HDCP 1.4 or above for
lower resolutions. The upstream Android open source implementation includes
support for wireless (Miracast) and wired (HDMI) displays that satisfies this
requirement.</p>
<h2 id="5_9_midi">5.9. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)</h2>
<p>
If a device implementation supports the inter-app MIDI software transport
(virtual MIDI devices), and it supports MIDI over
<em>all</em> of the following MIDI-capable hardware transports
for which it provides generic non-MIDI connectivity, it MAY report
support for feature android.software.midi via the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html">Resources, 53</a>].
</p>
<p>The MIDI-capable hardware transports are:</p>
<ul>
<li>USB host mode (section 7.7 USB)</li>
<li>USB peripheral mode (section 7.7 USB)</li>
</ul>
<p>
Conversely, if the device implementation provides generic non-MIDI connectivity over a particular
MIDI-capable hardware transport listed above, but does not support MIDI over that hardware transport,
it MUST NOT report support for feature android.software.midi.
</p>
<p>
MIDI over Bluetooth LE acting in central role (section 7.4.3 Bluetooth)
is in trial use status. A device implementation that reports
feature android.software.midi, and which provides generic non-MIDI connectivity
over Bluetooth LE, SHOULD support MIDI over Bluetooth LE.
</p>
<h2 id="5_10_pro_audio">5.10. Professional Audio</h2>
<p>
If a device implementation meets <em>all</em> of the following requirements,
it MAY report support for feature android.hardware.audio.pro via the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class
[<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html">Resources, 53</a>].
</p>
<ul>
<li>
The device implementation MUST report support for feature android.hardware.audio.low_latency.
</li>
<li> The continuous round-trip audio latency, as defined in section 5.6 Audio Latency,
MUST be 20 milliseconds or less and SHOULD be 10 milliseconds or less over at least one
supported path.
</li>
<li>
If the device includes a 4 conductor 3.5mm audio jack,
the continuous round-trip audio latency MUST be 20 milliseconds or less over the audio jack path,
and SHOULD be 10 milliseconds or less over at the audio jack path.
</li>
<li>
The device implementation MUST include a USB port(s) supporting USB host mode and
USB peripheral mode.
</li>
<li>
The USB host mode MUST implement the USB audio class.
</li>
<li>
If the device includes an HDMI port, the device implementation
MUST support output in stereo and eight channels
at 20-bit or 24-bit depth and 192 kHz without bit-depth loss or resampling.
</li>
<li>
The device implementation MUST report support for feature android.software.midi.
</li>
<li>
If the device includes a 4 conductor 3.5mm audio jack,
the device implementation is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to comply with section
<a href="https://source.android.com/accessories/headset/specification.html#mobile_device_jack_specifications">Mobile device (jack) specifications</a>
of the
<a href="https://source.android.com/accessories/headset/specification.html">Wired Audio Headset Specification (v1.1)</a>.
</li>
</ul>
<h1 id="6_developer_tools_and_options_compatibility">6. Developer Tools and Options Compatibility</h1>
<h2 id="6_1_developer_tools">6.1. Developer Tools</h2>
<p>Device implementations MUST support the Android Developer Tools provided in the
Android SDK. Android compatible devices MUST be compatible with:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Android Debug Bridge (adb)</strong> [<a href="http://developer.android.com/tools/help/adb.html">Resources, 55</a>]</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations MUST support all adb functions as documented in the
Android SDK including dumpsys [<a href="https://source.android.com/devices/input/diagnostics.html">Resources, 56</a>]. The device-side adb daemon MUST be inactive by default and there MUST be a
user-accessible mechanism to turn on the Android Debug Bridge. If a device
implementation omits USB peripheral mode, it MUST implement the Android Debug
Bridge via local-area network (such as Ethernet or 802.11). </p>
<p>Android includes support for secure adb. Secure adb enables adb on known
authenticated hosts. Device implementations MUST support secure adb.</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (ddms)</strong> [<a href="http://developer.android.com/tools/debugging/ddms.html">Resources, 57</a>]</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations MUST support all ddms features as documented in the
Android SDK. As ddms uses adb, support for ddms SHOULD be inactive by default,
but MUST be supported whenever the user has activated the Android Debug Bridge,
as above.</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Monkey</strong> [<a href="http://developer.android.com/tools/help/monkey.html">Resources, 58</a>]</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations MUST include the Monkey framework, and make it available
for applications to use.</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>SysTrace</strong> [<a href="http://developer.android.com/tools/help/systrace.html">Resources, 59</a>]</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations MUST support systrace tool as documented in the Android
SDK. Systrace must be inactive by default, and there MUST be a user-accessible
mechanism to turn on Systrace.</p>
<p>Most Linux-based systems and Apple Macintosh systems recognize Android devices
using the standard Android SDK tools, without additional support; however
Microsoft Windows systems typically require a driver for new Android devices.
(For instance, new vendor IDs and sometimes new device IDs require custom USB
drivers for Windows systems.) If a device implementation is unrecognized by the
adb tool as provided in the standard Android SDK, device implementers MUST
provide Windows drivers allowing developers to connect to the device using the
adb protocol. These drivers MUST be provided for Windows XP, Windows Vista,
Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10 in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions.
</p>
<h2 id="6_2_developer_options">6.2. Developer Options</h2>
<p>Android includes support for developers to configure application
development-related settings. Device implementations MUST honor the
android.settings.APPLICATION_DEVELOPMENT_SETTINGS intent to show application
development-related settings [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/provider/Settings.html#ACTION_APPLICATION_DEVELOPMENT_SETTINGS">Resources, 60</a>]. The upstream Android implementation hides the Developer Options menu by
default and enables users to launch Developer Options after pressing seven (7)
times on the <strong>Settings</strong> > <strong>About Device</strong> > <strong>Build Number</strong> menu item. Device implementations MUST provide a consistent experience for
Developer Options. Specifically, device implementations MUST hide Developer
Options by default and MUST provide a mechanism to enable Developer Options
that is consistent with the upstream Android implementation.</p>
<h1 id="7_hardware_compatibility">7. Hardware Compatibility</h1>
<p>If a device includes a particular hardware component that has a corresponding
API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that
API as described in the Android SDK documentation. If an API in the SDK
interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the
device implementation does not possess that component:</p>
<ul>
<li>Complete class definitions (as documented by the SDK) for the component APIs
MUST still be presented.
<li>The API&rsquo;s behaviors MUST be implemented as no-ops in some reasonable fashion.
<li>API methods MUST return null values where permitted by the SDK documentation.
<li>API methods MUST return no-op implementations of classes where null values are
not permitted by the SDK documentation.
<li>API methods MUST NOT throw exceptions not documented by the SDK documentation.
</ul>
<p>A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony
API: even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable
no-ops.</p>
<p>Device implementations MUST consistently report accurate hardware configuration
information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures() and hasSystemFeature(String)
methods on the android.content.pm.PackageManager class for the same build
fingerprint. [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html">Resources, 53]</a></p>
<h2 id="7_1_display_and_graphics">7.1. Display and Graphics</h2>
<p>Android includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI
layouts appropriately for the device, to ensure that third-party applications
run well on a variety of hardware configurations [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html">Resources, 61</a>]. Devices MUST properly implement these APIs and behaviors, as detailed in
this section.</p>
<p>The units referenced by the requirements in this section are defined as
follows:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>physical diagonal size</strong>. The distance in inches between two opposing corners of the illuminated portion
of the display.</li>
<li><strong>dots per inch (dpi)</strong>. The number of pixels encompassed by a linear horizontal or vertical span of
1&rdquo;. Where dpi values are listed, both horizontal and vertical dpi must fall
within the range.</li>
<li><strong>aspect ratio</strong>. The ratio of the pixels of the longer dimension
to the shorter dimension of the screen. For example, a display of 480x854 pixels
would be 854/480 = 1.779, or roughly &ldquo;16:9&rdquo;.</li>
<li><strong>density-independent pixel (dp)</strong> The virtual pixel unit normalized to a 160 dpi screen, calculated as: pixels =
dps * (density/160).</li>
</ul>
<h3 id="7_1_1_screen_configuration">7.1.1. Screen Configuration</h3>
<h4 id="7_1_1_1_screen_size">7.1.1.1. Screen Size</h4>
<div class="note">
<p>Android Watch devices (detailed in <a href="#2_device_types">section 2</a>) MAY have smaller screen sizes as described in this section.</p>
</div>
<p>The Android UI framework supports a variety of different screen sizes, and
allows applications to query the device screen size (aka &ldquo;screen layout") via
android.content.res.Configuration.screenLayout with the SCREENLAYOUT_SIZE_MASK.
Device implementations MUST report the correct screen size as defined in the
Android SDK documentation [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html">Resources, 61</a>] and determined by the upstream Android platform. Specifically, device
implementations MUST report the correct screen size according to the following
logical density-independent pixel (dp) screen dimensions.</p>
<ul>
<li>Devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 426 dp x 320 dp (&lsquo;small&rsquo;), unless it
is an Android Watch device.</li>
<li>Devices that report screen size &lsquo;normal&rsquo; MUST have screen sizes of at least 480
dp x 320 dp.</li>
<li>Devices that report screen size &lsquo;large&rsquo; MUST have screen sizes of at least 640
dp x 480 dp.</li>
<li>Devices that report screen size &lsquo;xlarge&rsquo; MUST have screen sizes of at least 960
dp x 720 dp.</li>
</ul>
<p>In addition, </p>
<ul>
<li>Android Watch devices MUST have a screen with the physical diagonal size in the
range from 1.1 to 2.5 inches.</li>
<li>Other types of Android device implementations, with a physically integrated
screen, MUST have a screen at least 2.5 inches in physical diagonal size.</li>
</ul>
<p>Devices MUST NOT change their reported screen size at any time.</p>
<p>Applications optionally indicate which screen sizes they support via the
&lt;supports-screens&gt; attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file. Device
implementations MUST correctly honor applications' stated support for small,
normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK
documentation.</p>
<h4 id="7_1_1_2_screen_aspect_ratio">7.1.1.2. Screen Aspect Ratio</h4>
<div class="note">
<p>Android Watch devices MAY have an aspect ratio of 1.0 (1:1).</p>
</div>
<p>The screen aspect ratio MUST be a value from 1.3333 (4:3) to 1.86 (roughly
16:9), but Android Watch devices MAY have an aspect ratio of 1.0 (1:1) because
such a device implementation will use a UI_MODE_TYPE_WATCH as the
android.content.res.Configuration.uiMode.</p>
<h4 id="7_1_1_3_screen_density">7.1.1.3. Screen Density</h4>
<p>The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help
application developers target application resources. Device implementations
MUST report only one of the following logical Android framework densities
through the android.util.DisplayMetrics APIs, and MUST execute applications at
this standard density and MUST NOT change the value at at any time for the
default display.</p>
<ul>
<li>120 dpi (ldpi)</li>
<li>160 dpi (mdpi)</li>
<li>213 dpi (tvdpi)</li>
<li>240 dpi (hdpi)</li>
<li>280 dpi (280dpi)</li>
<li>320 dpi (xhdpi)</li>
<li>360 dpi (360dpi)</li>
<li>400 dpi (400dpi)</li>
<li>420 dpi (420dpi)</li>
<li>480 dpi (xxhdpi)</li>
<li>560 dpi (560dpi)</li>
<li>640 dpi (xxxhdpi)</li>
</ul>
<p>Device implementations SHOULD define the standard Android framework density
that is numerically closest to the physical density of the screen, unless that
logical density pushes the reported screen size below the minimum supported. If
the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the
physical density results in a screen size that is smaller than the smallest
supported compatible screen size (320 dp width), device implementations SHOULD
report the next lowest standard Android framework density.</p>
<h3 id="7_1_2_display_metrics">7.1.2. Display Metrics</h3>
<p>Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics
defined in android.util.DisplayMetrics [<a href="http://developer.android.com/reference/android/util/DisplayMetrics.html">Resources, 62</a>] and MUST report the same values regardless of whether the embedded or
external screen is used as the default display.</p>
<h3 id="7_1_3_screen_orientation">7.1.3. Screen Orientation</h3>
<p>Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support
(android.hardware.screen.portrait and/or android.hardware.screen.landscape) and
MUST report at least one supported orientation. For example, a device with a
fixed orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, SHOULD only
report android.hardware.screen.landscape.</p>
<p>Devices that report both screen orientations MUST support dynamic orientation
by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation. That is,
the device must respect the application&rsquo;s request for a specific screen
orientation. Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape
orientation as the default.</p>
<p>Devices MUST report the correct value for the device&rsquo;s current orientation,
whenever queried via the android.content.res.Configuration.orientation,
android.view.Display.getOrientation(), or other APIs.</p>
<p>Devices MUST NOT change the reported screen size or density when changing
orientation.</p>
<h3 id="7_1_4_2d_and_3d_graphics_acceleration">7.1.4. 2D and 3D Graphics Acceleration</h3>
<p>Device implementations MUST support both OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0, as embodied and
detailed in the Android SDK documentations. Device implementations SHOULD
support OpenGL ES 3.0 or 3.1 on devices capable of supporting it. Device
implementations MUST also support Android RenderScript, as detailed in the
Android SDK documentation [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/renderscript/">Resources, 63</a>].</p>
<p>Device implementations MUST also correctly identify themselves as supporting
OpenGL ES 1.0, OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 3.0 or OpenGL 3.1. That is:</p>
<ul>
<li>The managed APIs (such as via the GLES10.getString() method) MUST report support
for OpenGL ES 1.0 and OpenGL ES 2.0.</li>
<li>The native C/C++ OpenGL APIs (APIs available to apps via libGLES_v1CM.so,
libGLES_v2.so, or libEGL.so) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and OpenGL
ES 2.0.</li>
<li>Device implementations that declare support for OpenGL ES 3.0 or 3.1 MUST
support the corresponding managed APIs and include support for native C/C++
APIs. On device implementations that declare support for OpenGL ES 3.0 or 3.1,
libGLESv2.so MUST export the corresponding function symbols in addition to the
OpenGL ES 2.0 function symbols.</li>
</ul>
<p>In addition to OpenGL ES 3.1, Android provides an extension pack with Java
interfaces [<a href="https://developer.android.com/reference/android/opengl/GLES31Ext.html">Resources, 64</a>] and native support for advanced graphics functionality such as tessellation
and the ASTC texture compression format. Android device implementations MAY
support this extension pack, and&mdash;only if fully implemented&mdash;MUST identify the
support through the android.hardware.opengles.aep feature flag.</p>
<p>Also, device implementations MAY implement any desired OpenGL ES extensions.
However, device implementations MUST report via the OpenGL ES managed and
native APIs all extension strings that they do support, and conversely MUST NOT
report extension strings that they do not support.</p>
<p>Note that Android includes support for applications to optionally specify that
they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are
typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android
to implement any specific texture compression format. However, they SHOULD
accurately report any texture compression formats that they do support, via the
getString() method in the OpenGL API.</p>
<p>Android includes a mechanism for applications to declare that they want to
enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity,
Window, or View level through the use of a manifest tag
android:hardwareAccelerated or direct API calls [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/hardware-accel.html">Resources, 65</a>].</p>
<p>Device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST
disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting
android:hardwareAccelerated="false&rdquo; or disabling hardware acceleration directly
through the Android View APIs.</p>
<p>In addition, device implementations MUST exhibit behavior consistent with the
Android SDK documentation on hardware acceleration [<a href="http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/hardware-accel.html">Resources, 65</a>].</p>
<p>Android includes a TextureView object that lets developers directly integrate
hardware-accelerated OpenGL ES textures as rendering targets in a UI hierarchy.
Device implementations MUST support the TextureView API, and MUST exhibit
consistent behavior with the upstream Android implementation.</p>
<p>Android includes support for EGL_ANDROID_RECORDABLE, an EGLConfig attribute
that indicates whether the EGLConfig supports rendering to an ANativeWindow
that records images to a video. Device implementations MUST support
EGL_ANDROID_RECORDABLE extension [<a href="https://www.khronos.org/registry/egl/extensions/ANDROID/EGL_ANDROID_recordable.txt">Resources, 66</a>].</p>
<h3 id="7_1_5_legacy_application_compatibility_mode">7.1.5. Legacy Application Compatibility Mode</h3>
<p&g