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page.title=End-to-End Test Example
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<div id="qv-wrapper">
<div id="qv">
<h2>In this document</h2>
<ol id="auto-toc">
</ol>
</div>
</div>
<p>This tutorial guides you through creating a "hello world" Trade Federation
(TF) test configuration and gives you a hands-on introduction to the TF
framework. Starting from a development environment, you will create a simple
configuration and add features.</p>
<p>The tutorial presents the test development process as a set of exercises,
each consisting of several steps, that demonstrate how to build and gradually
refine your configuration. All sample code you need to complete the test
configuration is provided, and the title of each exercise is annotated with a
letter describing the roles involved in that step:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>D</strong> for Developer</li>
<li><strong>I</strong> for Integrator</li>
<li><strong>R</strong> for Test Runner</li>
</ul>
<p>After completing the tutorial, you will have a functioning TF configuration
and understand many important concepts in the TF framework.</p>
<h2 id="setup">Setting up the Trade Federation development environment</h2>
<p>For details on seting up the TF development environment, see
<a href="/devices/tech/test_infra/tradefed/fundamentals/machine_setup.html">Machine
Setup</a>. The rest of this tutorial assumes you have a shell open that has been
initialized to the TF environment.</p>
<p>For simplicity, this tutorial illustrates adding a configuration and its
classes to the TF framework core library. This can be extended to developing
modules outside the source tree by compiling the tradefed JAR, then compiling
your modules against that JAR.</p>
<h2 id="testclass">Creating a test class (D)</h2>
<p>Lets create a hello world test that just dumps a message to stdout. A
tradefed test generally implements the
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/testtype/IRemoteTest.html">IRemoteTest</a>
interface. Here's an implementation for the HelloWorldTest:</p>
<pre><code>package com.android.tradefed.example;
import com.android.tradefed.device.DeviceNotAvailableException;
import com.android.tradefed.result.ITestInvocationListener;
import com.android.tradefed.testtype.IRemoteTest;
public class HelloWorldTest implements IRemoteTest {
&#64;Override
public void run(ITestInvocationListener listener) throws DeviceNotAvailableException {
System.out.println("Hello, TF World!");
}
}
</code></pre>
<p>Save this sample code to
<code>&lt;tree&gt;/tools/tradefederation/prod-tests/src/com/android/tradefed/example/HelloWorldTest.java</code>
and rebuild tradefed from your shell:</p>
<pre><code>m -jN</code></pre>
<p>If the build does not succeed, consult
<a href="/devices/tech/test_infra/tradefed/fundamentals/machine_setup.html">Machine
Setup</a> to ensure you didn't miss a step.</p>
<h2 id="createconfig">Creating a Configuration (I)</h2>
<p>Trade Federation tests are made executable by creating a
<strong>Configuration</strong>, an XML file that instructs tradefed on which
test (or tests) to run, as well as which other modules to execute and in what
order.</p>
<p>Lets create a new Configuration for our HelloWorldTest (note the full class
name of the HelloWorldTest):</p>
<pre><code>&lt;configuration description="Runs the hello world test"&gt;
&lt;test class="com.android.tradefed.example.HelloWorldTest" /&gt;
&lt;/configuration&gt;</code></pre>
<p>Save this data to a <code>helloworld.xml</code> file anywhere on your local
filesystem (e.g. <code>/tmp/helloworld.xml</code>). TF will parse the
Configuration XML file (aka <b>config</b>), load the specified class using
reflection, instantiate it, cast it to a <code>IRemoteTest</code>, and call its
<code>run</code> method.</p>
<h2 id="runconfig">Running the config (R)</h2>
<p>From your shell, launch the tradefed console:</p>
<pre><code>$ tradefed.sh
</code></pre>
<p>Ensure a device is connected to the host machine and is visible to tradefed:</p>
<pre><code>tf &gt;list devices
Serial State Product Variant Build Battery
004ad9880810a548 Available mako mako JDQ39 100
</code></pre>
<p>Configurations can be executed using the <code>run &lt;config&gt;</code>
console command. Try:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; run /tmp/helloworld.xml
05-12 13:19:36 I/TestInvocation: Starting invocation for target stub on build 0 on device 004ad9880810a548
Hello, TF World!
</code></pre>
<p>You should see "Hello, TF World!" output on the terminal.</p>
<h2 id="addconfig">Adding the config to the Classpath (D, I, R)</h2>
<p>For convenience of deployment, you can also bundle configs into the tradefed
JARs themselves. Tradefed automatically recognizes all configurations placed in
<em>config</em> folders on the classpath.</p>
<p>To illustrate, move the <code>helloworld.xml</code> file into the tradefed
core library
(<code>&lt;tree&gt;/tools/tradefederation/prod-tests/res/config/example/helloworld.xml</code>).
Rebuild tradefed, restart the tradefed console, then ask tradefed to display the
list of configurations from the classpath:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; list configs
[…]
example/helloworld: Runs the hello world test
</code></pre>
<p>You can now run the helloworld config using:</p>
<pre><code>tf &gt;run example/helloworld
05-12 13:21:21 I/TestInvocation: Starting invocation for target stub on build 0 on device 004ad9880810a548
Hello, TF World!
</code></pre>
<h2 id="deviceinteract">Interacting with a device (D, R)</h2>
<p>So far, our HelloWorldTest isn't doing anything interesting. Tradefed's
specialty is running tests using Android devices, so lets add an Android device
to the test.</p>
<p>Tests can get a reference to an Android device by implementing the
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/testtype/IDeviceTest.html">IDeviceTest</a>
interface. Here's a sample implementation of what this looks like:</p>
<pre><code>public class HelloWorldTest implements IRemoteTest, IDeviceTest {
private ITestDevice mDevice;
&#64;Override
public void setDevice(ITestDevice device) {
mDevice = device;
}
&#64;Override
public ITestDevice getDevice() {
return mDevice;
}
}
</code></pre>
<p>The Trade Federation framework will inject the <code>ITestDevice</code>
reference into your test via the <code>IDeviceTest#setDevice</code> method,
before the <code>IRemoteTest#run</code> method is called.</p>
<p>Let's modify the HelloWorldTest print message to display the serial number of
the device:</p>
<pre><code>&#64;Override
public void run(ITestInvocationListener listener) throws DeviceNotAvailableException {
System.out.println("Hello, TF World! I have device " + getDevice().getSerialNumber());
}
</code></pre>
<p>Now rebuild tradefed and check the list of devices:</p>
<pre><code>$ tradefed.sh
tf &gt;list devices
Serial State Product Variant Build Battery
004ad9880810a548 Available mako mako JDQ39 100
</code></pre>
<p>Take note of the serial number listed as <strong>Available</strong>; that is
the device that should be allocated to HelloWorld:</p>
<pre><code>tf &gt;run example/helloworld
05-12 13:26:18 I/TestInvocation: Starting invocation for target stub on build 0 on device 004ad9880810a548
Hello, TF World! I have device 004ad9880810a548
</code></pre>
<p>You should see the new print message displaying the serial number of the
device.</p>
<h2 id="sendresults">Sending test results (D)</h2>
<p><code>IRemoteTest</code> reports results by calling methods on the
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/result/ITestInvocationListener.html">ITestInvocationListener</a>
instance provided to the <code>#run</code> method. The TF framework itself is
responsible for reporting the start (via
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/result/ITestInvocationListener.html#invocationStarted(com.android.tradefed.build.IBuildInfo)">ITestInvocationListener#invocationStarted</a>)
and end (via
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/result/ITestInvocationListener.html#invocationEnded(long)"
>ITestInvocationListener#invocationEnded</a>)
of each Invocation.</p>
<p>A <b>test run</b> is a logical collection of tests. To report test results,
<code>IRemoteTest</code> is responsible for reporting the start of a test run,
the start and end of each test, and the end of the test run.</p>
<p>Here's what the HelloWorldTest implementation might look like with a single
failed test result.</p>
<pre><code>&#64;Override
public void run(ITestInvocationListener listener) throws DeviceNotAvailableException {
System.out.println("Hello, TF World! I have device " + getDevice().getSerialNumber());
TestIdentifier testId = new TestIdentifier("com.example.TestClassName", "sampleTest");
listener.testRunStarted("helloworldrun", 1);
listener.testStarted(testId);
listener.testFailed(testId, "oh noes, test failed");
listener.testEnded(testId, Collections.emptyMap());
listener.testRunEnded(0, Collections.emptyMap());
}</code></pre>
<p>TF includes several <code>IRemoteTest</code> implementations you can reuse
instead of writing your own from scratch. For example,
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/testtype/InstrumentationTest.html">InstrumentationTest</a>
can run an Android application's tests remotely on an Android device, parse the
results, and forward those results to the <code>ITestInvocationListener</code>).
For details, see
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/testtype/package-summary.html">Test
Types</a>.</p>
<h2 id="storeresults">Storing test results (I)</h2>
<p>The default test listener implementation for a TF config is
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/result/TextResultReporter.html">TextResultReporter</a>,
which dumps the results of an invocation to stdout. To illustrate, run the
HelloWorldTest config from the previous section:</p>
<pre><code>$ ./tradefed.sh
tf &gt;run example/helloworld
05-16 20:03:15 I/TestInvocation: Starting invocation for target stub on build 0 on device 004ad9880810a548
Hello, TF World! I have device 004ad9880810a548
05-16 20:03:15 I/InvocationToJUnitResultForwarder: run helloworldrun started: 1 tests
Test FAILURE: com.example.TestClassName#sampleTest
stack: oh noes, test failed
05-16 20:03:15 I/InvocationToJUnitResultForwarder: run ended 0 ms
</code></pre>
<p>To store the results of an invocation elsewhere, such as in a file, specify a
custom <code>ITestInvocationListener</code> implementation using the
<code>result_reporter</code> tag in your configuration.</p>
<p>TF also includes the
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/result/XmlResultReporter.html">XmlResultReporter</a>
listener, which writes test results to an XML file in a format similar to that
used by the <em>ant</em> JUnit XML writer. To specify the result_reporter in the
configuration, edit the <code>…/res/config/example/helloworld.xml</code>
config:</p>
<pre><code>&lt;configuration description="Runs the hello world test"&gt;
&lt;test class="com.android.tradefed.example.HelloWorldTest" /&gt;
&lt;result_reporter class="com.android.tradefed.result.XmlResultReporter" /&gt;
&lt;/configuration&gt;
</code></pre>
<p>Now rebuild tradefed and re-run the hello world sample:</p>
<pre><code>tf &gt;run example/helloworld
05-16 21:07:07 I/TestInvocation: Starting invocation for target stub on build 0 on device 004ad9880810a548
Hello, TF World! I have device 004ad9880810a548
05-16 21:07:07 I/XmlResultReporter: Saved device_logcat log to /tmp/0/inv_2991649128735283633/device_logcat_6999997036887173857.txt
05-16 21:07:07 I/XmlResultReporter: Saved host_log log to /tmp/0/inv_2991649128735283633/host_log_6307746032218561704.txt
05-16 21:07:07 I/XmlResultReporter: XML test result file generated at /tmp/0/inv_2991649128735283633/test_result_536358148261684076.xml. Total tests 1, Failed 1, Error 0
</code></pre>
<p>Notice the log message stating that an XML file has been generated; the
generated file should look like this:</p>
<pre><code>&lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' ?&gt;
&lt;testsuite name="stub" tests="1" failures="1" errors="0" time="9" timestamp="2011-05-17T04:07:07" hostname="localhost"&gt;
&lt;properties /&gt;
&lt;testcase name="sampleTest" classname="com.example.TestClassName" time="0"&gt;
&lt;failure&gt;oh noes, test failed
&lt;/failure&gt;
&lt;/testcase&gt;
&lt;/testsuite&gt;
</code></pre>
<p>You can also write your own custom invocation listeners&mdash;they simply
need to implement the
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/result/ITestInvocationListener.html">ITestInvocationListener</a>
interface.</p>
<p>Tradefed supports multiple invocation listeners, so you can send test results
to multiple independent destinations. To do this, just specify multiple
<code>&lt;result_reporter&gt;</code> tags in your config.</p>
<h2 id="logging">Logging (D, I, R)</h2>
<p>TF's logging facilities include the ability to:</p>
<ol>
<li>Capture logs from the device (aka device logcat)</li>
<li>Record logs from the TradeFederation framework running on the host machine
(aka host log)</li>
</ol>
<p>The TF framework automatically captures the logcat from the allocated device
and sends it to the invocation listener for processing.
<code>XmlResultReporter</code> then saves the captured device logcat as a file.
</p>
<p>TF host logs are reported using the
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/log/LogUtil.CLog.html">CLog wrapper</a>
for the ddmlib Log class. Let's convert the
previous <code>System.out.println</code> call in HelloWorldTest to a
<code>CLog</code> call:</p>
<pre><code>&#64;Override
public void run(ITestInvocationListener listener) throws DeviceNotAvailableException {
CLog.i("Hello, TF World! I have device %s", getDevice().getSerialNumber());
</code></pre>
<p><code>CLog</code> handles string interpolation directly, similar to
<code>String.format</code>. When you rebuild and rerun TF, you should see the
log message on stdout:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; run example/helloworld
05-16 21:30:46 I/HelloWorldTest: Hello, TF World! I have device 004ad9880810a548
</code></pre>
<p>By default, tradefed
<a href"/reference/com/android/tradefed/log/StdoutLogger.html">outputs host log
messages to stdout</a>. TF also includes a log implementation that writes
messages to a file:
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/log/FileLogger.html">FileLogger</a>.
To add file logging, add a <code>logger</code> tag to the config, specifying the
full class name of <code>FileLogger</code>:</p>
<pre><code>&lt;configuration description="Runs the hello world test"&gt;
&lt;test class="com.android.tradefed.example.HelloWorldTest" /&gt;
&lt;result_reporter class="com.android.tradefed.result.XmlResultReporter" /&gt;
&lt;logger class="com.android.tradefed.log.FileLogger" /&gt;
&lt;/configuration&gt;
</code></pre>
<p>Now, rebuild and run the helloworld example again:</p>
<pre><code>tf &gt;run example/helloworld
05-16 21:38:21 I/XmlResultReporter: Saved device_logcat log to /tmp/0/inv_6390011618174565918/device_logcat_1302097394309452308.txt
05-16 21:38:21 I/XmlResultReporter: Saved host_log log to /tmp/0/inv_6390011618174565918/host_log_4255420317120216614.txt
</code></pre>
<p>The log message indicates the path of the host log, which, when viewed,
should contain your HelloWorldTest log message:</p>
<pre><code>$ more /tmp/0/inv_6390011618174565918/host_log_4255420317120216614.txt
05-16 21:38:21 I/HelloWorldTest: Hello, TF World! I have device 004ad9880810a548
</code></pre>
<h2 id="optionhandling">Handling options (D, I, R)</h2>
<p>Objects loaded from a TF Configuration (aka <b>Configuration objects</b>)
can also receive data from command line arguments through the use of the
<code>@Option</code> annotation.<p>
<p>To participate, a Configuration object class applies the <code>@Option</code>
annotation to a member field and provides it a unique name. This enables that
member field value to be populated via a command line option (and also
automatically adds that option to the configuration help system).</p>
<p class="note"><strong>Note:</strong> Not all field types are supported. For a
description of supported types, see
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/config/OptionSetter.html">OptionSetter</a>.
</p>
<p>Let's add an <code>@Option</code> to HelloWorldTest:</p>
<pre><code>@Option(name="my_option",
shortName='m',
description="this is the option's help text",
// always display this option in the default help text
importance=Importance.ALWAYS)
private String mMyOption = "thisisthedefault";
</code></pre>
<p>Next, let's add a log message to display the value of the option in
HelloWorldTest so we can demonstrate it was received correctly:</p>
<pre><code>&#64;Override
public void run(ITestInvocationListener listener) throws DeviceNotAvailableException {
CLog.logAndDisplay(LogLevel.INFO, "I received option '%s'", mMyOption);
</code></pre>
<p>Finally, rebuild TF and run helloworld; you should see a log message with the
<code>my_option</code> default value:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; run example/helloworld
05-24 18:30:05 I/HelloWorldTest: I received option 'thisisthedefault'
</code></pre>
<h3 id="passclivalues">Passing values from the command line</h3>
<p>Pass in a value for <code>my_option</code>; you should see
<code>my_option</code> populated with that value:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; run example/helloworld --my_option foo
05-24 18:33:44 I/HelloWorldTest: I received option 'foo'
</code></pre>
<p>TF configurations also include a help system, which automatically displays
help text for <code>@Option</code> fields. Try it now, and you should see the
help text for <code>my_option</code>:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; run --help example/helloworld
Printing help for only the important options. To see help for all options, use the --help-all flag
cmd_options options:
--[no-]help display the help text for the most important/critical options. Default: false.
--[no-]help-all display the full help text for all options. Default: false.
--[no-]loop keep running continuously. Default: false.
test options:
-m, --my_option this is the option's help text Default: thisisthedefault.
'file' logger options:
--log-level-display the minimum log level to display on stdout. Must be one of verbose, debug, info, warn, error, assert. Default: error.
</code></pre>
<p>Note the message about "printing only the important options." To reduce
option help clutter, TF uses the <code>Option#importance</code> attribute to
determine whether to show a particular <code>@Option</code> field help text when
<code>--help</code> is specified. <code>--help-all</code> always shows help for
all <code>@Option</code> fields, regardless of importance. For details, see
<a href="/reference/com/android/tradefed/config/Option.Importance.html">Option.Importance</a>.
</p>
<h3 id="passconfvalues">Passing values from a configuration</h3>
<p>You can also specify an Option value within the config by adding a
<code>&lt;option name="" value=""&gt;</code> element. Test it using
<code>helloworld.xml</code>:</p>
<pre><code>&lt;test class="com.android.tradefed.example.HelloWorldTest" &gt;
&lt;option name="my_option" value="fromxml" /&gt;
&lt;/test&gt;
</code></pre>
<p>Re-building and running helloworld should now produce this output:</p>
<pre><code>05-24 20:38:25 I/HelloWorldTest: I received option 'fromxml'
</code></pre>
<p>The configuration help should also update to indicate the default value of
<code>my_option</code>:</p>
<pre><code>tf&gt; run --help example/helloworld
test options:
-m, --my_option this is the option's help text Default: fromxml.
</code></pre>
<p>Other configuration objects included in the helloworld config, such as
<code>FileLogger</code>, also accept options. The option
<code>--log-level-display</code> is interesting because it filters the logs that
show up on stdout. Earlier in the tutorial, you may have noticed the "Hello, TF
World! I have device ' log message stopped being displayed on stdout after we
switched to using <code>FileLogger</code>. You can increase the verbosity of
logging to stdout by passing in the <code>--log-level-display</code> arg.</p>
<p>Try this now, and you should see the 'I have device' log message reappear on
stdout, in addition to being logged to a file:</p>
<pre><code>tf &gt;run --log-level-display info example/helloworld
05-24 18:53:50 I/HelloWorldTest: Hello, TF World! I have device 004ad9880810a548
</code></pre>
<h2 id="conclusion">That's all, folks!</h2>
<p>As a reminder, if you're stuck on something, the
<a href="https://android.googlesource.com/platform/tools/tradefederation/+/master">Trade
Federation source code</a> has a lot of useful information that isn't exposed in
the documentation. If all else fails, try asking on the
<a href="{@docRoot}source/community.html">android-platform</a> Google Group,
with "Trade Federation" in the message subject.</p>