blob: 0f20f826afa43b0109c13ec9e174cdbaa1a944fc [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright (C) 2008 The Android Open Source Project
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
Signs all the APK files in a target-files zipfile, producing a new
target-files zip.
Usage: sign_target_files_apks [flags] input_target_files output_target_files
-e (--extra_apks) <name,name,...=key>
Add extra APK name/key pairs as though they appeared in
apkcerts.txt (so mappings specified by -k and -d are applied).
Keys specified in -e override any value for that app contained
in the apkcerts.txt file. Option may be repeated to give
multiple extra packages.
-k (--key_mapping) <src_key=dest_key>
Add a mapping from the key name as specified in apkcerts.txt (the
src_key) to the real key you wish to sign the package with
(dest_key). Option may be repeated to give multiple key
-d (--default_key_mappings) <dir>
Set up the following key mappings:
$devkey/devkey ==> $dir/releasekey
$devkey/testkey ==> $dir/releasekey
$devkey/media ==> $dir/media
$devkey/shared ==> $dir/shared
$devkey/platform ==> $dir/platform
where $devkey is the directory part of the value of
default_system_dev_certificate from the input target-files's
META/misc_info.txt. (Defaulting to "build/target/product/security"
if the value is not present in misc_info.
-d and -k options are added to the set of mappings in the order
in which they appear on the command line.
-o (--replace_ota_keys)
Replace the certificate (public key) used by OTA package verification
with the ones specified in the input target_files zip (in the
META/otakeys.txt file). Key remapping (-k and -d) is performed on the
keys. For A/B devices, the payload verification key will be replaced
as well. If there're multiple OTA keys, only the first one will be used
for payload verification.
-t (--tag_changes) <+tag>,<-tag>,...
Comma-separated list of changes to make to the set of tags (in
the last component of the build fingerprint). Prefix each with
'+' or '-' to indicate whether that tag should be added or
removed. Changes are processed in the order they appear.
Default value is "-test-keys,-dev-keys,+release-keys".
--replace_verity_private_key <key>
Replace the private key used for verity signing. It expects a filename
WITHOUT the extension (e.g. verity_key).
--replace_verity_public_key <key>
Replace the certificate (public key) used for verity verification. The
key file replaces the one at BOOT/RAMDISK/verity_key (or ROOT/verity_key
for devices using system_root_image). It expects the key filename WITH
the extension (e.g.
--replace_verity_keyid <path_to_X509_PEM_cert_file>
Replace the veritykeyid in BOOT/cmdline of input_target_file_zip
with keyid of the cert pointed by <path_to_X509_PEM_cert_file>.
import sys
if sys.hexversion < 0x02070000:
print >> sys.stderr, "Python 2.7 or newer is required."
import base64
import cStringIO
import copy
import errno
import os
import re
import shutil
import subprocess
import tempfile
import zipfile
import add_img_to_target_files
import common
OPTIONS.extra_apks = {}
OPTIONS.key_map = {}
OPTIONS.replace_ota_keys = False
OPTIONS.replace_verity_public_key = False
OPTIONS.replace_verity_private_key = False
OPTIONS.replace_verity_keyid = False
OPTIONS.tag_changes = ("-test-keys", "-dev-keys", "+release-keys")
def GetApkCerts(tf_zip):
certmap = common.ReadApkCerts(tf_zip)
# apply the key remapping to the contents of the file
for apk, cert in certmap.iteritems():
certmap[apk] = OPTIONS.key_map.get(cert, cert)
# apply all the -e options, overriding anything in the file
for apk, cert in OPTIONS.extra_apks.iteritems():
if not cert:
cert = "PRESIGNED"
certmap[apk] = OPTIONS.key_map.get(cert, cert)
return certmap
def CheckAllApksSigned(input_tf_zip, apk_key_map):
"""Check that all the APKs we want to sign have keys specified, and
error out if they don't."""
unknown_apks = []
for info in input_tf_zip.infolist():
if info.filename.endswith(".apk"):
name = os.path.basename(info.filename)
if name not in apk_key_map:
if unknown_apks:
print "ERROR: no key specified for:\n\n ",
print "\n ".join(unknown_apks)
print "\nUse '-e <apkname>=' to specify a key (which may be an"
print "empty string to not sign this apk)."
def SignApk(data, keyname, pw, platform_api_level, codename_to_api_level_map):
unsigned = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile()
signed = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile()
# For pre-N builds, don't upgrade to SHA-256 JAR signatures based on the APK's
# minSdkVersion to avoid increasing incremental OTA update sizes. If an APK
# didn't change, we don't want its signature to change due to the switch
# from SHA-1 to SHA-256.
# By default, APK signer chooses SHA-256 signatures if the APK's minSdkVersion
# is 18 or higher. For pre-N builds we disable this mechanism by pretending
# that the APK's minSdkVersion is 1.
# For N+ builds, we let APK signer rely on the APK's minSdkVersion to
# determine whether to use SHA-256.
min_api_level = None
if platform_api_level > 23:
# Let APK signer choose whether to use SHA-1 or SHA-256, based on the APK's
# minSdkVersion attribute
min_api_level = None
# Force APK signer to use SHA-1
min_api_level = 1
common.SignFile(,, keyname, pw,
data =
return data
def ProcessTargetFiles(input_tf_zip, output_tf_zip, misc_info,
apk_key_map, key_passwords, platform_api_level,
maxsize = max([len(os.path.basename(i.filename))
for i in input_tf_zip.infolist()
if i.filename.endswith('.apk')])
rebuild_recovery = False
system_root_image = misc_info.get("system_root_image") == "true"
# tmpdir will only be used to regenerate the recovery-from-boot patch.
tmpdir = tempfile.mkdtemp()
def write_to_temp(fn, attr, data):
fn = os.path.join(tmpdir, fn)
if fn.endswith("/"):
fn = os.path.join(tmpdir, fn)
d = os.path.dirname(fn)
if d and not os.path.exists(d):
if attr >> 16 == 0xa1ff:
os.symlink(data, fn)
with open(fn, "wb") as f:
for info in input_tf_zip.infolist():
if info.filename.startswith("IMAGES/"):
data =
out_info = copy.copy(info)
# Sign APKs.
if info.filename.endswith(".apk"):
name = os.path.basename(info.filename)
key = apk_key_map[name]
if key not in common.SPECIAL_CERT_STRINGS:
print " signing: %-*s (%s)" % (maxsize, name, key)
signed_data = SignApk(data, key, key_passwords[key], platform_api_level,
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, out_info, signed_data)
# an APK we're not supposed to sign.
print "NOT signing: %s" % (name,)
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, out_info, data)
# System properties.
elif info.filename in ("SYSTEM/build.prop",
print "rewriting %s:" % (info.filename,)
new_data = RewriteProps(data, misc_info)
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, out_info, new_data)
if info.filename in ("BOOT/RAMDISK/default.prop",
write_to_temp(info.filename, info.external_attr, new_data)
elif info.filename.endswith("mac_permissions.xml"):
print "rewriting %s with new keys." % (info.filename,)
new_data = ReplaceCerts(data)
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, out_info, new_data)
# Trigger a rebuild of the recovery patch if needed.
elif info.filename in ("SYSTEM/recovery-from-boot.p",
rebuild_recovery = True
# Don't copy OTA keys if we're replacing them.
elif (OPTIONS.replace_ota_keys and
info.filename in (
# Skip META/misc_info.txt if we will replace the verity private key later.
elif (OPTIONS.replace_verity_private_key and
info.filename == "META/misc_info.txt"):
# Skip verity public key if we will replace it.
elif (OPTIONS.replace_verity_public_key and
info.filename in ("BOOT/RAMDISK/verity_key",
# Skip verity keyid (for system_root_image use) if we will replace it.
elif (OPTIONS.replace_verity_keyid and
info.filename == "BOOT/cmdline"):
# Skip the care_map as we will regenerate the system/vendor images.
elif (info.filename == "META/care_map.txt"):
# Copy BOOT/, RECOVERY/, META/, ROOT/ to rebuild recovery patch. This case
# must come AFTER other matching rules.
elif (info.filename.startswith("BOOT/") or
info.filename.startswith("RECOVERY/") or
info.filename.startswith("META/") or
info.filename.startswith("ROOT/") or
info.filename == "SYSTEM/etc/recovery-resource.dat"):
write_to_temp(info.filename, info.external_attr, data)
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, out_info, data)
# A non-APK file; copy it verbatim.
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, out_info, data)
if OPTIONS.replace_ota_keys:
new_recovery_keys = ReplaceOtaKeys(input_tf_zip, output_tf_zip, misc_info)
if new_recovery_keys:
if system_root_image:
recovery_keys_location = "BOOT/RAMDISK/res/keys"
recovery_keys_location = "RECOVERY/RAMDISK/res/keys"
# The "new_recovery_keys" has been already written into the output_tf_zip
# while calling ReplaceOtaKeys(). We're just putting the same copy to
# tmpdir in case we need to regenerate the recovery-from-boot patch.
write_to_temp(recovery_keys_location, 0o755 << 16, new_recovery_keys)
# Replace the keyid string in META/misc_info.txt.
if OPTIONS.replace_verity_private_key:
ReplaceVerityPrivateKey(input_tf_zip, output_tf_zip, misc_info,
if OPTIONS.replace_verity_public_key:
if system_root_image:
dest = "ROOT/verity_key"
dest = "BOOT/RAMDISK/verity_key"
# We are replacing the one in boot image only, since the one under
# recovery won't ever be needed.
new_data = ReplaceVerityPublicKey(
output_tf_zip, dest, OPTIONS.replace_verity_public_key[1])
write_to_temp(dest, 0o755 << 16, new_data)
# Replace the keyid string in BOOT/cmdline.
if OPTIONS.replace_verity_keyid:
new_cmdline = ReplaceVerityKeyId(input_tf_zip, output_tf_zip,
# Writing the new cmdline to tmpdir is redundant as the bootimage
# gets build in the add_image_to_target_files and rebuild_recovery
# is not exercised while building the boot image for the A/B
# path
write_to_temp("BOOT/cmdline", 0o755 << 16, new_cmdline)
if rebuild_recovery:
recovery_img = common.GetBootableImage(
"recovery.img", "recovery.img", tmpdir, "RECOVERY", info_dict=misc_info)
boot_img = common.GetBootableImage(
"boot.img", "boot.img", tmpdir, "BOOT", info_dict=misc_info)
def output_sink(fn, data):
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, "SYSTEM/" + fn, data)
common.MakeRecoveryPatch(tmpdir, output_sink, recovery_img, boot_img,
def ReplaceCerts(data):
"""Given a string of data, replace all occurences of a set
of X509 certs with a newer set of X509 certs and return
the updated data string."""
for old, new in OPTIONS.key_map.iteritems():
if OPTIONS.verbose:
print " Replacing %s.x509.pem with %s.x509.pem" % (old, new)
f = open(old + ".x509.pem")
old_cert16 = base64.b16encode(common.ParseCertificate(
f = open(new + ".x509.pem")
new_cert16 = base64.b16encode(common.ParseCertificate(
# Only match entire certs.
pattern = "\\b"+old_cert16+"\\b"
(data, num) = re.subn(pattern, new_cert16, data, flags=re.IGNORECASE)
if OPTIONS.verbose:
print " Replaced %d occurence(s) of %s.x509.pem with " \
"%s.x509.pem" % (num, old, new)
except IOError as e:
if e.errno == errno.ENOENT and not OPTIONS.verbose:
print " Error accessing %s. %s. Skip replacing %s.x509.pem " \
"with %s.x509.pem." % (e.filename, e.strerror, old, new)
return data
def EditTags(tags):
"""Given a string containing comma-separated tags, apply the edits
specified in OPTIONS.tag_changes and return the updated string."""
tags = set(tags.split(","))
for ch in OPTIONS.tag_changes:
if ch[0] == "-":
elif ch[0] == "+":
return ",".join(sorted(tags))
def RewriteProps(data, misc_info):
output = []
for line in data.split("\n"):
line = line.strip()
original_line = line
if line and line[0] != '#' and "=" in line:
key, value = line.split("=", 1)
if (key in ("", "")
and misc_info.get("oem_fingerprint_properties") is None):
pieces = value.split("/")
pieces[-1] = EditTags(pieces[-1])
value = "/".join(pieces)
elif (key in ("", "")
and misc_info.get("oem_fingerprint_properties") is not None):
pieces = value.split("/")
pieces[-1] = EditTags(pieces[-1])
value = "/".join(pieces)
elif key == "":
pieces = value.split("/")
pieces[-1] = EditTags(pieces[-1])
value = "/".join(pieces)
elif key == "":
pieces = value.split(" ")
assert len(pieces) == 5
pieces[-1] = EditTags(pieces[-1])
value = " ".join(pieces)
elif key == "":
value = EditTags(value)
elif key == "":
# change, eg, "JWR66N dev-keys" to "JWR66N"
value = value.split()
if len(value) > 1 and value[-1].endswith("-keys"):
value = " ".join(value)
line = key + "=" + value
if line != original_line:
print " replace: ", original_line
print " with: ", line
return "\n".join(output) + "\n"
def ReplaceOtaKeys(input_tf_zip, output_tf_zip, misc_info):
keylist ="META/otakeys.txt").split()
except KeyError:
raise common.ExternalError("can't read META/otakeys.txt from input")
extra_recovery_keys = misc_info.get("extra_recovery_keys", None)
if extra_recovery_keys:
extra_recovery_keys = [OPTIONS.key_map.get(k, k) + ".x509.pem"
for k in extra_recovery_keys.split()]
if extra_recovery_keys:
print "extra recovery-only key(s): " + ", ".join(extra_recovery_keys)
extra_recovery_keys = []
mapped_keys = []
for k in keylist:
m = re.match(r"^(.*)\.x509\.pem$", k)
if not m:
raise common.ExternalError(
"can't parse \"%s\" from META/otakeys.txt" % (k,))
k =
mapped_keys.append(OPTIONS.key_map.get(k, k) + ".x509.pem")
if mapped_keys:
print "using:\n ", "\n ".join(mapped_keys)
print "for OTA package verification"
devkey = misc_info.get("default_system_dev_certificate",
OPTIONS.key_map.get(devkey, devkey) + ".x509.pem")
print("META/otakeys.txt has no keys; using %s for OTA package"
" verification." % (mapped_keys[0],))
# recovery uses a version of the key that has been slightly
# predigested (by and put in res/keys.
# extra_recovery_keys are used only in recovery.
p = common.Run(["java", "-jar",
os.path.join(OPTIONS.search_path, "framework", "dumpkey.jar")]
+ mapped_keys + extra_recovery_keys,
new_recovery_keys, _ = p.communicate()
if p.returncode != 0:
raise common.ExternalError("failed to run dumpkeys")
# system_root_image puts the recovery keys at BOOT/RAMDISK.
if misc_info.get("system_root_image") == "true":
recovery_keys_location = "BOOT/RAMDISK/res/keys"
recovery_keys_location = "RECOVERY/RAMDISK/res/keys"
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, recovery_keys_location, new_recovery_keys)
# SystemUpdateActivity uses the x509.pem version of the keys, but
# put into a zipfile system/etc/security/
# We DO NOT include the extra_recovery_keys (if any) here.
temp_file = cStringIO.StringIO()
certs_zip = zipfile.ZipFile(temp_file, "w")
for k in mapped_keys:
common.ZipWrite(certs_zip, k)
common.ZipWriteStr(output_tf_zip, "SYSTEM/etc/security/",
# For A/B devices, update the payload verification key.
if misc_info.get("ab_update") == "true":
# Unlike that may contain multiple keys, we can only specify
# ONE payload verification key.
if len(mapped_keys) > 1:
print("\n WARNING: Found more than one OTA keys; Using the first one"
" as payload verification key.\n\n")
print "Using %s for payload verification." % (mapped_keys[0],)
cmd = common.Run(
["openssl", "x509", "-pubkey", "-noout", "-in", mapped_keys[0]],
pubkey, _ = cmd.communicate()
return new_recovery_keys
def ReplaceVerityPublicKey(targetfile_zip, filename, key_path):
print "Replacing verity public key with %s" % key_path
with open(key_path) as f:
data =
common.ZipWriteStr(targetfile_zip, filename, data)
return data
def ReplaceVerityPrivateKey(targetfile_input_zip, targetfile_output_zip,
misc_info, key_path):
print "Replacing verity private key with %s" % key_path
current_key = misc_info["verity_key"]
original_misc_info ="META/misc_info.txt")
new_misc_info = original_misc_info.replace(current_key, key_path)
common.ZipWriteStr(targetfile_output_zip, "META/misc_info.txt", new_misc_info)
misc_info["verity_key"] = key_path
def ReplaceVerityKeyId(targetfile_input_zip, targetfile_output_zip, keypath):
in_cmdline ="BOOT/cmdline")
# copy in_cmdline to output_zip if veritykeyid is not present in in_cmdline
if "veritykeyid" not in in_cmdline:
common.ZipWriteStr(targetfile_output_zip, "BOOT/cmdline", in_cmdline)
return in_cmdline
out_cmdline = []
for param in in_cmdline.split():
if "veritykeyid" in param:
# extract keyid using openssl command
p = common.Run(["openssl", "x509", "-in", keypath, "-text"], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
keyid, stderr = p.communicate()
keyid ='keyid:([0-9a-fA-F:]*)', keyid).group(1).replace(':', '').lower()
print "Replacing verity keyid with %s error=%s" % (keyid, stderr)
out_cmdline.append("veritykeyid=id:%s" % (keyid,))
out_cmdline = ' '.join(out_cmdline)
out_cmdline = out_cmdline.strip()
print "out_cmdline %s" % (out_cmdline)
common.ZipWriteStr(targetfile_output_zip, "BOOT/cmdline", out_cmdline)
return out_cmdline
def BuildKeyMap(misc_info, key_mapping_options):
for s, d in key_mapping_options:
if s is None: # -d option
devkey = misc_info.get("default_system_dev_certificate",
devkeydir = os.path.dirname(devkey)
devkeydir + "/testkey": d + "/releasekey",
devkeydir + "/devkey": d + "/releasekey",
devkeydir + "/media": d + "/media",
devkeydir + "/shared": d + "/shared",
devkeydir + "/platform": d + "/platform",
OPTIONS.key_map[s] = d
def GetApiLevelAndCodename(input_tf_zip):
data ="SYSTEM/build.prop")
api_level = None
codename = None
for line in data.split("\n"):
line = line.strip()
original_line = line
if line and line[0] != '#' and "=" in line:
key, value = line.split("=", 1)
key = key.strip()
if key == "":
api_level = int(value.strip())
elif key == "":
codename = value.strip()
if api_level is None:
raise ValueError("No in SYSTEM/build.prop")
if codename is None:
raise ValueError("No in SYSTEM/build.prop")
return (api_level, codename)
def GetCodenameToApiLevelMap(input_tf_zip):
data ="SYSTEM/build.prop")
api_level = None
codenames = None
for line in data.split("\n"):
line = line.strip()
original_line = line
if line and line[0] != '#' and "=" in line:
key, value = line.split("=", 1)
key = key.strip()
if key == "":
api_level = int(value.strip())
elif key == "":
codenames = value.strip().split(",")
if api_level is None:
raise ValueError("No in SYSTEM/build.prop")
if codenames is None:
raise ValueError("No in SYSTEM/build.prop")
result = dict()
for codename in codenames:
codename = codename.strip()
if len(codename) > 0:
result[codename] = api_level
return result
def main(argv):
key_mapping_options = []
def option_handler(o, a):
if o in ("-e", "--extra_apks"):
names, key = a.split("=")
names = names.split(",")
for n in names:
OPTIONS.extra_apks[n] = key
elif o in ("-d", "--default_key_mappings"):
key_mapping_options.append((None, a))
elif o in ("-k", "--key_mapping"):
key_mapping_options.append(a.split("=", 1))
elif o in ("-o", "--replace_ota_keys"):
OPTIONS.replace_ota_keys = True
elif o in ("-t", "--tag_changes"):
new = []
for i in a.split(","):
i = i.strip()
if not i or i[0] not in "-+":
raise ValueError("Bad tag change '%s'" % (i,))
new.append(i[0] + i[1:].strip())
OPTIONS.tag_changes = tuple(new)
elif o == "--replace_verity_public_key":
OPTIONS.replace_verity_public_key = (True, a)
elif o == "--replace_verity_private_key":
OPTIONS.replace_verity_private_key = (True, a)
elif o == "--replace_verity_keyid":
OPTIONS.replace_verity_keyid = (True, a)
return False
return True
args = common.ParseOptions(argv, __doc__,
if len(args) != 2:
input_zip = zipfile.ZipFile(args[0], "r")
output_zip = zipfile.ZipFile(args[1], "w")
misc_info = common.LoadInfoDict(input_zip)
BuildKeyMap(misc_info, key_mapping_options)
apk_key_map = GetApkCerts(input_zip)
CheckAllApksSigned(input_zip, apk_key_map)
key_passwords = common.GetKeyPasswords(set(apk_key_map.values()))
platform_api_level, platform_codename = GetApiLevelAndCodename(input_zip)
codename_to_api_level_map = GetCodenameToApiLevelMap(input_zip)
# Android N will be API Level 24, but isn't yet.
# TODO: Remove this workaround once Android N is officially API Level 24.
if platform_api_level == 23 and platform_codename == "N":
platform_api_level = 24
ProcessTargetFiles(input_zip, output_zip, misc_info,
apk_key_map, key_passwords,
print "done."
if __name__ == '__main__':
except common.ExternalError, e:
print " ERROR: %s" % (e,)