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// Copyright 2011 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.
#include <pthread.h>
#include <iosfwd>
#include <list>
#include "dex_file.h"
#include "globals.h"
#include "jni_internal.h"
#include "logging.h"
#include "macros.h"
#include "mem_map.h"
#include "offsets.h"
namespace art {
class Array;
class Class;
class ClassLinker;
class ClassLoader;
class Method;
class Object;
class Runtime;
class Thread;
class ThreadList;
class Throwable;
class StackTraceElement;
template<class T> class ObjectArray;
template<class T> class PrimitiveArray;
typedef PrimitiveArray<int32_t> IntArray;
class Mutex {
virtual ~Mutex() {}
void Lock();
bool TryLock();
void Unlock();
const char* GetName() { return name_; }
Thread* GetOwner() { return owner_; }
static Mutex* Create(const char* name);
// TODO: only needed because we lack a condition variable abstraction.
pthread_mutex_t* GetImpl() { return &lock_impl_; }
explicit Mutex(const char* name) : name_(name), owner_(NULL) {}
void SetOwner(Thread* thread) { owner_ = thread; }
const char* name_;
Thread* owner_;
pthread_mutex_t lock_impl_;
class MutexLock {
explicit MutexLock(Mutex *mu) : mu_(mu) {
~MutexLock() { mu_->Unlock(); }
Mutex* const mu_;
// Stack allocated indirect reference table, allocated within the bridge frame
// between managed and native code.
class StackIndirectReferenceTable {
// Number of references contained within this SIRT
size_t NumberOfReferences() {
return number_of_references_;
// Link to previous SIRT or NULL
StackIndirectReferenceTable* Link() {
return link_;
Object** References() {
return references_;
// Offset of length within SIRT, used by generated code
static size_t NumberOfReferencesOffset() {
return OFFSETOF_MEMBER(StackIndirectReferenceTable, number_of_references_);
// Offset of link within SIRT, used by generated code
static size_t LinkOffset() {
return OFFSETOF_MEMBER(StackIndirectReferenceTable, link_);
StackIndirectReferenceTable() {}
size_t number_of_references_;
StackIndirectReferenceTable* link_;
// Fake array, really allocated and filled in by jni_compiler.
Object* references_[0];
struct NativeToManagedRecord {
NativeToManagedRecord* link;
void* last_top_of_managed_stack;
// Iterator over managed frames up to the first native-to-managed transition
class Frame {
Frame() : sp_(NULL) {}
Method* GetMethod() const {
return (sp_ != NULL) ? *sp_ : NULL;
bool HasNext() const {
return NextMethod() != NULL;
void Next();
uintptr_t GetPC() const;
Method** GetSP() const {
return sp_;
// TODO: this is here for testing, remove when we have exception unit tests
// that use the real stack
void SetSP(Method** sp) {
sp_ = sp;
Method* NextMethod() const;
friend class Thread;
Method** sp_;
class Thread {
enum State {
kUnknown = -1,
static const size_t kDefaultStackSize = 64 * KB;
// Runtime support function pointers
void* (*pMemcpy)(void*, const void*, size_t);
uint64_t (*pShlLong)(uint64_t, uint32_t);
uint64_t (*pShrLong)(uint64_t, uint32_t);
uint64_t (*pUshrLong)(uint64_t, uint32_t);
float (*pI2f)(int);
int (*pF2iz)(float);
float (*pD2f)(double);
double (*pF2d)(float);
double (*pI2d)(int);
int (*pD2iz)(double);
float (*pL2f)(long);
double (*pL2d)(long);
long long (*pF2l)(float);
long long (*pD2l)(double);
float (*pFadd)(float, float);
float (*pFsub)(float, float);
float (*pFdiv)(float, float);
float (*pFmul)(float, float);
float (*pFmodf)(float, float);
double (*pDadd)(double, double);
double (*pDsub)(double, double);
double (*pDdiv)(double, double);
double (*pDmul)(double, double);
double (*pFmod)(double, double);
int (*pIdivmod)(int, int);
int (*pIdiv)(int, int);
long long (*pLmul)(long long, long long);
long long (*pLdivmod)(long long, long long);
Array* (*pAllocFromCode)(uint32_t, Method*, int32_t);
Object* (*pAllocObjectFromCode)(uint32_t, Method*);
uint32_t (*pGet32Static)(uint32_t, const Method*);
void (*pSet32Static)(uint32_t, const Method*, uint32_t);
uint64_t (*pGet64Static)(uint32_t, const Method*);
void (*pSet64Static)(uint32_t, const Method*, uint64_t);
Object* (*pGetObjStatic)(uint32_t, const Method*);
void (*pSetObjStatic)(uint32_t, const Method*, Object*);
bool (*pCanPutArrayElementFromCode)(const Class*, const Class*);
int (*pInstanceofNonTrivialFromCode) (const Class*, const Class*);
Method* (*pFindInterfaceMethodInCache)(Class*, uint32_t, const Method*, struct DvmDex*);
bool (*pUnlockObjectFromCode)(Thread*, Object*);
void (*pLockObjectFromCode)(Thread*, Object*);
void (*pThrowException)(Thread*, Throwable*);
void (*pHandleFillArrayDataFromCode)(Array*, const uint16_t*);
Class* (*pInitializeTypeFromCode)(uint32_t, Method*);
void (*pResolveMethodFromCode)(Method*, uint32_t);
class StackVisitor {
virtual ~StackVisitor() {}
virtual bool VisitFrame(const Frame& frame) = 0;
// Creates a new thread.
static Thread* Create(const Runtime* runtime);
// Creates a new thread from the calling thread.
static Thread* Attach(const Runtime* runtime);
static Thread* Current() {
void* thread = pthread_getspecific(Thread::pthread_key_self_);
return reinterpret_cast<Thread*>(thread);
void Dump(std::ostream& os) const;
State GetState() const {
return state_;
State SetState(State new_state) {
State old_state = state_;
state_ = new_state;
return old_state;
bool CanAccessDirectReferences() const {
return state_ == kRunnable;
uint32_t GetId() const {
return id_;
pid_t GetTid() const {
return tid_;
pthread_t GetImpl() const {
return handle_;
// Returns the Method* for the current method.
// This is used by the JNI implementation for logging and diagnostic purposes.
const Method* GetCurrentMethod() const {
return top_of_managed_stack_.GetMethod();
bool IsExceptionPending() const {
return exception_ != NULL;
Throwable* GetException() const {
return exception_;
void SetException(Throwable* new_exception) {
CHECK(new_exception != NULL);
// TODO: CHECK(exception_ == NULL);
exception_ = new_exception; // TODO
void ClearException() {
exception_ = NULL;
Frame GetTopOfStack() const {
return top_of_managed_stack_;
// TODO: this is here for testing, remove when we have exception unit tests
// that use the real stack
void SetTopOfStack(void* stack) {
void ThrowNewException(const char* exception_class_descriptor, const char* fmt, ...)
__attribute__ ((format(printf, 3, 4)));
// This exception is special, because we need to pre-allocate an instance.
void ThrowOutOfMemoryError();
Frame FindExceptionHandler(void* throw_pc, void** handler_pc);
void* FindExceptionHandlerInMethod(const Method* method,
void* throw_pc,
const DexFile& dex_file,
ClassLinker* class_linker);
// Offset of exception within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset ExceptionOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, exception_));
// Offset of id within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset IdOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, id_));
// Offset of card_table within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset CardTableOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, card_table_));
void SetName(const char* name);
void Suspend();
bool IsSuspended();
void Resume();
static bool Startup();
static void Shutdown();
static ThreadOffset SuspendCountOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, suspend_count_));
// Offset of state within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset StateOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, state_));
// JNI methods
JNIEnvExt* GetJniEnv() const {
return jni_env_;
// Offset of JNI environment within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset JniEnvOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, jni_env_));
// Offset of top of managed stack address, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset TopOfManagedStackOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, top_of_managed_stack_) +
// Offset of top stack indirect reference table within Thread, used by
// generated code
static ThreadOffset TopSirtOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, top_sirt_));
// Number of references allocated in SIRTs on this thread
size_t NumSirtReferences();
// Is the given obj in this thread's stack indirect reference table?
bool SirtContains(jobject obj);
// Convert a jobject into a Object*
Object* DecodeJObject(jobject obj);
// Offset of exception_entry_point_ within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset ExceptionEntryPointOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, exception_entry_point_));
void RegisterExceptionEntryPoint(void (*handler)(Method**)) {
exception_entry_point_ = handler;
// Offset of suspend_count_entry_point_ within Thread, used by generated code
static ThreadOffset SuspendCountEntryPointOffset() {
return ThreadOffset(OFFSETOF_MEMBER(Thread, suspend_count_entry_point_));
void RegisterSuspendCountEntryPoint(void (*handler)(Method**)) {
suspend_count_entry_point_ = handler;
// Increasing the suspend count, will cause the thread to run to safepoint
void IncrementSuspendCount() { suspend_count_++; }
void DecrementSuspendCount() { suspend_count_--; }
// Linked list recording transitions from native to managed code
void PushNativeToManagedRecord(NativeToManagedRecord* record) {
record->last_top_of_managed_stack = reinterpret_cast<void*>(top_of_managed_stack_.GetSP());
record->link = native_to_managed_record_;
native_to_managed_record_ = record;
void PopNativeToManagedRecord(const NativeToManagedRecord& record) {
native_to_managed_record_ =;
const ClassLoader* GetClassLoaderOverride() {
// TODO: need to place the class_loader_override_ in a handle
// DCHECK(CanAccessDirectReferences());
return class_loader_override_;
void SetClassLoaderOverride(const ClassLoader* class_loader_override) {
class_loader_override_ = class_loader_override;
// Allocate stack trace
ObjectArray<StackTraceElement>* AllocStackTrace();
void VisitRoots(Heap::RootVisitor* visitor, void* arg) const;
: id_(1234),
class_loader_override_(NULL) {
friend class Runtime; // For ~Thread.
void DumpState(std::ostream& os) const;
void DumpStack(std::ostream& os) const;
void InitCpu();
void InitFunctionPointers();
void WalkStack(StackVisitor* visitor);
// Managed thread id.
uint32_t id_;
// System thread id.
pid_t tid_;
// Native thread handle.
pthread_t handle_;
// FIXME: placeholder for the gc cardTable
uint32_t card_table_;
// Top of the managed stack, written out prior to the state transition from
// kRunnable to kNative. Uses include to give the starting point for scanning
// a managed stack when a thread is in native code.
Frame top_of_managed_stack_;
// A linked list (of stack allocated records) recording transitions from
// native to managed code.
NativeToManagedRecord* native_to_managed_record_;
// Top of linked list of stack indirect reference tables or NULL for none
StackIndirectReferenceTable* top_sirt_;
// Every thread may have an associated JNI environment
JNIEnvExt* jni_env_;
State state_;
// Initialized to "this". On certain architectures (such as x86) reading
// off of Thread::Current is easy but getting the address of Thread::Current
// is hard. This field can be read off of Thread::Current to give the address.
Thread* self_;
Runtime* runtime_;
// The pending exception or NULL.
Throwable* exception_;
// A non-zero value is used to tell the current thread to enter a safe point
// at the next poll.
int suspend_count_;
// Needed to get the right ClassLoader in JNI_OnLoad, but also
// useful for testing.
const ClassLoader* class_loader_override_;
// TLS key used to retrieve the VM thread object.
static pthread_key_t pthread_key_self_;
// Entry point called when exception_ is set
void (*exception_entry_point_)(Method** frame);
// Entry point called when suspend_count_ is non-zero
void (*suspend_count_entry_point_)(Method** frame);
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& os, const Thread& thread);
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& os, const Thread::State& state);
class ThreadList {
static const int kMaxId = 0xFFFF;
static const int kInvalidId = 0;
static const int kMainId = 1;
static ThreadList* Create();
void Dump(std::ostream& os);
void Register(Thread* thread);
void Unregister(Thread* thread);
bool Contains(Thread* thread);
void Lock() {
void Unlock() {
void VisitRoots(Heap::RootVisitor* visitor, void* arg) const;
std::list<Thread*> list_;
Mutex* lock_;
class ThreadListLock {
ThreadListLock(ThreadList* thread_list, Thread* current_thread)
: thread_list_(thread_list) {
if (current_thread == NULL) { // try to get it from TLS
current_thread = Thread::Current();
Thread::State old_state;
if (current_thread != NULL) {
old_state = current_thread->SetState(Thread::kWaiting); // TODO: VMWAIT
} else {
// happens during VM shutdown
old_state = Thread::kUnknown; // TODO: something else
if (current_thread != NULL) {
~ThreadListLock() {
ThreadList* thread_list_;
class ScopedThreadStateChange {
ScopedThreadStateChange(Thread* thread, Thread::State new_state) : thread_(thread) {
old_thread_state_ = thread_->SetState(new_state);
~ScopedThreadStateChange() {
Thread* thread_;
Thread::State old_thread_state_;
} // namespace art
#endif // ART_SRC_THREAD_H_