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* Copyright (C) 2011 The Android Open Source Project
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
#include <stdint.h>
#include <cstddef>
#include <memory>
#include <vector>
#include "base/array_ref.h"
#include "base/dchecked_vector.h"
#include "base/os.h"
#include "base/safe_map.h"
#include "compiler.h"
#include "debug/debug_info.h"
#include "dex/compact_dex_level.h"
#include "dex/method_reference.h"
#include "dex/string_reference.h"
#include "dex/type_reference.h"
#include "linker/relative_patcher.h" // For RelativePatcherTargetProvider.
#include "mem_map.h"
#include "mirror/class.h"
#include "oat.h"
namespace art {
class BitVector;
class CompiledMethod;
class CompilerDriver;
class DexContainer;
class ProfileCompilationInfo;
class TimingLogger;
class TypeLookupTable;
class VdexFile;
class ZipEntry;
namespace debug {
struct MethodDebugInfo;
} // namespace debug
namespace verifier {
class VerifierDeps;
} // namespace verifier
namespace linker {
class ImageWriter;
class MultiOatRelativePatcher;
class OutputStream;
// OatHeader variable length with count of D OatDexFiles
// TypeLookupTable[0] one descriptor to class def index hash table for each OatDexFile.
// TypeLookupTable[1]
// ...
// TypeLookupTable[D]
// ClassOffsets[0] one table of OatClass offsets for each class def for each OatDexFile.
// ClassOffsets[1]
// ...
// ClassOffsets[D]
// OatClass[0] one variable sized OatClass for each of C DexFile::ClassDefs
// OatClass[1] contains OatClass entries with class status, offsets to code, etc.
// ...
// OatClass[C]
// MethodBssMapping one variable sized MethodBssMapping for each dex file, optional.
// MethodBssMapping
// ...
// MethodBssMapping
// VmapTable one variable sized VmapTable blob (CodeInfo or QuickeningInfo).
// VmapTable VmapTables are deduplicated.
// ...
// VmapTable
// MethodInfo one variable sized blob with MethodInfo.
// MethodInfo MethodInfos are deduplicated.
// ...
// MethodInfo
// OatDexFile[0] one variable sized OatDexFile with offsets to Dex and OatClasses
// OatDexFile[1]
// ...
// OatDexFile[D]
// padding if necessary so that the following code will be page aligned
// OatMethodHeader fixed size header for a CompiledMethod including the size of the MethodCode.
// MethodCode one variable sized blob with the code of a CompiledMethod.
// OatMethodHeader (OatMethodHeader, MethodCode) pairs are deduplicated.
// MethodCode
// ...
// OatMethodHeader
// MethodCode
class OatWriter {
enum class CreateTypeLookupTable {
kDefault = kCreate
OatWriter(bool compiling_boot_image,
TimingLogger* timings,
ProfileCompilationInfo* info,
CompactDexLevel compact_dex_level);
// To produce a valid oat file, the user must first add sources with any combination of
// - AddDexFileSource(),
// - AddZippedDexFilesSource(),
// - AddRawDexFileSource(),
// - AddVdexDexFilesSource().
// Then the user must call in order
// - WriteAndOpenDexFiles()
// - Initialize()
// - WriteVerifierDeps()
// - WriteQuickeningInfo()
// - WriteChecksumsAndVdexHeader()
// - PrepareLayout(),
// - WriteRodata(),
// - WriteCode(),
// - WriteHeader().
// Add dex file source(s) from a file, either a plain dex file or
// a zip file with one or more dex files.
bool AddDexFileSource(
const char* filename,
const char* location,
CreateTypeLookupTable create_type_lookup_table = CreateTypeLookupTable::kDefault);
// Add dex file source(s) from a zip file specified by a file handle.
bool AddZippedDexFilesSource(
File&& zip_fd,
const char* location,
CreateTypeLookupTable create_type_lookup_table = CreateTypeLookupTable::kDefault);
// Add dex file source from raw memory.
bool AddRawDexFileSource(
const ArrayRef<const uint8_t>& data,
const char* location,
uint32_t location_checksum,
CreateTypeLookupTable create_type_lookup_table = CreateTypeLookupTable::kDefault);
// Add dex file source(s) from a vdex file.
bool AddVdexDexFilesSource(
const VdexFile& vdex_file,
const char* location,
CreateTypeLookupTable create_type_lookup_table = CreateTypeLookupTable::kDefault);
dchecked_vector<std::string> GetSourceLocations() const;
// Write raw dex files to the vdex file, mmap the file and open the dex files from it.
// Supporting data structures are written into the .rodata section of the oat file.
// The `verify` setting dictates whether the dex file verifier should check the dex files.
// This is generally the case, and should only be false for tests.
// If `update_input_vdex` is true, then this method won't actually write the dex files,
// and the compiler will just re-use the existing vdex file.
bool WriteAndOpenDexFiles(File* vdex_file,
OutputStream* oat_rodata,
InstructionSet instruction_set,
const InstructionSetFeatures* instruction_set_features,
SafeMap<std::string, std::string>* key_value_store,
bool verify,
bool update_input_vdex,
CopyOption copy_dex_files,
/*out*/ std::vector<std::unique_ptr<MemMap>>* opened_dex_files_map,
/*out*/ std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>>* opened_dex_files);
bool WriteQuickeningInfo(OutputStream* vdex_out);
bool WriteVerifierDeps(OutputStream* vdex_out, verifier::VerifierDeps* verifier_deps);
bool WriteChecksumsAndVdexHeader(OutputStream* vdex_out);
// Initialize the writer with the given parameters.
void Initialize(const CompilerDriver* compiler,
ImageWriter* image_writer,
const std::vector<const DexFile*>& dex_files) {
compiler_driver_ = compiler;
image_writer_ = image_writer;
dex_files_ = &dex_files;
// Prepare layout of remaining data.
void PrepareLayout(MultiOatRelativePatcher* relative_patcher);
// Write the rest of .rodata section (ClassOffsets[], OatClass[], maps).
bool WriteRodata(OutputStream* out);
// Write the code to the .text section.
bool WriteCode(OutputStream* out);
// Write the oat header. This finalizes the oat file.
bool WriteHeader(OutputStream* out,
uint32_t image_file_location_oat_checksum,
uintptr_t image_file_location_oat_begin,
int32_t image_patch_delta);
// Returns whether the oat file has an associated image.
bool HasImage() const {
// Since the image is being created at the same time as the oat file,
// check if there's an image writer.
return image_writer_ != nullptr;
bool HasBootImage() const {
return compiling_boot_image_;
const OatHeader& GetOatHeader() const {
return *oat_header_;
size_t GetOatSize() const {
return oat_size_;
size_t GetBssSize() const {
return bss_size_;
size_t GetBssMethodsOffset() const {
return bss_methods_offset_;
size_t GetBssRootsOffset() const {
return bss_roots_offset_;
size_t GetVdexSize() const {
return vdex_size_;
size_t GetOatDataOffset() const {
return oat_data_offset_;
debug::DebugInfo GetDebugInfo() const;
const CompilerDriver* GetCompilerDriver() const {
return compiler_driver_;
class DexFileSource;
class OatClassHeader;
class OatClass;
class OatDexFile;
// The function VisitDexMethods() below iterates through all the methods in all
// the compiled dex files in order of their definitions. The method visitor
// classes provide individual bits of processing for each of the passes we need to
// first collect the data we want to write to the oat file and then, in later passes,
// to actually write it.
class DexMethodVisitor;
class OatDexMethodVisitor;
class InitBssLayoutMethodVisitor;
class InitOatClassesMethodVisitor;
class LayoutCodeMethodVisitor;
class LayoutReserveOffsetCodeMethodVisitor;
struct OrderedMethodData;
class OrderedMethodVisitor;
class InitCodeMethodVisitor;
class InitMapMethodVisitor;
class InitMethodInfoVisitor;
class InitImageMethodVisitor;
class WriteCodeMethodVisitor;
class WriteMapMethodVisitor;
class WriteMethodInfoVisitor;
class WriteQuickeningInfoMethodVisitor;
class WriteQuickeningInfoOffsetsMethodVisitor;
// Visit all the methods in all the compiled dex files in their definition order
// with a given DexMethodVisitor.
bool VisitDexMethods(DexMethodVisitor* visitor);
// If `update_input_vdex` is true, then this method won't actually write the dex files,
// and the compiler will just re-use the existing vdex file.
bool WriteDexFiles(OutputStream* out,
File* file,
bool update_input_vdex,
CopyOption copy_dex_files);
bool WriteDexFile(OutputStream* out,
File* file,
OatDexFile* oat_dex_file,
bool update_input_vdex);
bool SeekToDexFile(OutputStream* out, File* file, OatDexFile* oat_dex_file);
bool LayoutAndWriteDexFile(OutputStream* out, OatDexFile* oat_dex_file);
bool WriteDexFile(OutputStream* out,
File* file,
OatDexFile* oat_dex_file,
ZipEntry* dex_file);
bool WriteDexFile(OutputStream* out,
File* file,
OatDexFile* oat_dex_file,
File* dex_file);
bool WriteDexFile(OutputStream* out,
OatDexFile* oat_dex_file,
const uint8_t* dex_file,
bool update_input_vdex);
bool OpenDexFiles(File* file,
bool verify,
/*out*/ std::vector<std::unique_ptr<MemMap>>* opened_dex_files_map,
/*out*/ std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>>* opened_dex_files);
size_t InitOatHeader(InstructionSet instruction_set,
const InstructionSetFeatures* instruction_set_features,
uint32_t num_dex_files,
SafeMap<std::string, std::string>* key_value_store);
size_t InitClassOffsets(size_t offset);
size_t InitOatClasses(size_t offset);
size_t InitOatMaps(size_t offset);
size_t InitIndexBssMappings(size_t offset);
size_t InitOatDexFiles(size_t offset);
size_t InitOatCode(size_t offset);
size_t InitOatCodeDexFiles(size_t offset);
void InitBssLayout(InstructionSet instruction_set);
size_t WriteClassOffsets(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
size_t WriteClasses(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
size_t WriteMaps(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
size_t WriteIndexBssMappings(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
size_t WriteOatDexFiles(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
size_t WriteCode(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
size_t WriteCodeDexFiles(OutputStream* out, size_t file_offset, size_t relative_offset);
bool RecordOatDataOffset(OutputStream* out);
bool WriteTypeLookupTables(OutputStream* oat_rodata,
const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>>& opened_dex_files);
bool WriteDexLayoutSections(OutputStream* oat_rodata,
const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>>& opened_dex_files);
bool WriteCodeAlignment(OutputStream* out, uint32_t aligned_code_delta);
bool WriteUpTo16BytesAlignment(OutputStream* out, uint32_t size, uint32_t* stat);
void SetMultiOatRelativePatcherAdjustment();
void CloseSources();
bool MayHaveCompiledMethods() const;
bool VdexWillContainDexFiles() const {
return dex_files_ != nullptr && extract_dex_files_into_vdex_;
// Find the address of the GcRoot<String> in the InternTable for a boot image string.
const uint8_t* LookupBootImageInternTableSlot(const DexFile& dex_file,
dex::StringIndex string_idx);
// Find the address of the ClassTable::TableSlot for a boot image class.
const uint8_t* LookupBootImageClassTableSlot(const DexFile& dex_file, dex::TypeIndex type_idx);
enum class WriteState {
WriteState write_state_;
TimingLogger* timings_;
std::vector<std::unique_ptr<File>> raw_dex_files_;
std::vector<std::unique_ptr<ZipArchive>> zip_archives_;
std::vector<std::unique_ptr<ZipEntry>> zipped_dex_files_;
// Using std::list<> which doesn't move elements around on push/emplace_back().
// We need this because we keep plain pointers to the strings' c_str().
std::list<std::string> zipped_dex_file_locations_;
dchecked_vector<debug::MethodDebugInfo> method_info_;
const CompilerDriver* compiler_driver_;
ImageWriter* image_writer_;
const bool compiling_boot_image_;
// Whether the dex files being compiled are going to be extracted to the vdex.
bool extract_dex_files_into_vdex_;
// note OatFile does not take ownership of the DexFiles
const std::vector<const DexFile*>* dex_files_;
// Size required for Vdex data structures.
size_t vdex_size_;
// Offset of section holding Dex files inside Vdex.
size_t vdex_dex_files_offset_;
// Offset of section holding shared dex data section in the Vdex.
size_t vdex_dex_shared_data_offset_;
// Offset of section holding VerifierDeps inside Vdex.
size_t vdex_verifier_deps_offset_;
// Offset of section holding quickening info inside Vdex.
size_t vdex_quickening_info_offset_;
// Size required for Oat data structures.
size_t oat_size_;
// The start of the required .bss section.
size_t bss_start_;
// The size of the required .bss section holding the DexCache data and GC roots.
size_t bss_size_;
// The offset of the methods in .bss section.
size_t bss_methods_offset_;
// The offset of the GC roots in .bss section.
size_t bss_roots_offset_;
// Map for recording references to ArtMethod entries in .bss.
SafeMap<const DexFile*, BitVector> bss_method_entry_references_;
// Map for recording references to GcRoot<mirror::Class> entries in .bss.
SafeMap<const DexFile*, BitVector> bss_type_entry_references_;
// Map for recording references to GcRoot<mirror::String> entries in .bss.
SafeMap<const DexFile*, BitVector> bss_string_entry_references_;
// Map for allocating ArtMethod entries in .bss. Indexed by MethodReference for the target
// method in the dex file with the "method reference value comparator" for deduplication.
// The value is the target offset for patching, starting at `bss_start_ + bss_methods_offset_`.
SafeMap<MethodReference, size_t, MethodReferenceValueComparator> bss_method_entries_;
// Map for allocating Class entries in .bss. Indexed by TypeReference for the source
// type in the dex file with the "type value comparator" for deduplication. The value
// is the target offset for patching, starting at `bss_start_ + bss_roots_offset_`.
SafeMap<TypeReference, size_t, TypeReferenceValueComparator> bss_type_entries_;
// Map for allocating String entries in .bss. Indexed by StringReference for the source
// string in the dex file with the "string value comparator" for deduplication. The value
// is the target offset for patching, starting at `bss_start_ + bss_roots_offset_`.
SafeMap<StringReference, size_t, StringReferenceValueComparator> bss_string_entries_;
// Whether boot image tables should be mapped to the .bss. This is needed for compiled
// code that reads from these tables with PC-relative instructions.
bool map_boot_image_tables_to_bss_;
// Offset of the oat data from the start of the mmapped region of the elf file.
size_t oat_data_offset_;
// Fake OatDexFiles to hold type lookup tables for the compiler.
std::vector<std::unique_ptr<art::OatDexFile>> type_lookup_table_oat_dex_files_;
// data to write
std::unique_ptr<OatHeader> oat_header_;
dchecked_vector<OatDexFile> oat_dex_files_;
dchecked_vector<OatClassHeader> oat_class_headers_;
dchecked_vector<OatClass> oat_classes_;
std::unique_ptr<const std::vector<uint8_t>> jni_dlsym_lookup_;
std::unique_ptr<const std::vector<uint8_t>> quick_generic_jni_trampoline_;
std::unique_ptr<const std::vector<uint8_t>> quick_imt_conflict_trampoline_;
std::unique_ptr<const std::vector<uint8_t>> quick_resolution_trampoline_;
std::unique_ptr<const std::vector<uint8_t>> quick_to_interpreter_bridge_;
// output stats
uint32_t size_vdex_header_;
uint32_t size_vdex_checksums_;
uint32_t size_dex_file_alignment_;
uint32_t size_executable_offset_alignment_;
uint32_t size_oat_header_;
uint32_t size_oat_header_key_value_store_;
uint32_t size_dex_file_;
uint32_t size_verifier_deps_;
uint32_t size_verifier_deps_alignment_;
uint32_t size_quickening_info_;
uint32_t size_quickening_info_alignment_;
uint32_t size_interpreter_to_interpreter_bridge_;
uint32_t size_interpreter_to_compiled_code_bridge_;
uint32_t size_jni_dlsym_lookup_;
uint32_t size_quick_generic_jni_trampoline_;
uint32_t size_quick_imt_conflict_trampoline_;
uint32_t size_quick_resolution_trampoline_;
uint32_t size_quick_to_interpreter_bridge_;
uint32_t size_trampoline_alignment_;
uint32_t size_method_header_;
uint32_t size_code_;
uint32_t size_code_alignment_;
uint32_t size_relative_call_thunks_;
uint32_t size_misc_thunks_;
uint32_t size_vmap_table_;
uint32_t size_method_info_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_location_size_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_location_data_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_location_checksum_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_class_offsets_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_lookup_table_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_dex_layout_sections_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_dex_layout_sections_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_dex_layout_sections_alignment_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_method_bss_mapping_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_type_bss_mapping_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_dex_file_string_bss_mapping_offset_;
uint32_t size_oat_lookup_table_alignment_;
uint32_t size_oat_lookup_table_;
uint32_t size_oat_class_offsets_alignment_;
uint32_t size_oat_class_offsets_;
uint32_t size_oat_class_type_;
uint32_t size_oat_class_status_;
uint32_t size_oat_class_method_bitmaps_;
uint32_t size_oat_class_method_offsets_;
uint32_t size_method_bss_mappings_;
uint32_t size_type_bss_mappings_;
uint32_t size_string_bss_mappings_;
// The helper for processing relative patches is external so that we can patch across oat files.
MultiOatRelativePatcher* relative_patcher_;
// The locations of absolute patches relative to the start of the executable section.
dchecked_vector<uintptr_t> absolute_patch_locations_;
// Profile info used to generate new layout of files.
ProfileCompilationInfo* profile_compilation_info_;
// Compact dex level that is generated.
CompactDexLevel compact_dex_level_;
using OrderedMethodList = std::vector<OrderedMethodData>;
// List of compiled methods, sorted by the order defined in OrderedMethodData.
// Methods can be inserted more than once in case of duplicated methods.
// This pointer is only non-null after InitOatCodeDexFiles succeeds.
std::unique_ptr<OrderedMethodList> ordered_methods_;
// Container of shared dex data.
std::unique_ptr<DexContainer> dex_container_;
} // namespace linker
} // namespace art