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* Copyright (C) 2011 The Android Open Source Project
* Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
* you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
* You may obtain a copy of the License at
* Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
* distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
* See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
* limitations under the License.
#include <jni.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <iosfwd>
#include <string>
#include <utility>
#include <vector>
#include "globals.h"
#include "heap.h"
#include "instruction_set.h"
#include "jobject_comparator.h"
#include "macros.h"
#include "locks.h"
#include "runtime_stats.h"
#include "safe_map.h"
#include "stringpiece.h"
#include "compiler_llvm/procedure_linkage_table.h"
namespace art {
template<class T> class PrimitiveArray;
typedef PrimitiveArray<int8_t> ByteArray;
class ClassLinker;
class ClassLoader;
class DexFile;
class Heap;
class InternTable;
struct JavaVMExt;
class AbstractMethod;
class MonitorList;
class SignalCatcher;
class String;
class ThreadList;
class Throwable;
class Trace;
class Runtime {
typedef std::vector<std::pair<std::string, const void*> > Options;
class ParsedOptions {
// returns null if problem parsing and ignore_unrecognized is false
static ParsedOptions* Create(const Options& options, bool ignore_unrecognized);
const std::vector<const DexFile*>* boot_class_path_;
std::string boot_class_path_string_;
std::string class_path_string_;
std::string host_prefix_;
std::string image_;
bool check_jni_;
std::string jni_trace_;
bool is_compiler_;
bool is_zygote_;
bool is_concurrent_gc_enabled_;
size_t heap_initial_size_;
size_t heap_maximum_size_;
size_t heap_growth_limit_;
size_t heap_min_free_;
size_t heap_max_free_;
double heap_target_utilization_;
size_t stack_size_;
size_t jni_globals_max_;
size_t lock_profiling_threshold_;
std::string stack_trace_file_;
bool method_trace_;
std::string method_trace_file_;
size_t method_trace_file_size_;
bool (*hook_is_sensitive_thread_)();
jint (*hook_vfprintf_)(FILE* stream, const char* format, va_list ap);
void (*hook_exit_)(jint status);
void (*hook_abort_)();
std::vector<std::string> properties_;
ParsedOptions() {}
// Creates and initializes a new runtime.
static bool Create(const Options& options, bool ignore_unrecognized)
SHARED_TRYLOCK_FUNCTION(true, Locks::mutator_lock_);
bool IsCompiler() const {
return is_compiler_;
bool IsZygote() const {
return is_zygote_;
bool IsConcurrentGcEnabled() const {
return is_concurrent_gc_enabled_;
const std::string& GetHostPrefix() const {
return host_prefix_;
// Starts a runtime, which may cause threads to be started and code to run.
void Start() UNLOCK_FUNCTION(Locks::mutator_lock_);
bool IsShuttingDown() const EXCLUSIVE_LOCKS_REQUIRED(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_) {
return shutting_down_;
size_t NumberOfThreadsBeingBorn() const EXCLUSIVE_LOCKS_REQUIRED(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_) {
return threads_being_born_;
void StartThreadBirth() EXCLUSIVE_LOCKS_REQUIRED(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_) {
void EndThreadBirth() EXCLUSIVE_LOCKS_REQUIRED(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_);
bool IsStarted() const {
return started_;
bool IsFinishedStarting() const {
return finished_starting_;
static Runtime* Current() {
return instance_;
// Aborts semi-cleanly. Used in the implementation of LOG(FATAL), which most
// callers should prefer.
// This isn't marked ((noreturn)) because then gcc will merge multiple calls
// in a single function together. This reduces code size slightly, but means
// that the native stack trace we get may point at the wrong call site.
static void Abort() LOCKS_EXCLUDED(Locks::abort_lock_);
// Returns the "main" ThreadGroup, used when attaching user threads.
jobject GetMainThreadGroup() const;
// Returns the "system" ThreadGroup, used when attaching our internal threads.
jobject GetSystemThreadGroup() const;
// Attaches the calling native thread to the runtime.
bool AttachCurrentThread(const char* thread_name, bool as_daemon, jobject thread_group);
void CallExitHook(jint status);
// Detaches the current native thread from the runtime.
void DetachCurrentThread() LOCKS_EXCLUDED(Locks::mutator_lock_);
void DumpForSigQuit(std::ostream& os)
void DumpLockHolders(std::ostream& os);
const std::string& GetBootClassPathString() const {
return boot_class_path_string_;
const std::string& GetClassPathString() const {
return class_path_string_;
ClassLinker* GetClassLinker() const {
return class_linker_;
size_t GetDefaultStackSize() const {
return default_stack_size_;
Heap* GetHeap() const {
return heap_;
InternTable* GetInternTable() const {
return intern_table_;
JavaVMExt* GetJavaVM() const {
return java_vm_;
MonitorList* GetMonitorList() const {
return monitor_list_;
Throwable* GetPreAllocatedOutOfMemoryError() {
return pre_allocated_OutOfMemoryError_;
const std::vector<std::string>& GetProperties() const {
return properties_;
ThreadList* GetThreadList() const {
return thread_list_;
const char* GetVersion() const {
return "2.0.0";
// Force all the roots which can be marked concurrently to be dirty.
void DirtyRoots();
// Visit all the roots.
void VisitRoots(Heap::RootVisitor* visitor, void* arg)
// Visit all of the roots we can do safely do concurrently.
void VisitConcurrentRoots(Heap::RootVisitor* visitor, void* arg);
// Visit all of the non thread roots, we can do this with mutators unpaused.
void VisitNonThreadRoots(Heap::RootVisitor* visitor, void* arg);
// Visit all other roots which must be done with mutators suspended.
void VisitNonConcurrentRoots(Heap::RootVisitor* visitor, void* arg)
bool HasJniDlsymLookupStub() const {
return jni_stub_array_ != NULL;
ByteArray* GetJniDlsymLookupStub() const {
return jni_stub_array_;
void SetJniDlsymLookupStub(ByteArray* jni_stub_array);
bool HasAbstractMethodErrorStubArray() const {
return abstract_method_error_stub_array_ != NULL;
ByteArray* GetAbstractMethodErrorStubArray() const {
CHECK(abstract_method_error_stub_array_ != NULL);
return abstract_method_error_stub_array_;
void SetAbstractMethodErrorStubArray(ByteArray* abstract_method_error_stub_array);
enum TrampolineType {
kLastTrampolineMethodType // Value used for iteration
bool HasResolutionStubArray(TrampolineType type) const {
return resolution_stub_array_[type] != NULL;
ByteArray* GetResolutionStubArray(TrampolineType type) const {
DCHECK_LT(static_cast<int>(type), static_cast<int>(kLastTrampolineMethodType));
return resolution_stub_array_[type];
void SetResolutionStubArray(ByteArray* resolution_stub_array, TrampolineType type);
// Returns a special method that calls into a trampoline for runtime method resolution
AbstractMethod* GetResolutionMethod() const {
return resolution_method_;
bool HasResolutionMethod() const {
return resolution_method_ != NULL;
void SetResolutionMethod(AbstractMethod* method) {
resolution_method_ = method;
AbstractMethod* CreateResolutionMethod() SHARED_LOCKS_REQUIRED(Locks::mutator_lock_);
// Returns a special method that describes all callee saves being spilled to the stack.
enum CalleeSaveType {
kLastCalleeSaveType // Value used for iteration
bool HasCalleeSaveMethod(CalleeSaveType type) const {
return callee_save_methods_[type] != NULL;
AbstractMethod* GetCalleeSaveMethod(CalleeSaveType type) const {
return callee_save_methods_[type];
void SetCalleeSaveMethod(AbstractMethod* method, CalleeSaveType type);
AbstractMethod* CreateCalleeSaveMethod(InstructionSet instruction_set, CalleeSaveType type)
AbstractMethod* CreateRefOnlyCalleeSaveMethod(InstructionSet instruction_set)
AbstractMethod* CreateRefAndArgsCalleeSaveMethod(InstructionSet instruction_set)
int32_t GetStat(int kind);
RuntimeStats* GetStats() {
return &stats_;
bool HasStatsEnabled() const {
return stats_enabled_;
void ResetStats(int kinds);
void SetStatsEnabled(bool new_state);
void DidForkFromZygote();
bool PreZygoteFork();
void EnableMethodTracing(Trace* tracer);
void DisableMethodTracing();
bool IsMethodTracingActive() const {
return tracer_ != NULL;
Trace* GetTracer() const {
return tracer_;
bool UseCompileTimeClassPath() const {
return use_compile_time_class_path_;
const std::vector<const DexFile*>& GetCompileTimeClassPath(jobject class_loader);
void SetCompileTimeClassPath(jobject class_loader, std::vector<const DexFile*>& class_path);
static void InitPlatformSignalHandlers();
void BlockSignals();
bool Init(const Options& options, bool ignore_unrecognized)
SHARED_TRYLOCK_FUNCTION(true, Locks::mutator_lock_);
void InitNativeMethods() LOCKS_EXCLUDED(Locks::mutator_lock_);
void InitThreadGroups(Thread* self);
void RegisterRuntimeNativeMethods(JNIEnv* env);
void StartDaemonThreads();
void StartSignalCatcher();
// A pointer to the active runtime or NULL.
static Runtime* instance_;
bool is_compiler_;
bool is_zygote_;
bool is_concurrent_gc_enabled_;
// The host prefix is used during cross compilation. It is removed
// from the start of host paths such as:
// $ANDROID_PRODUCT_OUT/system/framework/boot.oat
// to produce target paths such as
// /system/framework/boot.oat
// Similarly it is prepended to target paths to arrive back at a
// host past. In both cases this is necessary because image and oat
// files embedded expect paths of dependent files (an image points
// to an oat file and an oat files to one or more dex files). These
// files contain the expected target path.
std::string host_prefix_;
std::string boot_class_path_string_;
std::string class_path_string_;
std::vector<std::string> properties_;
// The default stack size for managed threads created by the runtime.
size_t default_stack_size_;
Heap* heap_;
MonitorList* monitor_list_;
ThreadList* thread_list_;
InternTable* intern_table_;
ClassLinker* class_linker_;
SignalCatcher* signal_catcher_;
std::string stack_trace_file_;
JavaVMExt* java_vm_;
Throwable* pre_allocated_OutOfMemoryError_;
ByteArray* jni_stub_array_;
ByteArray* abstract_method_error_stub_array_;
ByteArray* resolution_stub_array_[kLastTrampolineMethodType];
AbstractMethod* callee_save_methods_[kLastCalleeSaveType];
AbstractMethod* resolution_method_;
// As returned by ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader()
ClassLoader* system_class_loader_;
// A non-zero value indicates that a thread has been created but not yet initialized. Guarded by
// the shutdown lock so that threads aren't born while we're shutting down.
size_t threads_being_born_ GUARDED_BY(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_);
// Waited upon until no threads are being born.
UniquePtr<ConditionVariable> shutdown_cond_ GUARDED_BY(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_);
// Set when runtime shutdown is past the point that new threads may attach.
bool shutting_down_ GUARDED_BY(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_);
// The runtime is starting to shutdown but is blocked waiting on shutdown_cond_.
bool shutting_down_started_ GUARDED_BY(Locks::runtime_shutdown_lock_);
bool started_;
// New flag added which tells us if the runtime has finished starting. If
// this flag is set then the Daemon threads are created and the class loader
// is created. This flag is needed for knowing if its safe to request CMS.
bool finished_starting_;
// Hooks supported by JNI_CreateJavaVM
jint (*vfprintf_)(FILE* stream, const char* format, va_list ap);
void (*exit_)(jint status);
void (*abort_)();
bool stats_enabled_;
RuntimeStats stats_;
bool method_trace_;
std::string method_trace_file_;
size_t method_trace_file_size_;
Trace* tracer_;
typedef SafeMap<jobject, std::vector<const DexFile*>, JobjectComparator> CompileTimeClassPaths;
CompileTimeClassPaths compile_time_class_paths_;
bool use_compile_time_class_path_;
jobject main_thread_group_;
jobject system_thread_group_;
compiler_llvm::ProcedureLinkageTable plt_;
} // namespace art
#endif // ART_SRC_RUNTIME_H_