Revert "runtime: cleanup class_linker out-parameters and formatting"

This reverts commit 0de694ed3efe8412b83622a24074831edcc7e384.

Change-Id: I4b185584d6e47918179b16d76709cc3366872f3c
diff --git a/runtime/art_method.cc b/runtime/art_method.cc
index f37e040..17c9fe4 100644
--- a/runtime/art_method.cc
+++ b/runtime/art_method.cc
@@ -19,7 +19,6 @@
 #include "arch/context.h"
 #include "art_field-inl.h"
 #include "art_method-inl.h"
-#include "base/out.h"
 #include "base/stringpiece.h"
 #include "dex_file-inl.h"
 #include "dex_instruction.h"
@@ -566,7 +565,7 @@
 const uint8_t* ArtMethod::GetQuickenedInfo() {
   bool found = false;
   OatFile::OatMethod oat_method =
-      Runtime::Current()->GetClassLinker()->FindOatMethodFor(this, outof(found));
+      Runtime::Current()->GetClassLinker()->FindOatMethodFor(this, &found);
   if (!found || (oat_method.GetQuickCode() != nullptr)) {
     return nullptr;
   }
diff --git a/runtime/base/out.h b/runtime/base/out.h
index 7b4bc12..7199b63 100644
--- a/runtime/base/out.h
+++ b/runtime/base/out.h
@@ -153,11 +153,6 @@
     return param_;
   }
 
-  // Model dereferencing fields/methods on a pointer.
-  inline T* operator->() {
-    return std::addressof(param_);
-  }
-
   //
   // Comparison against this or other pointers.
   //
@@ -271,7 +266,7 @@
 // Forwards an out parameter from one function into another.
 template <typename T>
 inline out_convertible<T> outof_forward(out<T>& out_param) {
-  T& param = *out_param;
+  T& param = std::addressof(*out_param);
   return out_convertible<T>(param);
 }
 
diff --git a/runtime/base/out_fwd.h b/runtime/base/out_fwd.h
deleted file mode 100644
index 6b2f926..0000000
--- a/runtime/base/out_fwd.h
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,30 +0,0 @@
-/*
- * Copyright (C) 2015 The Android Open Source Project
- *
- * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
- * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
- * You may obtain a copy of the License at
- *
- *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
- *
- * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
- * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
- * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
- * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
- * limitations under the License.
- */
-
-#ifndef ART_RUNTIME_BASE_OUT_FWD_H_
-#define ART_RUNTIME_BASE_OUT_FWD_H_
-
-// Forward declaration for "out<T>". See <out.h> for more information.
-// Other headers use only the forward declaration.
-
-// Callers of functions that take an out<T> parameter should #include <out.h> to get outof_.
-// which constructs out<T> through type inference.
-namespace art {
-template <typename T>
-struct out;
-}  // namespace art
-
-#endif  // ART_RUNTIME_BASE_OUT_FWD_H_
diff --git a/runtime/class_linker.cc b/runtime/class_linker.cc
index 5f5b42f..56fae81 100644
--- a/runtime/class_linker.cc
+++ b/runtime/class_linker.cc
@@ -30,7 +30,6 @@
 #include "base/arena_allocator.h"
 #include "base/casts.h"
 #include "base/logging.h"
-#include "base/out.h"
 #include "base/scoped_arena_containers.h"
 #include "base/scoped_flock.h"
 #include "base/stl_util.h"
@@ -199,7 +198,7 @@
     return lhs.size < rhs.size || (lhs.size == rhs.size && lhs.start_offset > rhs.start_offset);
   }
 };
-using FieldGaps = std::priority_queue<FieldGap, std::vector<FieldGap>, FieldGapsComparator>;
+typedef std::priority_queue<FieldGap, std::vector<FieldGap>, FieldGapsComparator> FieldGaps;
 
 // Adds largest aligned gaps to queue of gaps.
 static void AddFieldGap(uint32_t gap_start, uint32_t gap_end, FieldGaps* gaps) {
@@ -776,8 +775,7 @@
                           // be from multidex, which resolves correctly).
 };
 
-static void AddDexFilesFromOat(const OatFile* oat_file,
-                               bool already_loaded,
+static void AddDexFilesFromOat(const OatFile* oat_file, bool already_loaded,
                                std::priority_queue<DexFileAndClassPair>* heap) {
   const std::vector<const OatDexFile*>& oat_dex_files = oat_file->GetOatDexFiles();
   for (const OatDexFile* oat_dex_file : oat_dex_files) {
@@ -838,7 +836,7 @@
 // against the following top element. If the descriptor is the same, it is now checked whether
 // the two elements agree on whether their dex file was from an already-loaded oat-file or the
 // new oat file. Any disagreement indicates a collision.
-bool ClassLinker::HasCollisions(const OatFile* oat_file, out<std::string> error_msg) {
+bool ClassLinker::HasCollisions(const OatFile* oat_file, std::string* error_msg) {
   if (!kDuplicateClassesCheck) {
     return false;
   }
@@ -903,9 +901,10 @@
 }
 
 std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> ClassLinker::OpenDexFilesFromOat(
-    const char* dex_location,
-    const char* oat_location,
-    out<std::vector<std::string>> error_msgs) {
+    const char* dex_location, const char* oat_location,
+    std::vector<std::string>* error_msgs) {
+  CHECK(error_msgs != nullptr);
+
   // Verify we aren't holding the mutator lock, which could starve GC if we
   // have to generate or relocate an oat file.
   Locks::mutator_lock_->AssertNotHeld(Thread::Current());
@@ -947,7 +946,7 @@
     std::unique_ptr<OatFile> oat_file = oat_file_assistant.GetBestOatFile();
     if (oat_file.get() != nullptr) {
       // Take the file only if it has no collisions, or we must take it because of preopting.
-      bool accept_oat_file = !HasCollisions(oat_file.get(), outof(error_msg));
+      bool accept_oat_file = !HasCollisions(oat_file.get(), &error_msg);
       if (!accept_oat_file) {
         // Failed the collision check. Print warning.
         if (Runtime::Current()->IsDexFileFallbackEnabled()) {
@@ -981,7 +980,8 @@
   if (source_oat_file != nullptr) {
     dex_files = oat_file_assistant.LoadDexFiles(*source_oat_file, dex_location);
     if (dex_files.empty()) {
-      error_msgs->push_back("Failed to open dex files from " + source_oat_file->GetLocation());
+      error_msgs->push_back("Failed to open dex files from "
+          + source_oat_file->GetLocation());
     }
   }
 
@@ -1017,8 +1017,7 @@
   return nullptr;
 }
 
-static void SanityCheckArtMethod(ArtMethod* m,
-                                 mirror::Class* expected_class,
+static void SanityCheckArtMethod(ArtMethod* m, mirror::Class* expected_class,
                                  gc::space::ImageSpace* space)
     SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) {
   if (m->IsRuntimeMethod()) {
@@ -1036,11 +1035,9 @@
   }
 }
 
-static void SanityCheckArtMethodPointerArray(mirror::PointerArray* arr,
-                                             mirror::Class* expected_class,
-                                             size_t pointer_size,
-                                             gc::space::ImageSpace* space)
-    SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) {
+static void SanityCheckArtMethodPointerArray(
+    mirror::PointerArray* arr, mirror::Class* expected_class, size_t pointer_size,
+    gc::space::ImageSpace* space) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) {
   CHECK(arr != nullptr);
   for (int32_t j = 0; j < arr->GetLength(); ++j) {
     auto* method = arr->GetElementPtrSize<ArtMethod*>(j, pointer_size);
@@ -1506,8 +1503,7 @@
   return dex_cache.Get();
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::AllocClass(Thread* self,
-                                       mirror::Class* java_lang_Class,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::AllocClass(Thread* self, mirror::Class* java_lang_Class,
                                        uint32_t class_size) {
   DCHECK_GE(class_size, sizeof(mirror::Class));
   gc::Heap* heap = Runtime::Current()->GetHeap();
@@ -1526,14 +1522,13 @@
   return AllocClass(self, GetClassRoot(kJavaLangClass), class_size);
 }
 
-mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::StackTraceElement>*
-ClassLinker::AllocStackTraceElementArray(Thread* self, size_t length) {
+mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::StackTraceElement>* ClassLinker::AllocStackTraceElementArray(
+    Thread* self, size_t length) {
   return mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::StackTraceElement>::Alloc(
       self, GetClassRoot(kJavaLangStackTraceElementArrayClass), length);
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::EnsureResolved(Thread* self,
-                                           const char* descriptor,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::EnsureResolved(Thread* self, const char* descriptor,
                                            mirror::Class* klass) {
   DCHECK(klass != nullptr);
 
@@ -1592,8 +1587,7 @@
 
 // Search a collection of DexFiles for a descriptor
 ClassPathEntry FindInClassPath(const char* descriptor,
-                               size_t hash,
-                               const std::vector<const DexFile*>& class_path) {
+                               size_t hash, const std::vector<const DexFile*>& class_path) {
   for (const DexFile* dex_file : class_path) {
     const DexFile::ClassDef* dex_class_def = dex_file->FindClassDef(descriptor, hash);
     if (dex_class_def != nullptr) {
@@ -1612,17 +1606,16 @@
 }
 
 bool ClassLinker::FindClassInPathClassLoader(ScopedObjectAccessAlreadyRunnable& soa,
-                                             Thread* self,
-                                             const char* descriptor,
+                                             Thread* self, const char* descriptor,
                                              size_t hash,
                                              Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
-                                             out<mirror::Class*> result) {
+                                             mirror::Class** result) {
   // Termination case: boot class-loader.
   if (IsBootClassLoader(soa, class_loader.Get())) {
     // The boot class loader, search the boot class path.
     ClassPathEntry pair = FindInClassPath(descriptor, hash, boot_class_path_);
     if (pair.second != nullptr) {
-      mirror::Class* klass = LookupClass(self, descriptor, hash, nullptr /* no classloader */);
+      mirror::Class* klass = LookupClass(self, descriptor, hash, nullptr);
       if (klass != nullptr) {
         *result = EnsureResolved(self, descriptor, klass);
       } else {
@@ -1724,8 +1717,7 @@
   return true;
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::FindClass(Thread* self,
-                                      const char* descriptor,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::FindClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor,
                                       Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader) {
   DCHECK_NE(*descriptor, '\0') << "descriptor is empty string";
   DCHECK(self != nullptr);
@@ -1761,7 +1753,7 @@
   } else {
     ScopedObjectAccessUnchecked soa(self);
     mirror::Class* cp_klass;
-    if (FindClassInPathClassLoader(soa, self, descriptor, hash, class_loader, outof(cp_klass))) {
+    if (FindClassInPathClassLoader(soa, self, descriptor, hash, class_loader, &cp_klass)) {
       // The chain was understood. So the value in cp_klass is either the class we were looking
       // for, or not found.
       if (cp_klass != nullptr) {
@@ -1814,9 +1806,7 @@
   UNREACHABLE();
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::DefineClass(Thread* self,
-                                        const char* descriptor,
-                                        size_t hash,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::DefineClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
                                         Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
                                         const DexFile& dex_file,
                                         const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def) {
@@ -1902,7 +1892,7 @@
   auto interfaces = hs.NewHandle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>>(nullptr);
 
   MutableHandle<mirror::Class> h_new_class = hs.NewHandle<mirror::Class>(nullptr);
-  if (!LinkClass(self, descriptor, klass, interfaces, outof(h_new_class))) {
+  if (!LinkClass(self, descriptor, klass, interfaces, &h_new_class)) {
     // Linking failed.
     if (!klass->IsErroneous()) {
       mirror::Class::SetStatus(klass, mirror::Class::kStatusError, self);
@@ -1985,9 +1975,8 @@
                                          image_pointer_size_);
 }
 
-OatFile::OatClass ClassLinker::FindOatClass(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                            uint16_t class_def_idx,
-                                            out<bool> found) {
+OatFile::OatClass ClassLinker::FindOatClass(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t class_def_idx,
+                                            bool* found) {
   DCHECK_NE(class_def_idx, DexFile::kDexNoIndex16);
   const OatFile::OatDexFile* oat_dex_file = dex_file.GetOatDexFile();
   if (oat_dex_file == nullptr) {
@@ -1998,8 +1987,7 @@
   return oat_dex_file->GetOatClass(class_def_idx);
 }
 
-static uint32_t GetOatMethodIndexFromMethodIndex(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                                 uint16_t class_def_idx,
+static uint32_t GetOatMethodIndexFromMethodIndex(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t class_def_idx,
                                                  uint32_t method_idx) {
   const DexFile::ClassDef& class_def = dex_file.GetClassDef(class_def_idx);
   const uint8_t* class_data = dex_file.GetClassData(class_def);
@@ -2033,7 +2021,7 @@
   UNREACHABLE();
 }
 
-const OatFile::OatMethod ClassLinker::FindOatMethodFor(ArtMethod* method, out<bool> found) {
+const OatFile::OatMethod ClassLinker::FindOatMethodFor(ArtMethod* method, bool* found) {
   // Although we overwrite the trampoline of non-static methods, we may get here via the resolution
   // method for direct methods (or virtual methods made direct).
   mirror::Class* declaring_class = method->GetDeclaringClass();
@@ -2065,7 +2053,7 @@
                                              method->GetDexMethodIndex()));
   OatFile::OatClass oat_class = FindOatClass(*declaring_class->GetDexCache()->GetDexFile(),
                                              declaring_class->GetDexClassDefIndex(),
-                                             outof_forward(found));
+                                             found);
   if (!(*found)) {
     return OatFile::OatMethod::Invalid();
   }
@@ -2079,7 +2067,7 @@
     return GetQuickProxyInvokeHandler();
   }
   bool found;
-  OatFile::OatMethod oat_method = FindOatMethodFor(method, outof(found));
+  OatFile::OatMethod oat_method = FindOatMethodFor(method, &found);
   if (found) {
     auto* code = oat_method.GetQuickCode();
     if (code != nullptr) {
@@ -2105,7 +2093,7 @@
     return nullptr;
   }
   bool found;
-  OatFile::OatMethod oat_method = FindOatMethodFor(method, outof(found));
+  OatFile::OatMethod oat_method = FindOatMethodFor(method, &found);
   if (found) {
     return oat_method.GetQuickCode();
   }
@@ -2119,11 +2107,10 @@
   return nullptr;
 }
 
-const void* ClassLinker::GetQuickOatCodeFor(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                            uint16_t class_def_idx,
+const void* ClassLinker::GetQuickOatCodeFor(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t class_def_idx,
                                             uint32_t method_idx) {
   bool found;
-  OatFile::OatClass oat_class = FindOatClass(dex_file, class_def_idx, outof(found));
+  OatFile::OatClass oat_class = FindOatClass(dex_file, class_def_idx, &found);
   if (!found) {
     return nullptr;
   }
@@ -2174,7 +2161,7 @@
   }
   bool has_oat_class;
   OatFile::OatClass oat_class = FindOatClass(dex_file, klass->GetDexClassDefIndex(),
-                                             outof(has_oat_class));
+                                             &has_oat_class);
   // Link the code of methods skipped by LinkCode.
   for (size_t method_index = 0; it.HasNextDirectMethod(); ++method_index, it.Next()) {
     ArtMethod* method = klass->GetDirectMethod(method_index, image_pointer_size_);
@@ -2202,8 +2189,7 @@
   // Ignore virtual methods on the iterator.
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::LinkCode(ArtMethod* method,
-                           const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class,
+void ClassLinker::LinkCode(ArtMethod* method, const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class,
                            uint32_t class_def_method_index) {
   Runtime* const runtime = Runtime::Current();
   if (runtime->IsAotCompiler()) {
@@ -2255,10 +2241,8 @@
   }
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::SetupClass(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                             const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
-                             Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                             mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader) {
+void ClassLinker::SetupClass(const DexFile& dex_file, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
+                             Handle<mirror::Class> klass, mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader) {
   CHECK(klass.Get() != nullptr);
   CHECK(klass->GetDexCache() != nullptr);
   CHECK_EQ(mirror::Class::kStatusNotReady, klass->GetStatus());
@@ -2278,8 +2262,7 @@
   CHECK(klass->GetDexCacheStrings() != nullptr);
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::LoadClass(Thread* self,
-                            const DexFile& dex_file,
+void ClassLinker::LoadClass(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file,
                             const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
                             Handle<mirror::Class> klass) {
   const uint8_t* class_data = dex_file.GetClassData(dex_class_def);
@@ -2289,7 +2272,7 @@
   bool has_oat_class = false;
   if (Runtime::Current()->IsStarted() && !Runtime::Current()->IsAotCompiler()) {
     OatFile::OatClass oat_class = FindOatClass(dex_file, klass->GetDexClassDefIndex(),
-                                               outof(has_oat_class));
+                                               &has_oat_class);
     if (has_oat_class) {
       LoadClassMembers(self, dex_file, class_data, klass, &oat_class);
     }
@@ -2318,8 +2301,7 @@
   return reinterpret_cast<ArtMethod*>(ptr);
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::LoadClassMembers(Thread* self,
-                                   const DexFile& dex_file,
+void ClassLinker::LoadClassMembers(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file,
                                    const uint8_t* class_data,
                                    Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                                    const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class) {
@@ -2414,8 +2396,7 @@
   self->AllowThreadSuspension();
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::LoadField(const ClassDataItemIterator& it,
-                            Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+void ClassLinker::LoadField(const ClassDataItemIterator& it, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                             ArtField* dst) {
   const uint32_t field_idx = it.GetMemberIndex();
   dst->SetDexFieldIndex(field_idx);
@@ -2423,11 +2404,8 @@
   dst->SetAccessFlags(it.GetFieldAccessFlags());
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::LoadMethod(Thread* self,
-                             const DexFile& dex_file,
-                             const ClassDataItemIterator& it,
-                             Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                             ArtMethod* dst) {
+void ClassLinker::LoadMethod(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file, const ClassDataItemIterator& it,
+                             Handle<mirror::Class> klass, ArtMethod* dst) {
   uint32_t dex_method_idx = it.GetMemberIndex();
   const DexFile::MethodId& method_id = dex_file.GetMethodId(dex_method_idx);
   const char* method_name = dex_file.StringDataByIdx(method_id.name_idx_);
@@ -2627,9 +2605,7 @@
 // array class; that always comes from the base element class.
 //
 // Returns null with an exception raised on failure.
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::CreateArrayClass(Thread* self,
-                                             const char* descriptor,
-                                             size_t hash,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::CreateArrayClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
                                              Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader) {
   // Identify the underlying component type
   CHECK_EQ('[', descriptor[0]);
@@ -2831,8 +2807,7 @@
   return nullptr;
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::UpdateClassVirtualMethods(mirror::Class* klass,
-                                            ArtMethod* new_methods,
+void ClassLinker::UpdateClassVirtualMethods(mirror::Class* klass, ArtMethod* new_methods,
                                             size_t new_num_methods) {
   // TODO: Fix the race condition here. b/22832610
   klass->SetNumVirtualMethods(new_num_methods);
@@ -2847,9 +2822,7 @@
   return class_table != nullptr && class_table->Remove(descriptor);
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::LookupClass(Thread* self,
-                                        const char* descriptor,
-                                        size_t hash,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::LookupClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
                                         mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader) {
   {
     ReaderMutexLock mu(self, *Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_);
@@ -2953,9 +2926,7 @@
   return nullptr;
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::LookupClasses(const char* descriptor,
-                                out<std::vector<mirror::Class*>> out_result) {
-  std::vector<mirror::Class*>& result = *out_result;
+void ClassLinker::LookupClasses(const char* descriptor, std::vector<mirror::Class*>& result) {
   result.clear();
   if (dex_cache_image_class_lookup_required_) {
     MoveImageClassesToClassTable();
@@ -3132,8 +3103,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::VerifyClassUsingOatFile(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                          mirror::Class* klass,
+bool ClassLinker::VerifyClassUsingOatFile(const DexFile& dex_file, mirror::Class* klass,
                                           mirror::Class::Status& oat_file_class_status) {
   // If we're compiling, we can only verify the class using the oat file if
   // we are not compiling the image or if the class we're verifying is not part of
@@ -3255,12 +3225,9 @@
   }
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::CreateProxyClass(ScopedObjectAccessAlreadyRunnable& soa,
-                                             jstring name,
-                                             jobjectArray interfaces,
-                                             jobject loader,
-                                             jobjectArray methods,
-                                             jobjectArray throws) {
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::CreateProxyClass(ScopedObjectAccessAlreadyRunnable& soa, jstring name,
+                                             jobjectArray interfaces, jobject loader,
+                                             jobjectArray methods, jobjectArray throws) {
   Thread* self = soa.Self();
   StackHandleScope<10> hs(self);
   MutableHandle<mirror::Class> klass(hs.NewHandle(
@@ -3355,7 +3322,7 @@
     // The new class will replace the old one in the class table.
     Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> h_interfaces(
         hs.NewHandle(soa.Decode<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>*>(interfaces)));
-    if (!LinkClass(self, descriptor.c_str(), klass, h_interfaces, outof(new_class))) {
+    if (!LinkClass(self, descriptor.c_str(), klass, h_interfaces, &new_class)) {
       mirror::Class::SetStatus(klass, mirror::Class::kStatusError, self);
       return nullptr;
     }
@@ -3460,8 +3427,7 @@
   DCHECK(constructor->IsPublic());
 }
 
-void ClassLinker::CreateProxyMethod(Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                                    ArtMethod* prototype,
+void ClassLinker::CreateProxyMethod(Handle<mirror::Class> klass, ArtMethod* prototype,
                                     ArtMethod* out) {
   // Ensure prototype is in dex cache so that we can use the dex cache to look up the overridden
   // prototype method
@@ -3507,8 +3473,7 @@
   CHECK_EQ(np->GetReturnType(), prototype->GetReturnType());
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::CanWeInitializeClass(mirror::Class* klass,
-                                       bool can_init_statics,
+bool ClassLinker::CanWeInitializeClass(mirror::Class* klass, bool can_init_statics,
                                        bool can_init_parents) {
   if (can_init_statics && can_init_parents) {
     return true;
@@ -3538,10 +3503,8 @@
   return CanWeInitializeClass(super_class, can_init_statics, can_init_parents);
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::InitializeClass(Thread* self,
-                                  Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                                  bool can_init_statics,
-                                  bool can_init_parents) {
+bool ClassLinker::InitializeClass(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+                                  bool can_init_statics, bool can_init_parents) {
   // see JLS 3rd edition, 12.4.2 "Detailed Initialization Procedure" for the locking protocol
 
   // Are we already initialized and therefore done?
@@ -3610,7 +3573,7 @@
         return true;
       }
       // No. That's fine. Wait for another thread to finish initializing.
-      return WaitForInitializeClass(klass, self, &lock);
+      return WaitForInitializeClass(klass, self, lock);
     }
 
     if (!ValidateSuperClassDescriptors(klass)) {
@@ -3744,16 +3707,13 @@
   return success;
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::WaitForInitializeClass(Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                                         Thread* self,
-                                         ObjectLock<mirror::Class>* lock)
+bool ClassLinker::WaitForInitializeClass(Handle<mirror::Class> klass, Thread* self,
+                                         ObjectLock<mirror::Class>& lock)
     SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) {
-  DCHECK(lock != nullptr);
-
   while (true) {
     self->AssertNoPendingException();
     CHECK(!klass->IsInitialized());
-    lock->WaitIgnoringInterrupts();
+    lock.WaitIgnoringInterrupts();
 
     // When we wake up, repeat the test for init-in-progress.  If
     // there's an exception pending (only possible if
@@ -3816,8 +3776,7 @@
                                                    Handle<mirror::Class> super_klass,
                                                    ArtMethod* method,
                                                    ArtMethod* m,
-                                                   uint32_t index,
-                                                   uint32_t arg_type_idx)
+                                                   uint32_t index, uint32_t arg_type_idx)
     SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) {
   DCHECK(Thread::Current()->IsExceptionPending());
   DCHECK(!m->IsProxyMethod());
@@ -3979,8 +3938,7 @@
   return true;
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::EnsureInitialized(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> c,
-                                    bool can_init_fields,
+bool ClassLinker::EnsureInitialized(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> c, bool can_init_fields,
                                     bool can_init_parents) {
   DCHECK(c.Get() != nullptr);
   if (c->IsInitialized()) {
@@ -4054,11 +4012,9 @@
   return nullptr;
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::LinkClass(Thread* self,
-                            const char* descriptor,
-                            Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+bool ClassLinker::LinkClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                             Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> interfaces,
-                            out<MutableHandle<mirror::Class>> h_new_class_out) {
+                            MutableHandle<mirror::Class>* h_new_class_out) {
   CHECK_EQ(mirror::Class::kStatusLoaded, klass->GetStatus());
 
   if (!LinkSuperClass(klass)) {
@@ -4066,14 +4022,14 @@
   }
   ArtMethod* imt[mirror::Class::kImtSize];
   std::fill_n(imt, arraysize(imt), Runtime::Current()->GetImtUnimplementedMethod());
-  if (!LinkMethods(self, klass, interfaces, outof(imt))) {
+  if (!LinkMethods(self, klass, interfaces, imt)) {
     return false;
   }
   if (!LinkInstanceFields(self, klass)) {
     return false;
   }
   size_t class_size;
-  if (!LinkStaticFields(self, klass, outof(class_size))) {
+  if (!LinkStaticFields(self, klass, &class_size)) {
     return false;
   }
   CreateReferenceInstanceOffsets(klass);
@@ -4149,31 +4105,30 @@
   return true;
 }
 
-static void CountMethodsAndFields(ClassDataItemIterator* dex_data,
-                                  out<size_t> virtual_methods,
-                                  out<size_t> direct_methods,
-                                  out<size_t> static_fields,
-                                  out<size_t> instance_fields) {
-  DCHECK(dex_data != nullptr);
+static void CountMethodsAndFields(ClassDataItemIterator& dex_data,
+                                  size_t* virtual_methods,
+                                  size_t* direct_methods,
+                                  size_t* static_fields,
+                                  size_t* instance_fields) {
   *virtual_methods = *direct_methods = *static_fields = *instance_fields = 0;
 
-  while (dex_data->HasNextStaticField()) {
-    dex_data->Next();
+  while (dex_data.HasNextStaticField()) {
+    dex_data.Next();
     (*static_fields)++;
   }
-  while (dex_data->HasNextInstanceField()) {
-    dex_data->Next();
+  while (dex_data.HasNextInstanceField()) {
+    dex_data.Next();
     (*instance_fields)++;
   }
-  while (dex_data->HasNextDirectMethod()) {
+  while (dex_data.HasNextDirectMethod()) {
     (*direct_methods)++;
-    dex_data->Next();
+    dex_data.Next();
   }
-  while (dex_data->HasNextVirtualMethod()) {
+  while (dex_data.HasNextVirtualMethod()) {
     (*virtual_methods)++;
-    dex_data->Next();
+    dex_data.Next();
   }
-  DCHECK(!dex_data->HasNext());
+  DCHECK(!dex_data.HasNext());
 }
 
 static void DumpClass(std::ostream& os,
@@ -4207,10 +4162,8 @@
   }
 }
 
-static std::string DumpClasses(const DexFile& dex_file1,
-                               const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def1,
-                               const DexFile& dex_file2,
-                               const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def2) {
+static std::string DumpClasses(const DexFile& dex_file1, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def1,
+                               const DexFile& dex_file2, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def2) {
   std::ostringstream os;
   DumpClass(os, dex_file1, dex_class_def1, " (Compile time)");
   DumpClass(os, dex_file2, dex_class_def2, " (Runtime)");
@@ -4220,28 +4173,20 @@
 
 // Very simple structural check on whether the classes match. Only compares the number of
 // methods and fields.
-static bool SimpleStructuralCheck(const DexFile& dex_file1,
-                                  const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def1,
-                                  const DexFile& dex_file2,
-                                  const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def2,
+static bool SimpleStructuralCheck(const DexFile& dex_file1, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def1,
+                                  const DexFile& dex_file2, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def2,
                                   std::string* error_msg) {
   ClassDataItemIterator dex_data1(dex_file1, dex_file1.GetClassData(dex_class_def1));
   ClassDataItemIterator dex_data2(dex_file2, dex_file2.GetClassData(dex_class_def2));
 
   // Counters for current dex file.
   size_t dex_virtual_methods1, dex_direct_methods1, dex_static_fields1, dex_instance_fields1;
-  CountMethodsAndFields(&dex_data1,
-                        outof(dex_virtual_methods1),
-                        outof(dex_direct_methods1),
-                        outof(dex_static_fields1),
-                        outof(dex_instance_fields1));
+  CountMethodsAndFields(dex_data1, &dex_virtual_methods1, &dex_direct_methods1, &dex_static_fields1,
+                        &dex_instance_fields1);
   // Counters for compile-time dex file.
   size_t dex_virtual_methods2, dex_direct_methods2, dex_static_fields2, dex_instance_fields2;
-  CountMethodsAndFields(&dex_data2,
-                        outof(dex_virtual_methods2),
-                        outof(dex_direct_methods2),
-                        outof(dex_static_fields2),
-                        outof(dex_instance_fields2));
+  CountMethodsAndFields(dex_data2, &dex_virtual_methods2, &dex_direct_methods2, &dex_static_fields2,
+                        &dex_instance_fields2);
 
   if (dex_virtual_methods1 != dex_virtual_methods2) {
     std::string class_dump = DumpClasses(dex_file1, dex_class_def1, dex_file2, dex_class_def2);
@@ -4444,10 +4389,9 @@
 }
 
 // Populate the class vtable and itable. Compute return type indices.
-bool ClassLinker::LinkMethods(Thread* self,
-                              Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+bool ClassLinker::LinkMethods(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                               Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> interfaces,
-                              out<ArtMethod* [mirror::Class::kImtSize]> out_imt) {
+                              ArtMethod** out_imt) {
   self->AllowThreadSuspension();
   if (klass->IsInterface()) {
     // No vtable.
@@ -4462,10 +4406,7 @@
   } else if (!LinkVirtualMethods(self, klass)) {  // Link virtual methods first.
     return false;
   }
-  return LinkInterfaceMethods(self,
-                              klass,
-                              interfaces,
-                              outof_forward(out_imt));  // Link interface method last.
+  return LinkInterfaceMethods(self, klass, interfaces, out_imt);  // Link interface method last.
 }
 
 // Comparator for name and signature of a method, used in finding overriding methods. Implementation
@@ -4518,9 +4459,7 @@
 
 class LinkVirtualHashTable {
  public:
-  LinkVirtualHashTable(Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                       size_t hash_size,
-                       uint32_t* hash_table,
+  LinkVirtualHashTable(Handle<mirror::Class> klass, size_t hash_size, uint32_t* hash_table,
                        size_t image_pointer_size)
      : klass_(klass), hash_size_(hash_size), hash_table_(hash_table),
        image_pointer_size_(image_pointer_size) {
@@ -4724,12 +4663,9 @@
   return true;
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::LinkInterfaceMethods(Thread* self,
-                                       Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+bool ClassLinker::LinkInterfaceMethods(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                                        Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> interfaces,
-                                       out<ArtMethod* [mirror::Class::kImtSize]> out_imt_array) {
-  auto& out_imt = *out_imt_array;
-
+                                       ArtMethod** out_imt) {
   StackHandleScope<3> hs(self);
   Runtime* const runtime = Runtime::Current();
   const bool has_superclass = klass->HasSuperClass();
@@ -4917,7 +4853,7 @@
     }
   }
 
-  const char* old_cause = self->StartAssertNoThreadSuspension(
+  auto* old_cause = self->StartAssertNoThreadSuspension(
       "Copying ArtMethods for LinkInterfaceMethods");
   for (size_t i = 0; i < ifcount; ++i) {
     size_t num_methods = iftable->GetInterface(i)->NumVirtualMethods();
@@ -5138,16 +5074,12 @@
 
 bool ClassLinker::LinkInstanceFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass) {
   CHECK(klass.Get() != nullptr);
-  size_t class_size_dont_care;
-  UNUSED(class_size_dont_care);  // This doesn't get set for instance fields.
-  return LinkFields(self, klass, false, outof(class_size_dont_care));
+  return LinkFields(self, klass, false, nullptr);
 }
 
-bool ClassLinker::LinkStaticFields(Thread* self,
-                                   Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                                   out<size_t> class_size) {
+bool ClassLinker::LinkStaticFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass, size_t* class_size) {
   CHECK(klass.Get() != nullptr);
-  return LinkFields(self, klass, true, outof_forward(class_size));
+  return LinkFields(self, klass, true, class_size);
 }
 
 struct LinkFieldsComparator {
@@ -5184,10 +5116,8 @@
   }
 };
 
-bool ClassLinker::LinkFields(Thread* self,
-                             Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                             bool is_static,
-                             out<size_t> class_size) {
+bool ClassLinker::LinkFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass, bool is_static,
+                             size_t* class_size) {
   self->AllowThreadSuspension();
   const size_t num_fields = is_static ? klass->NumStaticFields() : klass->NumInstanceFields();
   ArtField* const fields = is_static ? klass->GetSFields() : klass->GetIFields();
@@ -5358,8 +5288,7 @@
   klass->SetReferenceInstanceOffsets(reference_offsets);
 }
 
-mirror::String* ClassLinker::ResolveString(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                           uint32_t string_idx,
+mirror::String* ClassLinker::ResolveString(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t string_idx,
                                            Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache) {
   DCHECK(dex_cache.Get() != nullptr);
   mirror::String* resolved = dex_cache->GetResolvedString(string_idx);
@@ -5373,8 +5302,7 @@
   return string;
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                        uint16_t type_idx,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t type_idx,
                                         mirror::Class* referrer) {
   StackHandleScope<2> hs(Thread::Current());
   Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache(hs.NewHandle(referrer->GetDexCache()));
@@ -5382,8 +5310,7 @@
   return ResolveType(dex_file, type_idx, dex_cache, class_loader);
 }
 
-mirror::Class* ClassLinker::ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                        uint16_t type_idx,
+mirror::Class* ClassLinker::ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t type_idx,
                                         Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
                                         Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader) {
   DCHECK(dex_cache.Get() != nullptr);
@@ -5416,8 +5343,7 @@
   return resolved;
 }
 
-ArtMethod* ClassLinker::ResolveMethod(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                      uint32_t method_idx,
+ArtMethod* ClassLinker::ResolveMethod(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t method_idx,
                                       Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
                                       Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
                                       ArtMethod* referrer, InvokeType type) {
@@ -5574,11 +5500,9 @@
   }
 }
 
-ArtField* ClassLinker::ResolveField(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                    uint32_t field_idx,
+ArtField* ClassLinker::ResolveField(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t field_idx,
                                     Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
-                                    Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
-                                    bool is_static) {
+                                    Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader, bool is_static) {
   DCHECK(dex_cache.Get() != nullptr);
   ArtField* resolved = dex_cache->GetResolvedField(field_idx, image_pointer_size_);
   if (resolved != nullptr) {
@@ -5617,8 +5541,7 @@
   return resolved;
 }
 
-ArtField* ClassLinker::ResolveFieldJLS(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                       uint32_t field_idx,
+ArtField* ClassLinker::ResolveFieldJLS(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t field_idx,
                                        Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
                                        Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader) {
   DCHECK(dex_cache.Get() != nullptr);
@@ -5648,8 +5571,7 @@
   return resolved;
 }
 
-const char* ClassLinker::MethodShorty(uint32_t method_idx,
-                                      ArtMethod* referrer,
+const char* ClassLinker::MethodShorty(uint32_t method_idx, ArtMethod* referrer,
                                       uint32_t* length) {
   mirror::Class* declaring_class = referrer->GetDeclaringClass();
   mirror::DexCache* dex_cache = declaring_class->GetDexCache();
@@ -5856,8 +5778,7 @@
   }
 }
 
-jobject ClassLinker::CreatePathClassLoader(Thread* self,
-                                           const std::vector<const DexFile*>& dex_files) {
+jobject ClassLinker::CreatePathClassLoader(Thread* self, std::vector<const DexFile*>& dex_files) {
   // SOAAlreadyRunnable is protected, and we need something to add a global reference.
   // We could move the jobject to the callers, but all call-sites do this...
   ScopedObjectAccessUnchecked soa(self);
diff --git a/runtime/class_linker.h b/runtime/class_linker.h
index 7f367fb..c53ff61 100644
--- a/runtime/class_linker.h
+++ b/runtime/class_linker.h
@@ -25,7 +25,6 @@
 #include "base/hash_set.h"
 #include "base/macros.h"
 #include "base/mutex.h"
-#include "base/out_fwd.h"
 #include "class_table.h"
 #include "dex_file.h"
 #include "gc_root.h"
@@ -109,19 +108,16 @@
 
   // Initialize class linker by bootstraping from dex files.
   void InitWithoutImage(std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> boot_class_path)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Initialize class linker from one or more images.
   void InitFromImage() SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Finds a class by its descriptor, loading it if necessary.
   // If class_loader is null, searches boot_class_path_.
-  mirror::Class* FindClass(Thread* self,
-                           const char* descriptor,
+  mirror::Class* FindClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor,
                            Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Finds a class in the path class loader, loading it if necessary without using JNI. Hash
   // function is supposed to be ComputeModifiedUtf8Hash(descriptor). Returns true if the
@@ -129,24 +125,19 @@
   // was encountered while walking the parent chain (currently only BootClassLoader and
   // PathClassLoader are supported).
   bool FindClassInPathClassLoader(ScopedObjectAccessAlreadyRunnable& soa,
-                                  Thread* self,
-                                  const char* descriptor,
-                                  size_t hash,
+                                  Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
                                   Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
-                                  out<mirror::Class*> result)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+                                  mirror::Class** result)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Finds a class by its descriptor using the "system" class loader, ie by searching the
   // boot_class_path_.
   mirror::Class* FindSystemClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Finds the array class given for the element class.
-  mirror::Class* FindArrayClass(Thread* self, /* in parameter */ mirror::Class** element_class)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+  mirror::Class* FindArrayClass(Thread* self, mirror::Class** element_class)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Returns true if the class linker is initialized.
   bool IsInitialized() const {
@@ -154,27 +145,20 @@
   }
 
   // Define a new a class based on a ClassDef from a DexFile
-  mirror::Class* DefineClass(Thread* self,
-                             const char* descriptor,
-                             size_t hash,
+  mirror::Class* DefineClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
                              Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
-                             const DexFile& dex_file,
-                             const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+                             const DexFile& dex_file, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Finds a class by its descriptor, returning null if it isn't wasn't loaded
   // by the given 'class_loader'.
-  mirror::Class* LookupClass(Thread* self,
-                             const char* descriptor,
-                             size_t hash,
-                             mirror::ClassLoader*
-                             class_loader)
+  mirror::Class* LookupClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
+                             mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader)
       REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Finds all the classes with the given descriptor, regardless of ClassLoader.
-  void LookupClasses(const char* descriptor, out<std::vector<mirror::Class*>> classes)
+  void LookupClasses(const char* descriptor, std::vector<mirror::Class*>& classes)
       REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
@@ -182,21 +166,17 @@
 
   // General class unloading is not supported, this is used to prune
   // unwanted classes during image writing.
-  bool RemoveClass(const char* descriptor,
-                   mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader)
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+  bool RemoveClass(const char* descriptor, mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader)
+      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   void DumpAllClasses(int flags)
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   void DumpForSigQuit(std::ostream& os)
       REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_);
 
   size_t NumLoadedClasses()
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Resolve a String with the given index from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in the DexCache. The referrer is used to identify the
@@ -206,95 +186,75 @@
 
   // Resolve a String with the given index from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in the DexCache.
-  mirror::String* ResolveString(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                uint32_t string_idx,
+  mirror::String* ResolveString(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t string_idx,
                                 Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Resolve a Type with the given index from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in the DexCache. The referrer is used to identity the
   // target DexCache and ClassLoader to use for resolution.
-  mirror::Class* ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                             uint16_t type_idx,
-                             mirror::Class* referrer)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+  mirror::Class* ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t type_idx, mirror::Class* referrer)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Resolve a Type with the given index from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in the DexCache. The referrer is used to identify the
   // target DexCache and ClassLoader to use for resolution.
-  mirror::Class* ResolveType(uint16_t type_idx,
-                             ArtMethod* referrer)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+  mirror::Class* ResolveType(uint16_t type_idx, ArtMethod* referrer)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
-  mirror::Class* ResolveType(uint16_t type_idx,
-                             ArtField* referrer)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+  mirror::Class* ResolveType(uint16_t type_idx, ArtField* referrer)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Resolve a type with the given ID from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in DexCache. The ClassLoader is used to search for the
   // type, since it may be referenced from but not contained within
   // the given DexFile.
-  mirror::Class* ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                             uint16_t type_idx,
+  mirror::Class* ResolveType(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t type_idx,
                              Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
                              Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Resolve a method with a given ID from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in DexCache. The ClassLinker and ClassLoader are used as
   // in ResolveType. What is unique is the method type argument which
   // is used to determine if this method is a direct, static, or
   // virtual method.
-  ArtMethod* ResolveMethod(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                           uint32_t method_idx,
+  ArtMethod* ResolveMethod(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t method_idx,
                            Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
-                           Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
-                           ArtMethod* referrer,
+                           Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader, ArtMethod* referrer,
                            InvokeType type)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   ArtMethod* GetResolvedMethod(uint32_t method_idx, ArtMethod* referrer)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   ArtMethod* ResolveMethod(Thread* self, uint32_t method_idx, ArtMethod* referrer, InvokeType type)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   ArtField* GetResolvedField(uint32_t field_idx, mirror::Class* field_declaring_class)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   ArtField* GetResolvedField(uint32_t field_idx, mirror::DexCache* dex_cache)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   ArtField* ResolveField(uint32_t field_idx, ArtMethod* referrer, bool is_static)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Resolve a field with a given ID from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in DexCache. The ClassLinker and ClassLoader are used as
   // in ResolveType. What is unique is the is_static argument which is
   // used to determine if we are resolving a static or non-static
   // field.
-  ArtField* ResolveField(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                         uint32_t field_idx,
+  ArtField* ResolveField(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t field_idx,
                          Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
-                         Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader,
-                         bool is_static)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+                         Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader, bool is_static)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Resolve a field with a given ID from the DexFile, storing the
   // result in DexCache. The ClassLinker and ClassLoader are used as
   // in ResolveType. No is_static argument is provided so that Java
   // field resolution semantics are followed.
-  ArtField* ResolveFieldJLS(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                            uint32_t field_idx,
+  ArtField* ResolveFieldJLS(const DexFile& dex_file, uint32_t field_idx,
                             Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache,
                             Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Get shorty from method index without resolution. Used to do handlerization.
   const char* MethodShorty(uint32_t method_idx, ArtMethod* referrer, uint32_t* length)
@@ -303,12 +263,9 @@
   // Returns true on success, false if there's an exception pending.
   // can_run_clinit=false allows the compiler to attempt to init a class,
   // given the restriction that no <clinit> execution is possible.
-  bool EnsureInitialized(Thread* self,
-                         Handle<mirror::Class> c,
-                         bool can_init_fields,
+  bool EnsureInitialized(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> c, bool can_init_fields,
                          bool can_init_parents)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Initializes classes that have instances in the image but that have
   // <clinit> methods so they could not be initialized by the compiler.
@@ -332,33 +289,26 @@
       REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   void VisitClasses(ClassVisitor* visitor)
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Less efficient variant of VisitClasses that copies the class_table_ into secondary storage
   // so that it can visit individual classes without holding the doesn't hold the
   // Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_. As the Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_ isn't held this code
   // can race with insertion and deletion of classes while the visitor is being called.
   void VisitClassesWithoutClassesLock(ClassVisitor* visitor)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   void VisitClassRoots(RootVisitor* visitor, VisitRootFlags flags)
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   void VisitRoots(RootVisitor* visitor, VisitRootFlags flags)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   mirror::DexCache* FindDexCache(const DexFile& dex_file)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   bool IsDexFileRegistered(const DexFile& dex_file)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   void FixupDexCaches(ArtMethod* resolution_method)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
+      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Finds or creates the oat file holding dex_location. Then loads and returns
   // all corresponding dex files (there may be more than one dex file loaded
@@ -374,75 +324,58 @@
   // This method should not be called with the mutator_lock_ held, because it
   // could end up starving GC if we need to generate or relocate any oat
   // files.
-  std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> OpenDexFilesFromOat(const char* dex_location,
-                                                                  const char* oat_location,
-                                                                  out<std::vector<std::string>>
-                                                                      error_msgs)
+  std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> OpenDexFilesFromOat(
+      const char* dex_location, const char* oat_location,
+      std::vector<std::string>* error_msgs)
       REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Allocate an instance of a java.lang.Object.
-  mirror::Object* AllocObject(Thread* self)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
+  mirror::Object* AllocObject(Thread* self) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
       REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // TODO: replace this with multiple methods that allocate the correct managed type.
   template <class T>
   mirror::ObjectArray<T>* AllocObjectArray(Thread* self, size_t length)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>* AllocClassArray(Thread* self, size_t length)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::String>* AllocStringArray(Thread* self, size_t length)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   ArtField* AllocArtFieldArray(Thread* self, size_t length);
 
   ArtMethod* AllocArtMethodArray(Thread* self, size_t length);
 
   mirror::PointerArray* AllocPointerArray(Thread* self, size_t length)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   mirror::IfTable* AllocIfTable(Thread* self, size_t ifcount)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
-  mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::StackTraceElement>* AllocStackTraceElementArray(Thread* self,
-                                                                              size_t length)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+  mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::StackTraceElement>* AllocStackTraceElementArray(
+      Thread* self, size_t length) SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
+          REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   void VerifyClass(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
-  bool VerifyClassUsingOatFile(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                               mirror::Class* klass,
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+  bool VerifyClassUsingOatFile(const DexFile& dex_file, mirror::Class* klass,
                                mirror::Class::Status& oat_file_class_status)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
   void ResolveClassExceptionHandlerTypes(const DexFile& dex_file,
                                          Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
   void ResolveMethodExceptionHandlerTypes(const DexFile& dex_file, ArtMethod* klass)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
-  mirror::Class* CreateProxyClass(ScopedObjectAccessAlreadyRunnable& soa,
-                                  jstring name,
-                                  jobjectArray interfaces,
-                                  jobject loader,
-                                  jobjectArray methods,
+  mirror::Class* CreateProxyClass(ScopedObjectAccessAlreadyRunnable& soa, jstring name,
+                                  jobjectArray interfaces, jobject loader, jobjectArray methods,
                                   jobjectArray throws)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   std::string GetDescriptorForProxy(mirror::Class* proxy_class)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
-  ArtMethod* FindMethodForProxy(mirror::Class* proxy_class,
-                                ArtMethod* proxy_method)
+  ArtMethod* FindMethodForProxy(mirror::Class* proxy_class, ArtMethod* proxy_method)
       REQUIRES(!dex_lock_)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
@@ -451,8 +384,7 @@
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   // Get the oat code for a method from a method index.
-  const void* GetQuickOatCodeFor(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                                 uint16_t class_def_idx,
+  const void* GetQuickOatCodeFor(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t class_def_idx,
                                  uint32_t method_idx)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
@@ -462,7 +394,7 @@
   const void* GetOatMethodQuickCodeFor(ArtMethod* method)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  const OatFile::OatMethod FindOatMethodFor(ArtMethod* method, out<bool> found)
+  const OatFile::OatMethod FindOatMethodFor(ArtMethod* method, bool* found)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   pid_t GetClassesLockOwner();  // For SignalCatcher.
@@ -519,14 +451,12 @@
 
   // Returns true if the method can be called with its direct code pointer, false otherwise.
   bool MayBeCalledWithDirectCodePointer(ArtMethod* m)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Creates a GlobalRef PathClassLoader that can be used to load classes from the given dex files.
   // Note: the objects are not completely set up. Do not use this outside of tests and the compiler.
-  jobject CreatePathClassLoader(Thread* self, const std::vector<const DexFile*>& dex_files)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+  jobject CreatePathClassLoader(Thread* self, std::vector<const DexFile*>& dex_files)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   size_t GetImagePointerSize() const {
     DCHECK(ValidPointerSize(image_pointer_size_)) << image_pointer_size_;
@@ -573,39 +503,29 @@
 
   // For early bootstrapping by Init
   mirror::Class* AllocClass(Thread* self, mirror::Class* java_lang_Class, uint32_t class_size)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   // Alloc* convenience functions to avoid needing to pass in mirror::Class*
   // values that are known to the ClassLinker such as
   // kObjectArrayClass and kJavaLangString etc.
   mirror::Class* AllocClass(Thread* self, uint32_t class_size)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
   mirror::DexCache* AllocDexCache(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   mirror::Class* CreatePrimitiveClass(Thread* self, Primitive::Type type)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
   mirror::Class* InitializePrimitiveClass(mirror::Class* primitive_class, Primitive::Type type)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
-  mirror::Class* CreateArrayClass(Thread* self,
-                                  const char* descriptor,
-                                  size_t hash,
+  mirror::Class* CreateArrayClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, size_t hash,
                                   Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_, !Roles::uninterruptible_);
 
   void AppendToBootClassPath(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
   void AppendToBootClassPath(const DexFile& dex_file, Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Precomputes size needed for Class, in the case of a non-temporary class this size must be
   // sufficient to hold all static fields.
@@ -614,32 +534,22 @@
 
   // Setup the classloader, class def index, type idx so that we can insert this class in the class
   // table.
-  void SetupClass(const DexFile& dex_file,
-                  const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
-                  Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                  mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader)
+  void SetupClass(const DexFile& dex_file, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
+                  Handle<mirror::Class> klass, mirror::ClassLoader* class_loader)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  void LoadClass(Thread* self,
-                 const DexFile& dex_file,
-                 const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
+  void LoadClass(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file, const DexFile::ClassDef& dex_class_def,
                  Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
-  void LoadClassMembers(Thread* self,
-                        const DexFile& dex_file,
-                        const uint8_t* class_data,
-                        Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                        const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class)
+  void LoadClassMembers(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file, const uint8_t* class_data,
+                        Handle<mirror::Class> klass, const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  void LoadField(const ClassDataItemIterator& it,
-                 Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+  void LoadField(const ClassDataItemIterator& it, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                  ArtField* dst)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  void LoadMethod(Thread* self,
-                  const DexFile& dex_file,
-                  const ClassDataItemIterator& it,
+  void LoadMethod(Thread* self, const DexFile& dex_file, const ClassDataItemIterator& it,
                   Handle<mirror::Class> klass, ArtMethod* dst)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
@@ -647,7 +557,7 @@
 
   // Finds the associated oat class for a dex_file and descriptor. Returns an invalid OatClass on
   // error and sets found to false.
-  OatFile::OatClass FindOatClass(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t class_def_idx, out<bool> found)
+  OatFile::OatClass FindOatClass(const DexFile& dex_file, uint16_t class_def_idx, bool* found)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   void RegisterDexFileLocked(const DexFile& dex_file, Handle<mirror::DexCache> dex_cache)
@@ -655,70 +565,55 @@
   bool IsDexFileRegisteredLocked(const DexFile& dex_file)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(dex_lock_, Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  bool InitializeClass(Thread* self,
-                       Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                       bool can_run_clinit,
+  bool InitializeClass(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass, bool can_run_clinit,
                        bool can_init_parents)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
-  bool WaitForInitializeClass(Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                              Thread* self,
-                              ObjectLock<mirror::Class>* lock);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+  bool WaitForInitializeClass(Handle<mirror::Class> klass, Thread* self,
+                              ObjectLock<mirror::Class>& lock);
   bool ValidateSuperClassDescriptors(Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  bool IsSameDescriptorInDifferentClassContexts(Thread* self,
-                                                const char* descriptor,
+  bool IsSameDescriptorInDifferentClassContexts(Thread* self, const char* descriptor,
                                                 Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader1,
                                                 Handle<mirror::ClassLoader> class_loader2)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  bool IsSameMethodSignatureInDifferentClassContexts(Thread* self,
-                                                     ArtMethod* method,
-                                                     mirror::Class* klass1,
-                                                     mirror::Class* klass2)
+  bool IsSameMethodSignatureInDifferentClassContexts(Thread* self, ArtMethod* method,
+                                                     mirror::Class* klass1, mirror::Class* klass2)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  bool LinkClass(Thread* self,
-                 const char* descriptor,
-                 Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+  bool LinkClass(Thread* self, const char* descriptor, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                  Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> interfaces,
-                 out<MutableHandle<mirror::Class>> h_new_class_out)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_);
+                 MutableHandle<mirror::Class>* h_new_class_out)
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_);
 
   bool LinkSuperClass(Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   bool LoadSuperAndInterfaces(Handle<mirror::Class> klass, const DexFile& dex_file)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   bool LinkMethods(Thread* self,
                    Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                    Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> interfaces,
-                   out<ArtMethod* [mirror::Class::kImtSize]> out_imt)
+                   ArtMethod** out_imt)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
   bool LinkVirtualMethods(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  bool LinkInterfaceMethods(Thread* self,
-                            Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
+  bool LinkInterfaceMethods(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
                             Handle<mirror::ObjectArray<mirror::Class>> interfaces,
-                            out<ArtMethod* [mirror::Class::kImtSize]> out_imt)
+                            ArtMethod** out_imt)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  bool LinkStaticFields(Thread* self,
-                        Handle<mirror::Class> klass,
-                        out<size_t> class_size)
+  bool LinkStaticFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass, size_t* class_size)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   bool LinkInstanceFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
-  bool LinkFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass, bool is_static, out<size_t> class_size)
+  bool LinkFields(Thread* self, Handle<mirror::Class> klass, bool is_static, size_t* class_size)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
-  void LinkCode(ArtMethod* method,
-                const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class,
+  void LinkCode(ArtMethod* method, const OatFile::OatClass* oat_class,
                 uint32_t class_def_method_index)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
   void CreateReferenceInstanceOffsets(Handle<mirror::Class> klass)
@@ -791,7 +686,7 @@
       REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   // Check for duplicate class definitions of the given oat file against all open oat files.
-  bool HasCollisions(const OatFile* oat_file, out<std::string> error_msg) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
+  bool HasCollisions(const OatFile* oat_file, std::string* error_msg) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
 
   bool HasInitWithString(Thread* self, const char* descriptor)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!dex_lock_);
@@ -799,11 +694,9 @@
   bool CanWeInitializeClass(mirror::Class* klass, bool can_init_statics, bool can_init_parents)
       SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_);
 
-  void UpdateClassVirtualMethods(mirror::Class* klass,
-                                 ArtMethod* new_methods,
+  void UpdateClassVirtualMethods(mirror::Class* klass, ArtMethod* new_methods,
                                  size_t new_num_methods)
-      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_)
-      REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_);
+      SHARED_REQUIRES(Locks::mutator_lock_) REQUIRES(!Locks::classlinker_classes_lock_);
 
   std::vector<const DexFile*> boot_class_path_;
   std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> opened_dex_files_;
diff --git a/runtime/debugger.cc b/runtime/debugger.cc
index 1865516..c9ae9b8 100644
--- a/runtime/debugger.cc
+++ b/runtime/debugger.cc
@@ -24,7 +24,6 @@
 #include "art_field-inl.h"
 #include "art_method-inl.h"
 #include "base/time_utils.h"
-#include "base/out.h"
 #include "class_linker.h"
 #include "class_linker-inl.h"
 #include "dex_file-inl.h"
@@ -1001,7 +1000,7 @@
 
 void Dbg::FindLoadedClassBySignature(const char* descriptor, std::vector<JDWP::RefTypeId>* ids) {
   std::vector<mirror::Class*> classes;
-  Runtime::Current()->GetClassLinker()->LookupClasses(descriptor, outof(classes));
+  Runtime::Current()->GetClassLinker()->LookupClasses(descriptor, classes);
   ids->clear();
   for (size_t i = 0; i < classes.size(); ++i) {
     ids->push_back(gRegistry->Add(classes[i]));
diff --git a/runtime/native/dalvik_system_DexFile.cc b/runtime/native/dalvik_system_DexFile.cc
index 1b210bb..4f97d20 100644
--- a/runtime/native/dalvik_system_DexFile.cc
+++ b/runtime/native/dalvik_system_DexFile.cc
@@ -17,7 +17,6 @@
 #include "dalvik_system_DexFile.h"
 
 #include "base/logging.h"
-#include "base/out.h"
 #include "base/stl_util.h"
 #include "base/stringprintf.h"
 #include "class_linker.h"
@@ -165,8 +164,7 @@
   std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> dex_files;
   std::vector<std::string> error_msgs;
 
-  dex_files =
-      linker->OpenDexFilesFromOat(sourceName.c_str(), outputName.c_str(), outof(error_msgs));
+  dex_files = linker->OpenDexFilesFromOat(sourceName.c_str(), outputName.c_str(), &error_msgs);
 
   if (!dex_files.empty()) {
     jlongArray array = ConvertNativeToJavaArray(env, dex_files);
diff --git a/runtime/native/java_lang_VMClassLoader.cc b/runtime/native/java_lang_VMClassLoader.cc
index 62a0b76..1515630 100644
--- a/runtime/native/java_lang_VMClassLoader.cc
+++ b/runtime/native/java_lang_VMClassLoader.cc
@@ -16,7 +16,6 @@
 
 #include "java_lang_VMClassLoader.h"
 
-#include "base/out.h"
 #include "class_linker.h"
 #include "jni_internal.h"
 #include "mirror/class_loader.h"
@@ -46,7 +45,7 @@
     // Try the common case.
     StackHandleScope<1> hs(soa.Self());
     cl->FindClassInPathClassLoader(soa, soa.Self(), descriptor.c_str(), descriptor_hash,
-                                   hs.NewHandle(loader), outof(c));
+                                   hs.NewHandle(loader), &c);
     if (c != nullptr) {
       return soa.AddLocalReference<jclass>(c);
     }
diff --git a/runtime/oat_file_assistant_test.cc b/runtime/oat_file_assistant_test.cc
index 65263d0..03ad2d5 100644
--- a/runtime/oat_file_assistant_test.cc
+++ b/runtime/oat_file_assistant_test.cc
@@ -26,7 +26,6 @@
 #include <gtest/gtest.h>
 
 #include "art_field-inl.h"
-#include "base/out.h"
 #include "class_linker-inl.h"
 #include "common_runtime_test.h"
 #include "compiler_callbacks.h"
@@ -959,9 +958,7 @@
     ClassLinker* linker = Runtime::Current()->GetClassLinker();
     std::vector<std::unique_ptr<const DexFile>> dex_files;
     std::vector<std::string> error_msgs;
-    dex_files = linker->OpenDexFilesFromOat(dex_location_.c_str(),
-                                            oat_location_.c_str(),
-                                            outof(error_msgs));
+    dex_files = linker->OpenDexFilesFromOat(dex_location_.c_str(), oat_location_.c_str(), &error_msgs);
     CHECK(!dex_files.empty()) << Join(error_msgs, '\n');
     CHECK(dex_files[0]->GetOatDexFile() != nullptr) << dex_files[0]->GetLocation();
     loaded_oat_file_ = dex_files[0]->GetOatDexFile()->GetOatFile();