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1. Introduction
1.1 Heterogeneous Systems
1.2 CPU Frequency Guidance
2. Window-Based Load Tracking Scheme
2.1 Synchronized Windows
2.2 struct ravg
2.3 Scaling Load Statistics
2.4 sched_window_stats_policy
2.5 Task Events
2.6 update_task_ravg()
2.7 update_history()
2.8 Per-task 'initial task load'
3. CPU Capacity
3.1 Load scale factor
3.2 CPU Power
4. CPU Power
5. HMP Scheduler
5.1 Classification of Tasks and CPUs
5.2 select_best_cpu()
5.2.1 sched_boost
5.2.2 task_will_fit()
5.2.3 Tunables affecting select_best_cpu()
5.2.4 Wakeup Logic
5.3 Scheduler Tick
5.4 Load Balancer
5.5 Real Time Tasks
5.6 Task packing
6. Frequency Guidance
6.1 Per-CPU Window-Based Stats
6.2 Per-task Window-Based Stats
6.3 Effect of various task events
7. Tunables
8. HMP Scheduler Trace Points
8.1 sched_enq_deq_task
8.2 sched_task_load
8.3 sched_cpu_load_*
8.4 sched_update_task_ravg
8.5 sched_update_history
8.6 sched_reset_all_windows_stats
8.7 sched_migration_update_sum
8.8 sched_get_busy
8.9 sched_freq_alert
8.10 sched_set_boost
Scheduler extensions described in this document serves two goals:
1) handle heterogeneous multi-processor (HMP) systems
2) guide cpufreq governor on proactive changes to cpu frequency
*** 1.1 Heterogeneous systems
Heterogeneous systems have cpus that differ with regard to their performance and
power characteristics. Some cpus could offer peak performance better than
others, although at cost of consuming more power. We shall refer such cpus as
"high performance" or "performance efficient" cpus. Other cpus that offer lesser
peak performance are referred to as "power efficient".
In this situation the scheduler is tasked with the responsibility of assigning
tasks to run on the right cpus where their performance requirements can be met
at the least expense of power.
Achieving that goal is made complicated by the fact that the scheduler has
little clue about performance requirements of tasks and how they may change by
running on power or performance efficient cpus! One simplifying assumption here
could be that a task's desire for more performance is expressed by its cpu
utilization. A task demanding high cpu utilization on a power-efficient cpu
would likely improve in its performance by running on a performance-efficient
cpu. This idea forms the basis for HMP-related scheduler extensions.
Key inputs required by the HMP scheduler for its task placement decisions are:
a) task load - this reflects cpu utilization or demand of tasks
b) CPU capacity - this reflects peak performance offered by cpus
c) CPU power - this reflects power or energy cost of cpus
Once all 3 pieces of information are available, the HMP scheduler can place
tasks on the lowest power cpus where their demand can be satisfied.
*** 1.2 CPU Frequency guidance
A somewhat separate but related goal of the scheduler extensions described here
is to provide guidance to the cpufreq governor on the need to change cpu
frequency. Most governors that control cpu frequency work on a reactive basis.
CPU utilization is sampled at regular intervals, based on which the need to
change frequency is determined. Higher utilization leads to a frequency increase
and vice-versa. There are several problems with this approach that scheduler
can help resolve.
a) latency
Reactive nature introduces latency for cpus to ramp up to desired speed
which can hurt application performance. This is inevitable as cpufreq
governors can only track cpu utilization as a whole and not tasks which
are driving that demand. Scheduler can however keep track of individual
task demand and can alert the governor on changing task activity. For
example, request raise in frequency when tasks activity is increasing on
a cpu because of wakeup or migration or request frequency to be lowered
when task activity is decreasing because of sleep/exit or migration.
b) part-picture
Most governors track utilization of each CPU independently. When a task
migrates from one cpu to another the task's execution time is split
across the two cpus. The governor can fail to see the full picture of
task demand in this case and thus the need for increasing frequency,
affecting the task's performance. Scheduler can keep track of task
migrations, fix up busy time upon migration and report per-cpu busy time
to the governor that reflects task demand accurately.
The rest of this document explains key enhancements made to the scheduler to
accomplish both of the aforementioned goals.
As mentioned in the introduction section, knowledge of the CPU demand exerted by
a task is a prerequisite to knowing where to best place the task in an HMP
system. The per-entity load tracking (PELT) scheme, present in Linux kernel
since v3.7, has some perceived shortcomings when used to place tasks on HMP
systems or provide recommendations on CPU frequency.
Per-entity load tracking does not make a distinction between the ramp up
vs ramp down time of task load. It also decays task load without exception when
a task sleeps. As an example, a cpu bound task at its peak load (LOAD_AVG_MAX or
47742) can see its load decay to 0 after a sleep of just 213ms! A cpu-bound task
running on a performance-efficient cpu could thus get re-classified as not
requiring such a cpu after a short sleep. In the case of mobile workloads, tasks
could go to sleep due to a lack of user input. When they wakeup it is very
likely their cpu utilization pattern repeats. Resetting their load across sleep
and incurring latency to reclassify them as requiring a high performance cpu can
hurt application performance.
The window-based load tracking scheme described in this document avoids these
drawbacks. It keeps track of N windows of execution for every task. Windows
where a task had no activity are ignored and not recorded. N can be tuned at
compile time (RAVG_HIST_SIZE defined in include/linux/sched.h) or at runtime
(/proc/sys/kernel/sched_ravg_hist_size). The window size, W, is common for all
tasks and currently defaults to 10ms ('sched_ravg_window' defined in
kernel/sched/core.c). The window size can be tuned at boot time via the
sched_ravg_window=W argument to kernel. Alternately it can be tuned after boot
via tunables provided by the interactive governor. More on this later.
Based on the N samples available per-task, a per-task "demand" attribute is
calculated which represents the cpu demand of that task. The demand attribute is
used to classify tasks as to whether or not they need a performance-efficient
CPU and also serves to provide inputs on frequency to the cpufreq governor. More
on this later. The 'sched_window_stats_policy' tunable (defined in
kernel/sched/core.c) controls how the demand field for a task is derived from
its N past samples.
*** 2.1 Synchronized windows
Windows of observation for task activity are synchronized across cpus. This
greatly aids in the scheduler's frequency guidance feature. Scheduler currently
relies on a synchronized clock (sched_clock()) for this feature to work. It may
be possible to extend this feature to work on systems having an unsynchronized
struct rq {
u64 window_start;
The 'window_start' attribute represents the time when current window began on a
cpu. It is updated when key task events such as wakeup or context-switch call
update_task_ravg() to record task activity. The window_start value is expected
to be the same for all cpus, although it could be behind on some cpus where it
has not yet been updated because update_task_ravg() has not been recently
called. For example, when a cpu is idle for a long time its window_start could
be stale. The window_start value for such cpus is rolled forward upon
occurrence of a task event resulting in a call to update_task_ravg().
*** 2.2 struct ravg
The ravg struct contains information tracked per-task.
struct ravg {
u64 mark_start;
u32 sum, demand;
u32 sum_history[RAVG_HIST_SIZE];
u32 curr_window, prev_window;
struct task_struct {
struct ravg ravg;
sum_history[] - stores cpu utilization samples from N previous windows
where task had activity
sum - stores cpu utilization of the task in its most recently
tracked window. Once the corresponding window terminates,
'sum' will be pushed into the sum_history[] array and is then
reset to 0. It is possible that the window corresponding to
sum is not the current window being tracked on a cpu. For
example, a task could go to sleep in window X and wakeup in
window Y (Y > X). In this case, sum would correspond to the
task's activity seen in window X. When update_task_ravg() is
called during the task's wakeup event it will be seen that
window X has elapsed. The sum value will be pushed to
'sum_history[]' array before being reset to 0.
demand - represents task's cpu demand and is derived from the
elements in sum_history[]. The section on
'sched_window_stats_policy' provides more details on how
'demand' is derived from elements in sum_history[] array
mark_start - records timestamp of the beginning of the most recent task
event. See section on 'Task events' for possible events that
update 'mark_start'
curr_window - this is described in the section on 'Frequency guidance'
prev_window - this is described in the section on 'Frequency guidance'
*** 2.3 Scaling load statistics
Time required for a task to complete its work (and hence its load) depends on,
among various other factors, cpu frequency and its efficiency. In a HMP system,
some cpus are more performance efficient than others. Performance efficiency of
a cpu can be described by its "instructions-per-cycle" (IPC) attribute. History
of task execution could involve task having run at different frequencies and on
cpus with different IPC attributes. To avoid ambiguity of how task load relates
to the frequency and IPC of cpus on which a task has run, task load is captured
in a scaled form, with scaling being done in reference to an "ideal" cpu that
has best possible IPC and frequency. Such an "ideal" cpu, having the best
possible frequency and IPC, may or may not exist in system.
As an example, consider a HMP system, with two types of cpus, A53 and A57. A53
has IPC count of 1024 and can run at maximum frequency of 1 GHz, while A57 has
IPC count of 2048 and can run at maximum frequency of 2 GHz. Ideal cpu in this
case is A57 running at 2 GHz.
A unit of work that takes 100ms to finish on A53 running at 100MHz would get
done in 10ms on A53 running at 1GHz, in 5 ms running on A57 at 1 GHz and 2.5ms
on A57 running at 2 GHz. Thus a load of 100ms can be expressed as 2.5ms in
reference to ideal cpu of A57 running at 2 GHz.
In order to understand how much load a task will consume on a given cpu, its
scaled load needs to be multiplied by a factor (load scale factor). In above
example, scaled load of 2.5ms needs to be multiplied by a factor of 4 in order
to estimate the load of task on A53 running at 1 GHz.
/proc/sched_debug provides IPC attribute and load scale factor for every cpu.
In summary, task load information stored in a task's sum_history[] array is
scaled for both frequency and efficiency. If a task runs for X ms, then the
value stored in its 'sum' field is derived as:
X_s = X * (f_cur / max_possible_freq) *
(efficiency / max_possible_efficiency)
X = cpu utilization that needs to be accounted
X_s = Scaled derivative of X
f_cur = current frequency of the cpu where the task was
max_possible_freq = maximum possible frequency (across all cpus)
efficiency = instructions per cycle (IPC) of cpu where task was
max_possible_efficiency = maximum IPC offered by any cpu in system
*** 2.4 sched_window_stats_policy
sched_window_stats_policy controls how the 'demand' attribute for a task is
derived from elements in its 'sum_history[]' array.
demand = recent
demand = max
demand = maximum(average, recent)
demand = average
M = history size specified by
average = average of first M samples found in the sum_history[] array
max = maximum value of first M samples found in the sum_history[]
recent = most recent sample (sum_history[0])
demand = demand attribute found in 'struct ravg'
This policy can be changed at runtime via
/proc/sys/kernel/sched_window_stats_policy. For example, the command
below would select WINDOW_STATS_USE_MAX policy
echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/sched_window_stats_policy
*** 2.5 Task events
A number of events results in the window-based stats of a task being
updated. These are:
PICK_NEXT_TASK - the task is about to start running on a cpu
PUT_PREV_TASK - the task stopped running on a cpu
TASK_WAKE - the task is waking from sleep
TASK_MIGRATE - the task is migrating from one cpu to another
TASK_UPDATE - this event is invoked on a currently running task to
update the task's window-stats and also the cpu's
window-stats such as 'window_start'
IRQ_UPDATE - event to record the busy time spent by an idle cpu
processing interrupts
*** 2.6 update_task_ravg()
update_task_ravg() is called to mark the beginning of an event for a task or a
cpu. It serves to accomplish these functions:
a. Update a cpu's window_start value
b. Update a task's window-stats (sum, sum_history[], demand and mark_start)
In addition update_task_ravg() updates the busy time information for the given
cpu, which is used for frequency guidance. This is described further in section
*** 2.7 update_history()
update_history() is called on a task to record its activity in an elapsed
window. 'sum', which represents task's cpu demand in its elapsed window is
pushed onto sum_history[] array and its 'demand' attribute is updated based on
the sched_window_stats_policy in effect.
*** 2.8 Initial task load attribute for a task (init_load_pct)
In some cases, it may be desirable for children of a task to be assigned a
"high" load so that they can start running on best capacity cluster. By default,
newly created tasks are assigned a load defined by tunable sched_init_task_load
(Sec 7.8). Some specialized tasks may need a higher value than the global
default for their child tasks. This will let child tasks run on cpus with best
capacity. This is accomplished by setting the 'initial task load' attribute
(init_load_pct) for a task. Child tasks starting load (ravg.demand and
ravg.sum_history[]) is initialized from their parent's 'initial task load'
attribute. Note that child task's 'initial task load' attribute itself will be 0
by default (i.e it is not inherited from parent).
A task's 'initial task load' attribute can be set in two ways:
**** /proc interface
/proc/[pid]/sched_init_task_load can be written to for setting a task's 'initial
task load' attribute. A numeric value between 0 - 100 (in percent scale) is
accepted for task's 'initial task load' attribute.
Reading /proc/[pid]/sched_init_task_load returns the 'initial task load'
attribute for the given task.
**** kernel API
Following kernel APIs are provided to set or retrieve a given task's 'initial
task load' attribute:
int sched_set_init_task_load(struct task_struct *p, int init_load_pct);
int sched_get_init_task_load(struct task_struct *p);
CPU capacity reflects peak performance offered by a cpu. It is defined both by
maximum frequency at which cpu can run and its efficiency attribute. Capacity of
a cpu is defined in reference to "least" performing cpu such that "least"
performing cpu has capacity of 1024.
capacity = 1024 * (fmax_cur * / min_max_freq) *
(efficiency / min_possible_efficiency)
fmax_cur = maximum frequency at which cpu is currently
allowed to run at
efficiency = IPC of cpu
min_max_freq = max frequency at which "least" performing cpu
can run
min_possible_efficiency = IPC of "least" performing cpu
'fmax_cur' reflects the fact that a cpu may be constrained at runtime to run at
a maximum frequency less than what is supported. This may be a constraint placed
by user or drivers such as thermal that intends to reduce temperature of a cpu
by restricting its maximum frequency.
'max_possible_capacity' reflects the maximum capacity of a cpu based on the
maximum frequency it supports.
max_possible_capacity = 1024 * (fmax * / min_max_freq) *
(efficiency / min_possible_efficiency)
fmax = maximum frequency supported by a cpu
/proc/sched_debug lists capacity and maximum_capacity information for a cpu.
In the example HMP system quoted in Sec 2.3, "least" performing CPU is A53 and
thus min_max_freq = 1GHz and min_possible_efficiency = 1024.
Capacity of A57 = 1024 * (2GHz / 1GHz) * (2048 / 1024) = 4096
Capacity of A53 = 1024 * (1GHz / 1GHz) * (1024 / 1024) = 1024
Capacity of A57 when constrained to run at maximum frequency of 500MHz can be
calculated as:
Capacity of A57 = 1024 * (500MHz / 1GHz) * (2048 / 1024) = 1024
*** 3.1 load_scale_factor
'lsf' or load scale factor attribute of a cpu is used to estimate load of a task
on that cpu when running at its fmax_cur frequency. 'lsf' is defined in
reference to "best" performing cpu such that it's lsf is 1024. 'lsf' for a cpu
is defined as:
lsf = 1024 * (max_possible_freq / fmax_cur) *
(max_possible_efficiency / ipc)
fmax_cur = maximum frequency at which cpu is currently
allowed to run at
ipc = IPC of cpu
max_possible_freq = max frequency at which "best" performing cpu
can run
max_possible_efficiency = IPC of "best" performing cpu
In the example HMP system quoted in Sec 2.3, "best" performing CPU is A57 and
thus max_possible_freq = 2 GHz, max_possible_efficiency = 2048
lsf of A57 = 1024 * (2GHz / 2GHz) * (2048 / 2048) = 1024
lsf of A53 = 1024 * (2GHz / 1 GHz) * (2048 / 1024) = 4096
lsf of A57 constrained to run at maximum frequency of 500MHz can be calculated
lsf of A57 = 1024 * (2GHz / 500Mhz) * (2048 / 2048) = 4096
To estimate load of a task on a given cpu running at its fmax_cur:
load = scaled_load * lsf / 1024
A task with scaled load of 20% would thus be estimated to consume 80% bandwidth
of A53 running at 1GHz. The same task with scaled load of 20% would be estimated
to consume 160% bandwidth on A53 constrained to run at maximum frequency of
load_scale_factor, thus, is very useful to estimate load of a task on a given
cpu and thus to decide whether it can fit in a cpu or not.
*** 3.2 cpu_power
A metric 'cpu_power' related to 'capacity' is also listed in /proc/sched_debug.
'cpu_power' is ideally same for all cpus (1024) when they are idle and running
at the same frequency. 'cpu_power' of a cpu can be scaled down from its ideal
value to reflect reduced frequency it is operating at and also to reflect the
amount of cpu bandwidth consumed by real-time tasks executing on it.
'cpu_power' metric is used by scheduler to decide task load distribution among
cpus. CPUs with low 'cpu_power' will be assigned less task load compared to cpus
with higher 'cpu_power'
The HMP scheduler extensions currently depend on an architecture-specific driver
to provide runtime information on cpu power. In the absence of an
architecture-specific driver, the scheduler will resort to using the
max_possible_capacity metric of a cpu as a measure of its power.
For normal (SCHED_OTHER/fair class) tasks there are three paths in the
scheduler which these HMP extensions affect. The task wakeup path, the
load balancer, and the scheduler tick are each modified.
Real-time and stop-class tasks are served by different code
paths. These will be discussed separately.
Prior to delving further into the algorithm and implementation however
some definitions are required.
*** 5.1 Classification of Tasks and CPUs
With the extensions described thus far, the following information is
available to the HMP scheduler:
- per-task CPU demand information from either Per-Entity Load Tracking
(PELT) or the window-based algorithm described above
- a power value for each frequency supported by each CPU via the API
described in section 4
- current CPU frequency, maximum CPU frequency (may be throttled by at
runtime due to thermal conditions), maximum possible CPU frequency supported
by hardware
- data previously maintained within the scheduler such as the number
of currently runnable tasks on each CPU
Combined with tunable parameters, this information can be used to classify
both tasks and CPUs to aid in the placement of tasks.
- big task
A big task is one that exerts a CPU demand too high for a particular
CPU to satisfy. The scheduler will attempt to find a CPU with more
capacity for such a task.
The definition of "big" is specific to a task *and* a CPU. A task
may be considered big on one CPU in the system and not big on
another if the first CPU has less capacity than the second.
What task demand is "too high" for a particular CPU? One obvious
answer would be a task demand which, as measured by PELT or
window-based load tracking, matches or exceeds the capacity of that
CPU. A task which runs on a CPU for a long time, for example, might
meet this criteria as it would report 100% demand of that CPU. It
may be desirable however to classify tasks which use less than 100%
of a particular CPU as big so that the task has some "headroom" to grow
without its CPU bandwidth getting capped and its performance requirements
not being met. This task demand is therefore a tunable parameter:
This value is a percentage. If a task consumes more than this much of a
particular CPU, that CPU will be considered too small for the task. The task
will thus be seen as a "big" task on the cpu and will reflect in nr_big_tasks
statistics maintained for that cpu. Note that certain tasks (whose nice
value exceeds sched_upmigrate_min_nice value or those that belong to a cgroup
whose upmigrate_discourage flag is set) will never be classified as big tasks
despite their high demand.
As the load scale factor is calculated against current fmax, it gets boosted
when a lower capacity CPU is restricted to run at lower fmax. The task
demand is inflated in this scenario and the task upmigrates early to the
maximum capacity CPU. Hence this threshold is auto-adjusted by a factor
equal to max_possible_frequency/current_frequency of a lower capacity CPU.
This adjustment happens only when the lower capacity CPU frequency is
restricted. The same adjustment is applied to the downmigrate threshold
as well.
When the frequency restriction is relaxed, the previous values are restored.
sched_up_down_migrate_auto_update macro defined in kernel/sched/core.c
controls this auto-adjustment behavior and it is enabled by default.
If the adjusted upmigrate threshold exceeds the window size, it is clipped to
the window size. If the adjusted downmigrate threshold decreases the difference
between the upmigrate and downmigrate, it is clipped to a value such that the
difference between the modified and the original thresholds is same.
- spill threshold
Tasks will normally be placed on lowest power-cost cluster where they can fit.
This could result in power-efficient cluster becoming overcrowded when there
are "too" many low-demand tasks. Spill threshold provides a spill over
criteria, wherein low-demand task are allowed to be placed on idle or
busy cpus in high-performance cluster.
Scheduler will avoid placing a task on a cpu if it can result in cpu exceeding
its spill threshold, which is defined by two tunables:
/proc/sys/kernel/sched_spill_nr_run (default: 10)
/proc/sys/kernel/sched_spill_load (default : 100%)
A cpu is considered to be above its spill level if it already has 10 tasks or
if the sum of task load (scaled in reference to given cpu) and
rq->cumulative_runnable_avg exceeds 'sched_spill_load'.
- power band
The scheduler may be faced with a tradeoff between power and performance when
placing a task. If the scheduler sees two CPUs which can accommodate a task:
CPU 1, power cost of 20, load of 10
CPU 2, power cost of 10, load of 15
It is not clear what the right choice of CPU is. The HMP scheduler
offers the sched_powerband_limit tunable to determine how this
situation should be handled. When the power delta between two CPUs
is less than sched_powerband_limit_pct, load will be prioritized as
the deciding factor as to which CPU is selected. If the power delta
between two CPUs exceeds that, the lower power CPU is considered to
be in a different "band" and it is selected, despite perhaps having
a higher current task load.
*** 5.2 select_best_cpu()
CPU placement decisions for a task at its wakeup or creation time are the
most important decisions made by the HMP scheduler. This section will describe
the call flow and algorithm used in detail.
The primary entry point for a task wakeup operation is try_to_wake_up(),
located in kernel/sched/core.c. This function relies on select_task_rq() to
determine the target CPU for the waking task. For fair-class (SCHED_OTHER)
tasks, that request will be routed to select_task_rq_fair() in
kernel/sched/fair.c. As part of these scheduler extensions a hook has been
inserted into the top of that function. If HMP scheduling is enabled the normal
scheduling behavior will be replaced by a call to select_best_cpu(). This
function, select_best_cpu(), represents the heart of the HMP scheduling
algorithm described in this document. Note that select_best_cpu() is also
invoked for a task being created.
The behavior of select_best_cpu() depends on several factors such as boost
setting, choice of several tunables and on task demand.
**** 5.2.1 Boost
The task placement policy changes signifincantly when scheduler boost is in
effect. When boost is in effect the scheduler ignores the power cost of
placing tasks on CPUs. Instead it figures out the load on each CPU and then
places task on the least loaded CPU. If the load of two or more CPUs is the
same (generally when CPUs are idle) the task prefers to go highest capacity
CPU in the system.
A further enhancement during boost is the scheduler' early detection feature.
While boost is in effect the scheduler checks for the precence of tasks that
have been runnable for over some period of time within the tick. For such
tasks the scheduler informs the governor of imminent need for high frequency.
If there exists a task on the runqueue at the tick that has been runnable
for greater than sched_early_detection_duration amount of time, it notifies
the governor with a fabricated load of the full window at the highest
frequency. The fabricated load is maintained until the task is no longer
runnable or until the next tick.
Boost can be set via either /proc/sys/kernel/sched_boost or by invoking
kernel API sched_set_boost().
int sched_set_boost(int enable);
Once turned on, boost will remain in effect until it is explicitly turned off.
To allow for boost to be controlled by multiple external entities (application
or kernel module) at same time, boost setting is reference counted. This means
that two applications can turn on boost and the effect of boost is eliminated
only after both applications have turned off boost. boost_refcount variable
represents this reference count.
**** 5.2.2 task_will_fit()
The overall goal of select_best_cpu() is to place a task on the least power
cluster where it can "fit" i.e where its cpu usage shall be below the capacity
offered by cluster. Criteria for a task to be considered as fitting in a cluster
i) A low-priority task, whose nice value is greater than
sysctl_sched_upmigrate_min_nice or whose cgroup has its
upmigrate_discourage flag set, is considered to be fitting in all clusters,
irrespective of their capacity and task's cpu demand.
ii) All tasks are considered to fit in highest capacity cluster.
iii) Task demand scaled in reference to the given cluster should be less than a
threshold. See section on load_scale_factor to know more about how task
demand is scaled in reference to a given cpu (cluster). The threshold used
is normally sched_upmigrate. Its possible for a task's demand to exceed
sched_upmigrate threshold in reference to a cluster when its upmigrated to
higher capacity cluster. To prevent it from coming back immediately to
lower capacity cluster, the task is not considered to "fit" on its earlier
cluster until its demand has dropped below sched_downmigrate in reference
to that earlier cluster. sched_downmigrate thus provides for some
hysteresis control.
**** 5.2.3 Factors affecting select_best_cpu()
Behavior of select_best_cpu() is further controlled by several tunables and
synchronous nature of wakeup.
a. /proc/sys/kernel/sched_cpu_high_irqload
A cpu whose irq load is greater than this threshold will not be
considered eligible for placement. This threshold value in expressed in
nanoseconds scale, with default threshold being 10000000 (10ms). See
notes on sched_cpu_high_irqload tunable to understand how irq load on a
cpu is measured.
b. Synchronous nature of wakeup
Synchronous wakeup is a hint to scheduler that the task issuing wakeup
(i.e task currently running on cpu where wakeup is being processed by
scheduler) will "soon" relinquish CPU. A simple example is two tasks
communicating with each other using a pipe structure. When reader task
blocks waiting for data, its woken by writer task after it has written
data to pipe. Writer task usually blocks waiting for reader task to
consume data in pipe (which may not have any more room for writes).
Synchronous wakeup is accounted for by adjusting load of a cpu to not
include load of currently running task. As a result, a cpu that has only
one runnable task and which is currently processing synchronous wakeup
will be considered idle.
Any task with this flag set will be woken up to an idle cpu (if one is
available) independent of sched_prefer_idle flag setting, its demand and
synchronous nature of wakeup. Similarly idle cpu is preferred during
wakeup for any task that does not have this flag set but is being woken
by a task with PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE flag set. For simplicity, we will use the
term "PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE wakeup" to signify wakeups involving a task with
PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE flag set.
**** 5.2.4 Wakeup Logic for Task "p"
Wakeup task placement logic is as follows:
1) Eliminate CPUs with high irq load based on sched_cpu_high_irqload tunable.
2) Eliminate CPUs where either the task does not fit or CPUs where placement
will result in exceeding the spill threshold tunables. CPUs elimiated at this
stage will be considered as backup choices incase none of the CPUs get past
this stage.
3) Find out and return the least power CPU that satisfies all conditions above.
4) If two or more CPUs are projected to have the same power, break ties in the
following preference order:
a) The CPU is the task's previous CPU.
b) The CPU is in the same cluster as the task's previous CPU.
c) The CPU has the least load
The placement logic described above does not apply when PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE is set
for either the waker task or the wakee task. Instead the scheduler chooses the
most power efficient idle CPU.
5) If no CPU is found after step 2, resort to backup CPU selection logic
whereby the CPU with highest amount of spare capacity is selected.
6) If none of the CPUs have any spare capacity, return the task's previous
*** 5.3 Scheduler Tick
Every CPU is interrupted periodically to let kernel update various statistics
and possibly preempt the currently running task in favor of a waiting task. This
periodicity, determined by CONFIG_HZ value, is set at 10ms. There are various
optimizations by which a CPU however can skip taking these interrupts (ticks).
A cpu going idle for considerable time in one such case.
HMP scheduler extensions brings in a change in processing of tick
(scheduler_tick()) that can result in task migration. In case the currently
running task on a cpu belongs to fair_sched class, a check is made if it needs
to be migrated. Possible reasons for migrating task could be:
a) A big task is running on a power-efficient cpu and a high-performance cpu is
available (idle) to service it
b) A task is starving on a CPU with high irq load.
c) A task with upmigration discouraged is running on a performance cluster.
See notes on 'cpu.upmigrate_discourage' and sched_upmigrate_min_nice tunables.
In case the test for migration turns out positive (which is expected to be rare
event), a candidate cpu is identified for task migration. To avoid multiple task
migrations to the same candidate cpu(s), identification of candidate cpu is
serialized via global spinlock (migration_lock).
*** 5.4 Load Balancer
Load balance is a key functionality of scheduler that strives to distribute task
across available cpus in a "fair" manner. Most of the complexity associated with
this feature involves balancing fair_sched class tasks. Changes made to load
balance code serve these goals:
1. Restrict flow of tasks from power-efficient cpus to high-performance cpu.
Provide a spill-over threshold, defined in terms of number of tasks
(sched_spill_nr_run) and cpu demand (sched_spill_load), beyond which tasks
can spill over from power-efficient cpu to high-performance cpus.
2. Allow idle power-efficient cpus to pick up extra load from over-loaded
performance-efficient cpu
3. Allow idle high-performance cpu to pick up big tasks from power-efficient cpu
*** 5.5 Real Time Tasks
Minimal changes introduced in treatment of real-time tasks by HMP scheduler
aims at preferring scheduling of real-time tasks on cpus with low load on
a power efficient cluster.
Prior to HMP scheduler, the fast-path cpu selection for placing a real-time task
(at wakeup) is its previous cpu, provided the currently running task on its
previous cpu is not a real-time task or a real-time task with lower priority.
Failing this, cpu selection in slow-path involves building a list of candidate
cpus where the waking real-time task will be of highest priority and thus can be
run immediately. The first cpu from this candidate list is chosen for the waking
real-time task. Much of the premise for this simple approach is the assumption
that real-time tasks often execute for very short intervals and thus the focus
is to place them on a cpu where they can be run immediately.
HMP scheduler brings in a change which avoids fast-path and always resorts to
slow-path. Further cpu with lowest load in a power efficient cluster from
candidate list of cpus is chosen as cpu for placing waking real-time task.
Idle cpu is preferred for any waking task that has this flag set in its
'task_struct.flags' field. Further idle cpu is preferred for any task woken by
such tasks. PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE flag of a task is inherited by it's children. It can
be modified for a task in two ways:
> kernel-space interface
set_wake_up_idle() needs to be called in the context of a task
to set or clear its PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE flag.
> user-space interface
/proc/[pid]/sched_wake_up_idle file needs to be written to for
setting or clearing PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE flag for a given task
As mentioned in the introduction section the scheduler is in a unique
position to assist with the determination of CPU frequency. Because
the scheduler now maintains an estimate of per-task CPU demand, task
activity can be tracked, aggregated and provided to the CPUfreq
governor as a replacement for simple CPU busy time. CONFIG_SCHED_FREQ_INPUT
kernel configuration variable needs to be enabled for this feature to be active.
Two of the most popular CPUfreq governors, interactive and ondemand,
utilize a window-based approach for measuring CPU busy time. This
works well with the window-based load tracking scheme previously
described. The following APIs are provided to allow the CPUfreq
governor to query busy time from the scheduler instead of using the
basic CPU busy time value derived via get_cpu_idle_time_us() and
get_cpu_iowait_time_us() APIs.
int sched_set_window(u64 window_start, unsigned int window_size)
This API is invoked by governor at initialization time or whenever
window size is changed. 'window_size' argument (in jiffy units)
indicates the size of window to be used. The first window of size
'window_size' is set to begin at jiffy 'window_start'
-EINVAL is returned if per-entity load tracking is in use rather
than window-based load tracking, otherwise a success value of 0
is returned.
int sched_get_busy(int cpu)
Returns the busy time for the given CPU in the most recent
complete window. The value returned is microseconds of busy
time at fmax of given CPU.
The values returned by sched_get_busy() take a bit of explanation,
both in what they mean and also how they are derived.
*** 6.1 Per-CPU Window-Based Stats
In addition to the per-task window-based demand, the HMP scheduler
extensions also track the aggregate demand seen on each CPU. This is
done using the same windows that the task demand is tracked with
(which is in turn set by the governor when frequency guidance is in
use). There are four quantities maintained for each CPU by the HMP scheduler:
curr_runnable_sum: aggregate demand from all tasks which executed during
the current (not yet completed) window
prev_runnable_sum: aggregate demand from all tasks which executed during
the most recent completed window
nt_curr_runnable_sum: aggregate demand from all 'new' tasks which executed
during the current (not yet completed) window
nt_prev_runnable_sum: aggregate demand from all 'new' tasks which executed
during the most recent completed window.
When the scheduler is updating a task's window-based stats it also
updates these values. Like per-task window-based demand these
quantities are normalized against the max possible frequency and max
efficiency (instructions per cycle) in the system. If an update occurs
and a window rollover is observed, curr_runnable_sum is copied into
prev_runnable_sum before being reset to 0. The sched_get_busy() API
returns prev_runnable_sum, scaled to the efficiency and fmax of given
CPU. The same applies to nt_curr_runnable_sum and nt_prev_runnable_sum.
A 'new' task is defined as a task whose number of active windows since fork is
less than sysctl_sched_new_task_windows. An active window is defined as a window
where a task was observed to be runnable.
*** 6.2 Per-task window-based stats
Corresponding to curr_runnable_sum and prev_runnable_sum, two counters are
maintained per-task
curr_window - represents cpu demand of task in its most recently tracked
prev_window - represents cpu demand of task in the window prior to the one
being tracked by curr_window
The above counters are resued for nt_curr_runnable_sum and
"cpu demand" of a task includes its execution time and can also include its
wait time. 'sched_freq_account_wait_time' tunable controls whether task's wait
time is included in its 'curr_window' and 'prev_window' counters or not.
Needless to say, curr_runnable_sum counter of a cpu is derived from curr_window
counter of various tasks that ran on it in its most recent window.
*** 6.3 Effect of various task events
We now consider various events and how they affect above mentioned counters.
This represents beginning of execution for a task. Provided the task
refers to a non-idle task, a portion of task's wait time that
corresponds to the current window being tracked on a cpu is added to
task's curr_window counter, provided sched_freq_account_wait_time is
set. The same quantum is also added to cpu's curr_runnable_sum counter.
The remaining portion, which corresponds to task's wait time in previous
window is added to task's prev_window and cpu's prev_runnable_sum
This represents end of execution of a time-slice for a task, where the
task could refer to a cpu's idle task also. In case the task is non-idle
or (in case of task being idle with cpu having non-zero rq->nr_iowait
count and sched_io_is_busy =1), a portion of task's execution time, that
corresponds to current window being tracked on a cpu is added to task's
curr_window_counter and also to cpu's curr_runnable_sum counter. Portion
of task's execution that corresponds to the previous window is added to
task's prev_window and cpu's prev_runnable_sum counters.
This event is called on a cpu's currently running task and hence
behaves effectively as PUT_PREV_TASK. Task continues executing after
this event, until PUT_PREV_TASK event occurs on the task (during
context switch).
This event signifies a task waking from sleep. Since many windows
could have elapsed since the task went to sleep, its curr_window
and prev_window are updated to reflect task's demand in the most
recent and its previous window that is being tracked on a cpu.
This event signifies task migration across cpus. It is invoked on the
task prior to being moved. Thus at the time of this event, the task
can be considered to be in "waiting" state on src_cpu. In that way
this event reflects actions taken under PICK_NEXT_TASK (i.e its
wait time is added to task's curr/prev_window counters as well
as src_cpu's curr/prev_runnable_sum counters, provided
sched_freq_account_wait_time tunable is non-zero). After that update,
src_cpu's curr_runnable_sum is reduced by task's curr_window value
and dst_cpu's curr_runnable_sum is increased by task's curr_window
value, provided sched_migration_fixup = 1. Similarly, src_cpu's
prev_runnable_sum is reduced by task's prev_window value and dst_cpu's
prev_runnable_sum is increased by task's prev_window value,
provided sched_migration_fixup = 1
This event signifies end of execution of an interrupt handler. This
event results in update of cpu's busy time counters, curr_runnable_sum
and prev_runnable_sum, provided cpu was idle.
When sched_io_is_busy = 0, only the interrupt handling time is added
to cpu's curr_runnable_sum and prev_runnable_sum counters. When
sched_io_is_busy = 1, the event mirrors actions taken under
TASK_UPDATED event i.e time since last accounting of idle task's cpu
usage is added to cpu's curr_runnable_sum and prev_runnable_sum
*** 7.1 sched_spill_load
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_spill_load
Default value: 100
CPU selection criteria for fair-sched class tasks is the lowest power cpu where
they can fit. When the most power-efficient cpu where a task can fit is
overloaded (aggregate demand of tasks currently queued on it exceeds
sched_spill_load), a task can be placed on a higher-performance cpu, even though
the task strictly doesn't need one.
*** 7.2 sched_spill_nr_run
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_spill_nr_run
Default value: 10
The intent of this tunable is similar to sched_spill_load, except it applies to
nr_running count of a cpu. A task can spill over to a higher-performance cpu
when the most power-efficient cpu where it can normally fit has more tasks than
*** 7.3 sched_upmigrate
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_upmigrate
Default value: 80
This tunable is a percentage. If a task consumes more than this much
of a CPU, the CPU is considered too small for the task and the
scheduler will try to find a bigger CPU to place the task on.
*** 7.4 sched_init_task_load
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_init_task_load
Default value: 15
This tunable is a percentage. When a task is first created it has no
history, so the task load tracking mechanism cannot determine a
historical load value to assign to it. This tunable specifies the
initial load value for newly created tasks. Also see Sec 2.8 on per-task
'initial task load' attribute.
*** 7.5 sched_upmigrate_min_nice
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_upmigrate_min_nice
Default value: 15
A task whose nice value is greater than this tunable value will never
be considered as a "big" task (it will not be allowed to run on a
high-performance CPU).
See also notes on 'cpu.upmigrate_discourage' tunable.
*** 7.6 sched_enable_power_aware
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_enable_power_aware
Default value: 0
Controls whether or not per-CPU power values are used in determining
task placement. If this is disabled, tasks are simply placed on the
least capacity CPU that will adequately meet the task's needs as
determined by the task load tracking mechanism. If this is enabled,
after a set of CPUs are determined which will meet the task's
performance needs, a CPU is selected which is reported to have the
lowest power consumption at that time.
*** 7.7 sched_ravg_hist_size
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_ravg_hist_size
Default value: 5
This tunable controls the number of samples used from task's sum_history[]
array for determination of its demand.
*** 7.8 sched_window_stats_policy
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_window_stats_policy
Default value: 2
This tunable controls the policy in how window-based load tracking
calculates an overall demand value based on the windows of CPU
utilization it has collected for a task.
Possible values for this tunable are:
0: Just use the most recent window sample of task activity when calculating
task demand.
1: Use the maximum value of first M samples found in task's cpu demand
history (sum_history[] array), where M = sysctl_sched_ravg_hist_size
2: Use the maximum of (the most recent window sample, average of first M
samples), where M = sysctl_sched_ravg_hist_size
3. Use average of first M samples, where M = sysctl_sched_ravg_hist_size
*** 7.9 sched_ravg_window
Appears at: kernel command line argument
Default value: 10000000 (10ms, units of tunable are nanoseconds)
This specifies the duration of each window in window-based load
tracking. By default each window is 10ms long. This quantity must
currently be set at boot time on the kernel command line (or the
default value of 10ms can be used).
Appears at: compile time only (see RAVG_HIST_SIZE in include/linux/sched.h)
Default value: 5
This macro specifies the number of windows the window-based load
tracking mechanism maintains per task. If default values are used for
both this and sched_ravg_window then a total of 50ms of task history
would be maintained in 5 10ms windows.
*** 7.11 sched_account_wait_time
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_account_wait_time
Default value: 1
This controls whether a task's wait time is accounted as its demand for cpu
and thus the values found in its sum, sum_history[] and demand attributes.
*** 7.12 sched_freq_account_wait_time
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_freq_account_wait_time
Default value: 0
This controls whether a task's wait time is accounted in its curr_window and
prev_window attributes and thus in a cpu's curr_runnable_sum and
prev_runnable_sum counters.
*** 7.13 sched_migration_fixup
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_migration_fixup
Default value: 1
This controls whether a cpu's busy time counters are adjusted during task
*** 7.14 sched_freq_inc_notify
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_freq_inc_notify
Default value: 10 * 1024 * 1024 (10 Ghz)
When scheduler detects that cur_freq of a cluster is insufficient to meet
demand, it sends notification to governor, provided (freq_required - cur_freq)
exceeds sched_freq_inc_notify, where freq_required is the frequency calculated
by scheduler to meet current task demand. Note that sched_freq_inc_notify is
specified in kHz units.
*** 7.15 sched_freq_dec_notify
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_freq_dec_notify
Default value: 10 * 1024 * 1024 (10 Ghz)
When scheduler detects that cur_freq of a cluster is far greater than what is
needed to serve current task demand, it will send notification to governor.
More specifically, notification is sent when (cur_freq - freq_required)
exceeds sched_freq_dec_notify, where freq_required is the frequency calculated
by scheduler to meet current task demand. Note that sched_freq_dec_notify is
specified in kHz units.
** 7.16 sched_heavy_task
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_heavy_task
Default value: 0
This tunable can be used to specify a demand value for tasks above which task
are classified as "heavy" tasks. Task's ravg.demand attribute is used for this
comparison. Scheduler will request a raise in cpu frequency when heavy tasks
wakeup after at least one window of sleep, where window size is defined by
sched_ravg_window. Value 0 will disable this feature.
*** 7.17 sched_cpu_high_irqload
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_cpu_high_irqload
Default value: 10000000 (10ms)
The scheduler keeps a decaying average of the amount of irq and softirq activity
seen on each CPU within a ten millisecond window. Note that this "irqload"
(reported in the sched_cpu_load_* tracepoint) will be higher than the typical load
in a single window since every time the window rolls over, the value is decayed
by some fraction and then added to the irq/softirq time spent in the next
When the irqload on a CPU exceeds the value of this tunable, the CPU is no
longer eligible for placement. This will affect the task placement logic
described above, causing the scheduler to try and steer tasks away from
the CPU.
** 7.18 cpu.upmigrate_discourage
Default value : 0
This is a cgroup attribute supported by the cpu resource controller. It normally
appears at [root_cpu]/[name1]/../[name2]/cpu.upmigrate_discourage. Here
"root_cpu" is the mount point for cgroup (cpu resource control) filesystem
and name1, name2 etc are names of cgroups that form a hierarchy.
Setting this flag to 1 discourages upmigration for all tasks of a cgroup. High
demand tasks of such a cgroup will never be classified as big tasks and hence
not upmigrated. Any task of the cgroup is allowed to upmigrate only under
overcommitted scenario. See notes on sched_spill_nr_run and sched_spill_load for
how overcommitment threshold is defined and also notes on
'sched_upmigrate_min_nice' tunable.
*** 7.19 sched_static_cpu_pwr_cost
Default value: 0
Appears at /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu<x>/sched_static_cpu_pwr_cost
This is the power cost associated with bringing an idle CPU out of low power
mode. It ignores the actual C-state that a CPU may be in and assumes the
worst case power cost of the highest C-state. It is means of biasing task
placement away from idle CPUs when necessary. It can be defined per CPU,
however, a more appropriate usage to define the same value for every CPU
within a cluster and possibly have differing value between clusters as
*** 7.20 sched_static_cluster_pwr_cost
Default value: 0
Appears at /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu<x>/sched_static_cluster_pwr_cost
This is the power cost associated with bringing an idle cluster out of low
power mode. It ignores the actual D-state that a cluster may be in and assumes
the worst case power cost of the highest D-state. It is means of biasing task
placement away from idle clusters when necessary.
***7.23 sched_early_detection_duration
Default value: 9500000
Appears at /proc/sys/kernel/sched_early_detection_duration
This governs the time in microseconds that a task has to runnable within one
tick for it to be eligible for the scheduler's early detection feature
under scheduler boost. For more information on the feature itself please
refer to section 5.2.1.
*** 7.24 sched_restrict_cluster_spill
Default value: 0
Appears at /proc/sys/kernel/sched_restrict_cluster_spill
This tunable can be used to restrict tasks spilling to the higher capacity
(higher power) cluster. When this tunable is enabled,
- Restrict the higher capacity cluster pulling tasks from the lower capacity
cluster in the load balance path. The restriction is lifted if all of the CPUS
in the lower capacity cluster are above spill. The power cost is used to break
the ties if the capacity of clusters are same for applying this restriction.
- The current CPU selection algorithm for RT tasks looks for the least loaded
CPU across all clusters. When this tunable is enabled, the RT tasks are
restricted to the lowest possible power cluster.
*** 7.25 sched_downmigrate
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_downmigrate
Default value: 60
This tunable is a percentage. It exists to control hysteresis. Lets say a task
migrated to a high-performance cpu when it crossed 80% demand on a
power-efficient cpu. We don't let it come back to a power-efficient cpu until
its demand *in reference to the power-efficient cpu* drops less than 60%
*** 7.26 sched_small_wakee_task_load
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_small_wakee_task_load
Default value: 10
This tunable is a percentage. Configure the maximum demand of small wakee task.
Sync wakee tasks which have demand less than sched_small_wakee_task_load are
categorized as small wakee tasks. Scheduler places small wakee tasks on the
waker's cluster.
*** 7.27 sched_big_waker_task_load
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_big_waker_task_load
Default value: 25
This tunable is a percentage. Configure the minimum demand of big sync waker
task. Scheduler places small wakee tasks woken up by big sync waker on the
waker's cluster.
*** 7.28 sched_prefer_sync_wakee_to_waker
Appears at: /proc/sys/kernel/sched_prefer_sync_wakee_to_waker
Default value: 0
The default sync wakee policy has a preference to select an idle CPU in the
waker cluster compared to the waker CPU running only 1 task. By selecting
an idle CPU, it eliminates the chance of waker migrating to a different CPU
after the wakee preempts it. This policy is also not susceptible to the
incorrect "sync" usage i.e the waker does not goto sleep after waking up
the wakee.
However LPM exit latency associated with an idle CPU outweigh the above
benefits on some targets. When this knob is turned on, the waker CPU is
selected if it has only 1 runnable task.
*** 8.1 sched_enq_deq_task
Logged when a task is either enqueued or dequeued on a CPU's run queue.
<idle>-0 [004] d.h4 12700.711665: sched_enq_deq_task: cpu=4 enqueue comm=powertop pid=13227 prio=120 nr_running=1 cpu_load=0 rt_nr_running=0 affine=ff demand=13364423
- cpu: the CPU that the task is being enqueued on to or dequeued off of
- enqueue/dequeue: whether this was an enqueue or dequeue event
- comm: name of task
- pid: PID of task
- prio: priority of task
- nr_running: number of runnable tasks on this CPU
- cpu_load: current priority-weighted load on the CPU (note, this is *not*
the same as CPU utilization or a metric tracked by PELT/window-based tracking)
- rt_nr_running: number of real-time processes running on this CPU
- affine: CPU affinity mask in hex for this task (so ff is a task eligible to
run on CPUs 0-7)
- demand: window-based task demand computed based on selected policy (recent,
max, or average) (ns)
*** 8.2 sched_task_load
Logged when selecting the best CPU to run the task (select_best_cpu()).
sched_task_load: 4004 (adbd): demand=698425 boost=0 reason=0 sync=0 need_idle=0 best_cpu=0 latency=103177
- demand: window-based task demand computed based on selected policy (recent,
max, or average) (ns)
- boost: whether boost is in effect
- reason: reason we are picking a new CPU:
0: no migration - selecting a CPU for a wakeup or new task wakeup
1: move to big CPU (migration)
2: move to little CPU (migration)
3: move to low irq load CPU (migration)
- sync: is the nature synchronous in nature
- need_idle: is an idle CPU required for this task based on PF_WAKE_UP_IDLE
- best_cpu: The CPU selected by the select_best_cpu() function for placement
- latency: The execution time of the function select_best_cpu()
*** 8.3 sched_cpu_load_*
Logged when selecting the best CPU to run a task (select_best_cpu() for fair
class tasks, find_lowest_rq_hmp() for RT tasks) and load balancing
<idle>-0 [004] d.h3 12700.711541: sched_cpu_load_*: cpu 0 idle 1 nr_run 0 nr_big 0 lsf 1119 capacity 1024 cr_avg 0 irqload 3301121 fcur 729600 fmax 1459200 power_cost 5 cstate 2 temp 38
- cpu: the CPU being described
- idle: boolean indicating whether the CPU is idle
- nr_run: number of tasks running on CPU
- nr_big: number of BIG tasks running on CPU
- lsf: load scale factor - multiply normalized load by this factor to determine
how much load task will exert on CPU
- capacity: capacity of CPU (based on max possible frequency and efficiency)
- cr_avg: cumulative runnable average, instantaneous sum of the demand (either
PELT or window-based) of all the runnable task on a CPU (ns)
- irqload: decaying average of irq activity on CPU (ns)
- fcur: current CPU frequency (Khz)
- fmax: max CPU frequency (but not maximum _possible_ frequency) (KHz)
- power_cost: cost of running this CPU at the current frequency
- cstate: current cstate of CPU
- temp: current temperature of the CPU
The power_cost value above differs in how it is calculated depending on the
callsite of this tracepoint. The select_best_cpu() call to this tracepoint
finds the minimum frequency required to satisfy the existing load on the CPU
as well as the task being placed, and returns the power cost of that frequency.
The load balance and real time task placement paths used a fixed frequency
(highest frequency common to all CPUs for load balancing, minimum
frequency of the CPU for real time task placement).
*** 8.4 sched_update_task_ravg
Logged when window-based stats are updated for a task. The update may happen
for a variety of reasons, see section 2.5, "Task Events."
<idle>-0 [004] d.h4 12700.711513: sched_update_task_ravg: wc 12700711473496 ws 12700691772135 delta 19701361 event TASK_WAKE cpu 4 cur_freq 199200 cur_pid 0 task 13227 (powertop) ms 12640648272532 delta 60063200964 demand 13364423 sum 0 irqtime 0 cs 0 ps 495018 cur_window 0 prev_window 0
- wc: wallclock, output of sched_clock(), monotonically increasing time since
boot (will roll over in 585 years) (ns)
- ws: window start, time when the current window started (ns)
- delta: time since the window started (wc - ws) (ns)
- event: What event caused this trace event to occur (see section 2.5 for more
- cpu: which CPU the task is running on
- cur_freq: CPU's current frequency in KHz
- curr_pid: PID of the current running task (current)
- task: PID and name of task being updated
- ms: mark start - timestamp of the beginning of a segment of task activity,
either sleeping or runnable/running (ns)
- delta: time since last event within the window (wc - ms) (ns)
- demand: task demand computed based on selected policy (recent, max, or
average) (ns)
- sum: the task's run time during current window scaled by frequency and
efficiency (ns)
- irqtime: length of interrupt activity (ns). A non-zero irqtime is seen
when an idle cpu handles interrupts, the time for which needs to be
accounted as cpu busy time
- cs: curr_runnable_sum of cpu (ns). See section 6.1 for more details of this
- ps: prev_runnable_sum of cpu (ns). See section 6.1 for more details of this
- cur_window: cpu demand of task in its most recently tracked window (ns)
- prev_window: cpu demand of task in the window prior to the one being tracked
by cur_window
*** 8.5 sched_update_history
Logged when update_task_ravg() is accounting task activity into one or
more windows that have completed. This may occur more than once for a
single call into update_task_ravg(). A task that ran for 24ms spanning
four 10ms windows (the last 2ms of window 1, all of windows 2 and 3,
and the first 2ms of window 4) would result in two calls into
update_history() from update_task_ravg(). The first call would record activity
in completed window 1 and second call would record activity for windows 2 and 3
together (samples will be 2 in second call).
<idle>-0 [004] d.h4 12700.711489: sched_update_history: 13227 (powertop): runtime 13364423 samples 1 event TASK_WAKE demand 13364423 (hist: 13364423 9871252 2236009 6162476 10282078) cpu 4 nr_big 0
- runtime: task cpu demand in recently completed window(s). This value is scaled
to max_possible_freq and max_possible_efficiency. This value is pushed into
task's demand history array. The number of windows to which runtime applies is
provided by samples field.
- samples: Number of samples (windows), each having value of runtime, that is
recorded in task's demand history array.
- event: What event caused this trace event to occur (see section 2.5 for more
- demand: task demand computed based on selected policy (recent, max, or
average) (ns)
- hist: last 5 windows of history for the task with the most recent window
listed first
- cpu: CPU the task is associated with
- nr_big: number of big tasks on the CPU
*** 8.6 sched_reset_all_windows_stats
Logged when key parameters controlling window-based statistics collection are
changed. This event signifies that all window-based statistics for tasks and
cpus are being reset. Changes to below attributes result in such a reset:
* sched_ravg_window (See Sec 2)
* sched_window_stats_policy (See Sec 2.4)
* sched_account_wait_time (See Sec 7.15)
* sched_ravg_hist_size (See Sec 7.11)
* sched_migration_fixup (See Sec 7.17)
* sched_freq_account_wait_time (See Sec 7.16)
<task>-0 [004] d.h4 12700.711489: sched_reset_all_windows_stats: time_taken 1123 window_start 0 window_size 0 reason POLICY_CHANGE old_val 0 new_val 1
- time_taken: time taken for the reset function to complete (ns)
- window_start: Beginning of first window following change to window size (ns)
- window_size: Size of window. Non-zero if window-size is changing (in ticks)
- reason: Reason for reset of statistics.
- old_val: Old value of variable, change of which is triggering reset
- new_val: New value of variable, change of which is triggering reset
*** 8.7 sched_migration_update_sum
Logged when CONFIG_SCHED_FREQ_INPUT feature is enabled and a task is migrating
to another cpu.
<task>-0 [000] d..8 5020.404137: sched_migration_update_sum: cpu 0: cs 471278 ps 902463 nt_cs 0 nt_ps 0 pid 2645
- cpu: cpu, away from which or to which, task is migrating
- cs: curr_runnable_sum of cpu (ns). See Sec 6.1 for more details of this
- ps: prev_runnable_sum of cpu (ns). See Sec 6.1 for more details of this
- nt_cs: nt_curr_runnable_sum of cpu (ns). See Sec 6.1 for more details of
this counter.
- nt_ps: nt_prev_runnable_sum of cpu (ns). See Sec 6.1 for more details of
this counter
- pid: PID of migrating task
*** 8.8 sched_get_busy
Logged when scheduler is returning busy time statistics for a cpu.
<...>-4331 [003] d.s3 313.700108: sched_get_busy: cpu 3 load 19076 new_task_load 0 early 0
- cpu: cpu, for which busy time statistic (prev_runnable_sum) is being
returned (ns)
- load: corresponds to prev_runnable_sum (ns), scaled to fmax of cpu
- new_task_load: corresponds to nt_prev_runnable_sum to fmax of cpu
- early: A flag indicating whether the scheduler is passing regular load or early detection load
0 - regular load
1 - early detection load
*** 8.9 sched_freq_alert
Logged when scheduler is alerting cpufreq governor about need to change
<task>-0 [004] d.h4 12700.711489: sched_freq_alert: cpu 0 old_load=XXX new_load=YYY
- cpu: cpu in cluster that has highest load (prev_runnable_sum)
- old_load: cpu busy time last reported to governor. This is load scaled in
reference to max_possible_freq and max_possible_efficiency.
- new_load: recent cpu busy time. This is load scaled in
reference to max_possible_freq and max_possible_efficiency.
*** 8.10 sched_set_boost
Logged when boost settings are being changed
<task>-0 [004] d.h4 12700.711489: sched_set_boost: ref_count=1
- ref_count: A non-zero value indicates boost is in effect