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  1. NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use kernel
  2. services by normal system calls - this is merely considered normal use
  3. of the kernel, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".
  4. Also note that the GPL below is copyrighted by the Free Software
  5. Foundation, but the instance of code that it refers to (the Linux
  6. kernel) is copyrighted by me and others who actually wrote it.
  7. Also note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as the kernel
  8. is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not
  9. v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.
  10. Linus Torvalds
  11. ----------------------------------------
  12. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
  13. Version 2, June 1991
  14. Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  15. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
  16. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  17. of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  18. Preamble
  19. The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
  20. freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
  21. License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
  22. software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
  23. General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
  24. Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
  25. using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
  26. the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
  27. your programs, too.
  28. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
  29. price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
  30. have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
  31. this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
  32. if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
  33. in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
  34. To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
  35. anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
  36. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
  37. distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
  38. For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
  39. gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
  40. you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
  41. source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
  42. rights.
  43. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
  44. (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
  45. distribute and/or modify the software.
  46. Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
  47. that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
  48. software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
  49. want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
  50. that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
  51. authors' reputations.
  52. Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
  53. patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
  54. program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
  55. program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
  56. patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
  57. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
  58. modification follow.
  59. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
  60. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
  61. 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
  62. a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
  63. under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
  64. refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
  65. means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
  66. that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
  67. either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
  68. language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
  69. the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
  70. Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
  71. covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
  72. running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
  73. is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
  74. Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
  75. Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
  76. 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
  77. source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
  78. conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
  79. copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
  80. notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
  81. and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
  82. along with the Program.
  83. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
  84. you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
  85. 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
  86. of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
  87. distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
  88. above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
  89. a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
  90. stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
  91. b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
  92. whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
  93. part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
  94. parties under the terms of this License.
  95. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
  96. when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
  97. interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
  98. announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
  99. notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
  100. a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
  101. these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
  102. License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
  103. does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
  104. the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
  105. These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
  106. identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
  107. and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
  108. themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
  109. sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
  110. distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
  111. on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
  112. this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
  113. entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
  114. Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
  115. your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
  116. exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
  117. collective works based on the Program.
  118. In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
  119. with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
  120. a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
  121. the scope of this License.
  122. 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
  123. under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
  124. Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
  125. a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
  126. source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
  127. 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
  128. b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
  129. years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
  130. cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
  131. machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
  132. distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
  133. customarily used for software interchange; or,
  134. c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
  135. to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
  136. allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
  137. received the program in object code or executable form with such
  138. an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
  139. The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
  140. making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
  141. code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
  142. associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
  143. control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
  144. special exception, the source code distributed need not include
  145. anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
  146. form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
  147. operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
  148. itself accompanies the executable.
  149. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
  150. access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
  151. access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
  152. distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
  153. compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
  154. 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
  155. except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
  156. otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
  157. void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  158. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
  159. this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
  160. parties remain in full compliance.
  161. 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
  162. signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
  163. distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
  164. prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
  165. modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
  166. Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
  167. all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
  168. the Program or works based on it.
  169. 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
  170. Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
  171. original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
  172. these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
  173. restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
  174. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
  175. this License.
  176. 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
  177. infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
  178. conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
  179. otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
  180. excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
  181. distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
  182. License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
  183. may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
  184. license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
  185. all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
  186. the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
  187. refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
  188. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
  189. any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
  190. apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
  191. circumstances.
  192. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
  193. patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
  194. such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
  195. integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
  196. implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
  197. generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
  198. through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
  199. system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
  200. to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
  201. impose that choice.
  202. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
  203. be a consequence of the rest of this License.
  204. 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
  205. certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
  206. original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
  207. may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
  208. those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
  209. countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
  210. the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
  211. 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
  212. of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
  213. be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
  214. address new problems or concerns.
  215. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
  216. specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
  217. later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
  218. either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
  219. Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
  220. this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
  221. Foundation.
  222. 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
  223. programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
  224. to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
  225. Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
  226. make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
  227. of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
  228. of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
  229. NO WARRANTY
  230. 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
  231. FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
  232. OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
  233. PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
  234. OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
  235. MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
  236. TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
  237. PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
  238. REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
  239. 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
  240. WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
  241. REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
  242. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
  243. OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
  244. TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
  245. YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
  246. PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
  247. POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
  248. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
  249. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
  250. If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
  251. possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
  252. free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
  253. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
  254. to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
  255. convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
  256. the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
  257. <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
  258. Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
  259. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  260. it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  261. the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
  262. (at your option) any later version.
  263. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  264. but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  265. MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
  266. GNU General Public License for more details.
  267. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  268. along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
  269. Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
  270. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
  271. If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
  272. when it starts in an interactive mode:
  273. Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
  274. Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
  275. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
  276. under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
  277. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
  278. parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
  279. be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
  280. mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
  281. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
  282. school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
  283. necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
  284. Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
  285. `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
  286. <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
  287. Ty Coon, President of Vice
  288. This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
  289. proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
  290. consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
  291. library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
  292. Public License instead of this License.