ARM: allow the kernel text section to be made read-only

This patch implements CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA, allowing
the kernel text section to be marked read-only in
order to catch bugs that write over the kernel.  This
requires mapping the kernel code, plus up to 4MB, using
pages instead of sections, which can increase TLB
pressure.

The kernel is normally mapped using 1MB section entries
in the first level page table, and the first level page
table is copied into every mm.  This prevents marking
the kernel text read-only, because the 1MB section
entries are too large granularity to separate the init
section, which is reused as read-write memory after
init, and the kernel text section.  Also, the top level
page table for every process would need to be updated,
which is not possible to do safely and efficiently on SMP.

To solve both problems, allow alloc_init_pte to overwrite
an existing section entry with a fully-populated second
level page table.  When CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA is set, all
the section entries that overlap the kernel text section
will be replaced with page mappings.  The kernel always
uses a pair of 2MB-aligned 1MB sections, so up to 2MB
of memory before and after the kernel may end up page
mapped.

When the top level page tables are copied into each
process the second level page tables are not copied,
leaving a single second level page table that will
affect all processes on all cpus.  To mark a page
read-only, the second level page table is located using
the pointer in the first level page table for the
current process, and the supervisor RO bit is flipped
atomically.  Once all pages have been updated, all TLBs
are flushed to ensure the changes are visible on all
cpus.

If CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA is not set, the kernel will be
mapped using the normal 1MB section entries.

Change-Id: I94fae337f882c2e123abaf8e1082c29cd5d483c6
Signed-off-by: Colin Cross <ccross@android.com>
diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
index 1d41908..21cc8a7 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
+++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig.debug
@@ -63,6 +63,27 @@
 	      8 - SIGSEGV faults
 	     16 - SIGBUS faults
 
+config DEBUG_RODATA
+	bool "Write protect kernel text section"
+	default n
+	depends on DEBUG_KERNEL && MMU
+	---help---
+	  Mark the kernel text section as write-protected in the pagetables,
+	  in order to catch accidental (and incorrect) writes to such const
+	  data. This will cause the size of the kernel, plus up to 4MB, to
+	  be mapped as pages instead of sections, which will increase TLB
+	  pressure.
+	  If in doubt, say "N".
+
+config DEBUG_RODATA_TEST
+	bool "Testcase for the DEBUG_RODATA feature"
+	depends on DEBUG_RODATA
+	default n
+	---help---
+	  This option enables a testcase for the DEBUG_RODATA
+	  feature.
+	  If in doubt, say "N"
+
 # These options are only for real kernel hackers who want to get their hands dirty.
 config DEBUG_LL
 	bool "Kernel low-level debugging functions (read help!)"
diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/cacheflush.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/cacheflush.h
index 17d0ae8..3e94af3 100644
--- a/arch/arm/include/asm/cacheflush.h
+++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/cacheflush.h
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 #include <asm/shmparam.h>
 #include <asm/cachetype.h>
 #include <asm/outercache.h>
+#include <asm/rodata.h>
 
 #define CACHE_COLOUR(vaddr)	((vaddr & (SHMLBA - 1)) >> PAGE_SHIFT)
 
diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/rodata.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/rodata.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8c8add8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/rodata.h
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+/*
+ *  arch/arm/include/asm/rodata.h
+ *
+ *  Copyright (C) 2011 Google, Inc.
+ *
+ *  Author: Colin Cross <ccross@android.com>
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+#ifndef _ASMARM_RODATA_H
+#define _ASMARM_RODATA_H
+
+#ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA
+
+int set_memory_rw(unsigned long virt, int numpages);
+int set_memory_ro(unsigned long virt, int numpages);
+
+void mark_rodata_ro(void);
+void set_kernel_text_rw(void);
+void set_kernel_text_ro(void);
+#else
+static inline void set_kernel_text_rw(void) { }
+static inline void set_kernel_text_ro(void) { }
+#endif
+
+#endif
+
+#endif
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c
index 34e5664..6a740a9 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
  */
 
 #include <linux/ftrace.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 
 #include <asm/cacheflush.h>
@@ -63,6 +64,20 @@
 }
 #endif
 
+int ftrace_arch_code_modify_prepare(void)
+{
+	set_kernel_text_rw();
+	set_all_modules_text_rw();
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int ftrace_arch_code_modify_post_process(void)
+{
+	set_all_modules_text_ro();
+	set_kernel_text_ro();
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static unsigned long ftrace_call_replace(unsigned long pc, unsigned long addr)
 {
 	return arm_gen_branch_link(pc, addr);
diff --git a/arch/arm/mm/Makefile b/arch/arm/mm/Makefile
index 9e51be9..8045a48 100644
--- a/arch/arm/mm/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/mm/Makefile
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 
 obj-$(CONFIG_MMU)		+= fault-armv.o flush.o idmap.o ioremap.o \
 				   mmap.o pgd.o mmu.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA)	+= rodata.o
 
 ifneq ($(CONFIG_MMU),y)
 obj-y				+= nommu.o
diff --git a/arch/arm/mm/mmu.c b/arch/arm/mm/mmu.c
index 4d409e6..d11e7b5 100644
--- a/arch/arm/mm/mmu.c
+++ b/arch/arm/mm/mmu.c
@@ -595,11 +595,25 @@
 	return early_alloc_aligned(sz, sz);
 }
 
-static pte_t * __init early_pte_alloc(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long prot)
+static pte_t * __init early_pte_alloc(pmd_t *pmd)
+{
+	if (pmd_none(*pmd) || pmd_bad(*pmd))
+		return early_alloc(PTE_HWTABLE_OFF + PTE_HWTABLE_SIZE);
+	return pmd_page_vaddr(*pmd);
+}
+
+static void __init early_pte_install(pmd_t *pmd, pte_t *pte, unsigned long prot)
+{
+	__pmd_populate(pmd, __pa(pte), prot);
+	BUG_ON(pmd_bad(*pmd));
+}
+
+static pte_t * __init early_pte_alloc_and_install(pmd_t *pmd,
+	unsigned long addr, unsigned long prot)
 {
 	if (pmd_none(*pmd)) {
-		pte_t *pte = early_alloc(PTE_HWTABLE_OFF + PTE_HWTABLE_SIZE);
-		__pmd_populate(pmd, __pa(pte), prot);
+		pte_t *pte = early_pte_alloc(pmd);
+		early_pte_install(pmd, pte, prot);
 	}
 	BUG_ON(pmd_bad(*pmd));
 	return pte_offset_kernel(pmd, addr);
@@ -609,11 +623,17 @@
 				  unsigned long end, unsigned long pfn,
 				  const struct mem_type *type)
 {
-	pte_t *pte = early_pte_alloc(pmd, addr, type->prot_l1);
+	pte_t *start_pte = early_pte_alloc(pmd);
+	pte_t *pte = start_pte + pte_index(addr);
+
+	/* If replacing a section mapping, the whole section must be replaced */
+	BUG_ON(pmd_bad(*pmd) && ((addr | end) & ~PMD_MASK));
+
 	do {
 		set_pte_ext(pte, pfn_pte(pfn, __pgprot(type->prot_pte)), 0);
 		pfn++;
 	} while (pte++, addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);
+	early_pte_install(pmd, start_pte, type->prot_l1);
 }
 
 static void __init __map_init_section(pmd_t *pmd, unsigned long addr,
@@ -645,7 +665,8 @@
 
 static void __init alloc_init_pmd(pud_t *pud, unsigned long addr,
 				      unsigned long end, phys_addr_t phys,
-				      const struct mem_type *type)
+				      const struct mem_type *type,
+				      bool force_pages)
 {
 	pmd_t *pmd = pmd_offset(pud, addr);
 	unsigned long next;
@@ -662,7 +683,8 @@
 		 * aligned to a section boundary.
 		 */
 		if (type->prot_sect &&
-				((addr | next | phys) & ~SECTION_MASK) == 0) {
+				((addr | next | phys) & ~SECTION_MASK) == 0 &&
+				!force_pages) {
 			__map_init_section(pmd, addr, next, phys, type);
 		} else {
 			alloc_init_pte(pmd, addr, next,
@@ -675,14 +697,15 @@
 }
 
 static void __init alloc_init_pud(pgd_t *pgd, unsigned long addr,
-	unsigned long end, unsigned long phys, const struct mem_type *type)
+	unsigned long end, unsigned long phys, const struct mem_type *type,
+	bool force_pages)
 {
 	pud_t *pud = pud_offset(pgd, addr);
 	unsigned long next;
 
 	do {
 		next = pud_addr_end(addr, end);
-		alloc_init_pmd(pud, addr, next, phys, type);
+		alloc_init_pmd(pud, addr, next, phys, type, force_pages);
 		phys += next - addr;
 	} while (pud++, addr = next, addr != end);
 }
@@ -756,7 +779,7 @@
  * offsets, and we take full advantage of sections and
  * supersections.
  */
-static void __init create_mapping(struct map_desc *md)
+static void __init create_mapping(struct map_desc *md, bool force_pages)
 {
 	unsigned long addr, length, end;
 	phys_addr_t phys;
@@ -806,7 +829,7 @@
 	do {
 		unsigned long next = pgd_addr_end(addr, end);
 
-		alloc_init_pud(pgd, addr, next, phys, type);
+		alloc_init_pud(pgd, addr, next, phys, type, force_pages);
 
 		phys += next - addr;
 		addr = next;
@@ -828,7 +851,7 @@
 	svm = early_alloc_aligned(sizeof(*svm) * nr, __alignof__(*svm));
 
 	for (md = io_desc; nr; md++, nr--) {
-		create_mapping(md);
+		create_mapping(md, false);
 
 		vm = &svm->vm;
 		vm->addr = (void *)(md->virtual & PAGE_MASK);
@@ -949,7 +972,7 @@
 	map.virtual &= PAGE_MASK;
 	map.length = PAGE_SIZE;
 	map.type = MT_DEVICE;
-	create_mapping(&map);
+	create_mapping(&map, false);
 }
 #endif
 
@@ -1191,7 +1214,7 @@
 	map.virtual = MODULES_VADDR;
 	map.length = ((unsigned long)_etext - map.virtual + ~SECTION_MASK) & SECTION_MASK;
 	map.type = MT_ROM;
-	create_mapping(&map);
+	create_mapping(&map, false);
 #endif
 
 	/*
@@ -1202,14 +1225,14 @@
 	map.virtual = FLUSH_BASE;
 	map.length = SZ_1M;
 	map.type = MT_CACHECLEAN;
-	create_mapping(&map);
+	create_mapping(&map, false);
 #endif
 #ifdef FLUSH_BASE_MINICACHE
 	map.pfn = __phys_to_pfn(FLUSH_BASE_PHYS + SZ_1M);
 	map.virtual = FLUSH_BASE_MINICACHE;
 	map.length = SZ_1M;
 	map.type = MT_MINICLEAN;
-	create_mapping(&map);
+	create_mapping(&map, false);
 #endif
 
 	/*
@@ -1221,12 +1244,12 @@
 	map.virtual = 0xffff0000;
 	map.length = PAGE_SIZE;
 	map.type = MT_HIGH_VECTORS;
-	create_mapping(&map);
+	create_mapping(&map, false);
 
 	if (!vectors_high()) {
 		map.virtual = 0;
 		map.type = MT_LOW_VECTORS;
-		create_mapping(&map);
+		create_mapping(&map, false);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -1252,20 +1275,23 @@
 static void __init kmap_init(void)
 {
 #ifdef CONFIG_HIGHMEM
-	pkmap_page_table = early_pte_alloc(pmd_off_k(PKMAP_BASE),
+	pkmap_page_table = early_pte_alloc_and_install(pmd_off_k(PKMAP_BASE),
 		PKMAP_BASE, _PAGE_KERNEL_TABLE);
 #endif
 }
 
+
 static void __init map_lowmem(void)
 {
 	struct memblock_region *reg;
+	phys_addr_t start;
+	phys_addr_t end;
+	struct map_desc map;
 
 	/* Map all the lowmem memory banks. */
 	for_each_memblock(memory, reg) {
-		phys_addr_t start = reg->base;
-		phys_addr_t end = start + reg->size;
-		struct map_desc map;
+		start = reg->base;
+		end = start + reg->size;
 
 		if (end > arm_lowmem_limit)
 			end = arm_lowmem_limit;
@@ -1277,8 +1303,20 @@
 		map.length = end - start;
 		map.type = MT_MEMORY;
 
-		create_mapping(&map);
+		create_mapping(&map, false);
 	}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA
+	start = __pa(_stext) & PMD_MASK;
+	end = ALIGN(__pa(__end_rodata), PMD_SIZE);
+
+	map.pfn = __phys_to_pfn(start);
+	map.virtual = __phys_to_virt(start);
+	map.length = end - start;
+	map.type = MT_MEMORY;
+
+	create_mapping(&map, true);
+#endif
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/arch/arm/mm/rodata.c b/arch/arm/mm/rodata.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9a8eb84
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/mm/rodata.c
@@ -0,0 +1,159 @@
+/*
+ *  linux/arch/arm/mm/rodata.c
+ *
+ *  Copyright (C) 2011 Google, Inc.
+ *
+ *  Author: Colin Cross <ccross@android.com>
+ *
+ *  Based on x86 implementation in arch/x86/mm/init_32.c
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/module.h>
+
+#include <asm/cache.h>
+#include <asm/pgtable.h>
+#include <asm/rodata.h>
+#include <asm/sections.h>
+#include <asm/tlbflush.h>
+
+#include "mm.h"
+
+static int kernel_set_to_readonly __read_mostly;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_RODATA_TEST
+static const int rodata_test_data = 0xC3;
+
+static noinline void rodata_test(void)
+{
+	int result;
+
+	pr_info("%s: attempting to write to read-only section:\n", __func__);
+
+	if (*(volatile int *)&rodata_test_data != 0xC3) {
+		pr_err("read only data changed before test\n");
+		return;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Attempt to to write to rodata_test_data, trapping the expected
+	 * data abort.  If the trap executed, result will be 1.  If it didn't,
+	 * result will be 0xFF.
+	 */
+	asm volatile(
+		"0:	str	%[zero], [%[rodata_test_data]]\n"
+		"	mov	%[result], #0xFF\n"
+		"	b	2f\n"
+		"1:	mov	%[result], #1\n"
+		"2:\n"
+
+		/* Exception fixup - if store at label 0 faults, jumps to 1 */
+		".pushsection __ex_table, \"a\"\n"
+		"	.long	0b, 1b\n"
+		".popsection\n"
+
+		: [result] "=r" (result)
+		: [rodata_test_data] "r" (&rodata_test_data), [zero] "r" (0)
+		: "memory"
+	);
+
+	if (result == 1)
+		pr_info("write to read-only section trapped, success\n");
+	else
+		pr_err("write to read-only section NOT trapped, test failed\n");
+
+	if (*(volatile int *)&rodata_test_data != 0xC3)
+		pr_err("read only data changed during write\n");
+}
+#else
+static inline void rodata_test(void) { }
+#endif
+
+static int set_page_attributes(unsigned long virt, int numpages,
+	pte_t (*f)(pte_t))
+{
+	pmd_t *pmd;
+	pte_t *pte;
+	unsigned long start = virt;
+	unsigned long end = virt + (numpages << PAGE_SHIFT);
+	unsigned long pmd_end;
+
+	while (virt < end) {
+		pmd = pmd_off_k(virt);
+		pmd_end = min(ALIGN(virt + 1, PMD_SIZE), end);
+
+		if ((pmd_val(*pmd) & PMD_TYPE_MASK) != PMD_TYPE_TABLE) {
+			pr_err("%s: pmd %p=%08lx for %08lx not page table\n",
+				__func__, pmd, pmd_val(*pmd), virt);
+			virt = pmd_end;
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		while (virt < pmd_end) {
+			pte = pte_offset_kernel(pmd, virt);
+			set_pte_ext(pte, f(*pte), 0);
+			virt += PAGE_SIZE;
+		}
+	}
+
+	flush_tlb_kernel_range(start, end);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int set_memory_ro(unsigned long virt, int numpages)
+{
+	return set_page_attributes(virt, numpages, pte_wrprotect);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_memory_ro);
+
+int set_memory_rw(unsigned long virt, int numpages)
+{
+	return set_page_attributes(virt, numpages, pte_mkwrite);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(set_memory_rw);
+
+void set_kernel_text_rw(void)
+{
+	unsigned long start = PAGE_ALIGN((unsigned long)_text);
+	unsigned long size = PAGE_ALIGN((unsigned long)__end_rodata) - start;
+
+	if (!kernel_set_to_readonly)
+		return;
+
+	pr_debug("Set kernel text: %lx - %lx to read-write\n",
+		 start, start + size);
+
+	set_memory_rw(start, size >> PAGE_SHIFT);
+}
+
+void set_kernel_text_ro(void)
+{
+	unsigned long start = PAGE_ALIGN((unsigned long)_text);
+	unsigned long size = PAGE_ALIGN((unsigned long)__end_rodata) - start;
+
+	if (!kernel_set_to_readonly)
+		return;
+
+	pr_info_once("Write protecting the kernel text section %lx - %lx\n",
+		start, start + size);
+
+	pr_debug("Set kernel text: %lx - %lx to read only\n",
+		 start, start + size);
+
+	set_memory_ro(start, size >> PAGE_SHIFT);
+}
+
+void mark_rodata_ro(void)
+{
+	kernel_set_to_readonly = 1;
+
+	set_kernel_text_ro();
+
+	rodata_test();
+}